An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Wed Jul 16 23:33:12 2014 +0000
Before removing time/frequency limit on reading the plunger sensor

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 1 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 2 #include "USBJoystick.h"
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 3 #include "MMA8451Q.h"
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 4 #include "tsl1410r.h"
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 5 #include "FreescaleIAP.h"
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 6
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 7 // on-board RGB LED elements - we use these for diagnostics
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 8 PwmOut led1(LED1), led2(LED2), led3(LED3);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 9
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 10 // calibration button - switch input and LED output
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 11 DigitalIn calBtn(PTE29);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 12 DigitalOut calBtnLed(PTE23);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 13
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 14 static int pbaIdx = 0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 15
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 16 // on/off state for each LedWiz output
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 17 static uint8_t wizOn[32];
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 18
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 19 // profile (brightness/blink) state for each LedWiz output
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 20 static uint8_t wizVal[32] = {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 21 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 22 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 23 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 24 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 25 };
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 26
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 27 static float wizState(int idx)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 28 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 29 if (wizOn[idx]) {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 30 // on - map profile brightness state to PWM level
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 31 uint8_t val = wizVal[idx];
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 32 if (val >= 1 && val <= 48)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 33 return 1.0 - val/48.0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 34 else if (val >= 129 && val <= 132)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 35 return 0.0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 36 else
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 37 return 1.0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 38 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 39 else {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 40 // off
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 41 return 1.0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 42 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 43 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 44
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 45 static void updateWizOuts()
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 46 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 47 led1 = wizState(0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 48 led2 = wizState(1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 49 led3 = wizState(2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 50 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 51
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 52 struct AccPrv
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 53 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 54 AccPrv() : x(0), y(0) { }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 55 float x;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 56 float y;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 57
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 58 double dist(AccPrv &b)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 59 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 60 float dx = x - b.x, dy = y - b.y;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 61 return sqrt(dx*dx + dy*dy);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 62 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 63 };
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 64
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 65 int main(void)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 66 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 67 // turn off our on-board indicator LED
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 68 led1 = 1;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 69 led2 = 1;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 70 led3 = 1;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 71
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 72 // plunger calibration data
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 73 const int npix = 320;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 74 int plungerMin = 0, plungerMax = npix;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 75
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 76 // plunger calibration button debounce timer
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 77 Timer calBtnTimer;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 78 calBtnTimer.start();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 79 int calBtnDownTime = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 80 int calBtnLit = false;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 81
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 82 // Calibration button state:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 83 // 0 = not pushed
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 84 // 1 = pushed, not yet debounced
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 85 // 2 = pushed, debounced, waiting for hold time
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 86 // 3 = pushed, hold time completed - in calibration mode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 87 int calBtnState = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 88
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 89 // set up a timer for our heartbeat indicator
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 90 Timer hbTimer;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 91 hbTimer.start();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 92 int t0Hb = hbTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 93 int hb = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 94
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 95 // set a timer for accelerometer auto-centering
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 96 Timer acTimer;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 97 acTimer.start();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 98 int t0ac = acTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 99
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 100 // set up a timer for reading the plunger sensor
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 101 Timer ccdTimer;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 102 ccdTimer.start();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 103 int t0ccd = ccdTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 104
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 105 #if 0
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 106 // DEBUG
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 107 Timer ccdDbgTimer;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 108 ccdDbgTimer.start();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 109 int t0ccdDbg = ccdDbgTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 110 #endif
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 111
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 112 // Create the joystick USB client. Light the on-board indicator LED
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 113 // red while connecting, and change to green after we connect.
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 114 led1 = 0.75;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 115 USBJoystick js(0xFAFA, 0x00F7, 0x0001);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 116 led1 = 1;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 117 led2 = 0.75;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 118
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 119 // create the accelerometer object
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 120 const int MMA8451_I2C_ADDRESS = (0x1d<<1);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 121 MMA8451Q accel(PTE25, PTE24, MMA8451_I2C_ADDRESS);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 122
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 123 // create the CCD array object
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 124 TSL1410R ccd(PTE20, PTE21, PTB0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 125
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 126 // recent accelerometer readings, for auto centering
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 127 int iAccPrv = 0, nAccPrv = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 128 const int maxAccPrv = 5;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 129 AccPrv accPrv[maxAccPrv];
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 130
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 131 // last accelerometer report, in mouse coordinates
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 132 int x = 127, y = 127, z = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 133
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 134 // raw accelerator centerpoint, on the unit interval (-1.0 .. +1.0)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 135 float xCenter = 0.0, yCenter = 0.0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 136
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 137 // we're all set up - now just loop, processing sensor reports and
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 138 // host requests
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 139 for (;;)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 140 {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 141 // Look for an incoming report. Continue processing input as
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 142 // long as there's anything pending - this ensures that we
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 143 // handle input in as timely a fashion as possible by deferring
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 144 // output tasks as long as there's input to process.
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 145 HID_REPORT report;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 146 while (js.readNB(&report) && report.length == 8)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 147 {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 148 uint8_t *data =;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 149 if (data[0] == 64)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 150 {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 151 // LWZ-SBA - first four bytes are bit-packed on/off flags
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 152 // for the outputs; 5th byte is the pulse speed (0-7)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 153 //printf("LWZ-SBA %02x %02x %02x %02x ; %02x\r\n",
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 154 // data[1], data[2], data[3], data[4], data[5]);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 155
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 156 // update all on/off states
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 157 for (int i = 0, bit = 1, ri = 1 ; i < 32 ; ++i, bit <<= 1)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 158 {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 159 if (bit == 0x100) {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 160 bit = 1;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 161 ++ri;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 162 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 163 wizOn[i] = ((data[ri] & bit) != 0);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 164 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 165
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 166 // update the physical outputs
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 167 updateWizOuts();
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 168
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 169 // reset the PBA counter
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 170 pbaIdx = 0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 171 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 172 else
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 173 {
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 174 // LWZ-PBA - full state dump; each byte is one output
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 175 // in the current bank. pbaIdx keeps track of the bank;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 176 // this is incremented implicitly by each PBA message.
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 177 //printf("LWZ-PBA[%d] %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x\r\n",
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 178 // pbaIdx, data[0], data[1], data[2], data[3], data[4], data[5], data[6], data[7]);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 179
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 180 // update all output profile settings
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 181 for (int i = 0 ; i < 8 ; ++i)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 182 wizVal[pbaIdx + i] = data[i];
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 183
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 184 // update the physical LED state if this is the last bank
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 185 if (pbaIdx == 24)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 186 updateWizOuts();
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 187
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 188 // advance to the next bank
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 189 pbaIdx = (pbaIdx + 8) & 31;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 190 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 191 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 192
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 193 // check for plunger calibration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 194 if (!calBtn)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 195 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 196 // check the state
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 197 switch (calBtnState)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 198 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 199 case 0:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 200 // button not yet pushed - start debouncing
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 201 calBtnTimer.reset();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 202 calBtnDownTime = calBtnTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 203 calBtnState = 1;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 204 break;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 205
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 206 case 1:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 207 // pushed, not yet debounced - if the debounce time has
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 208 // passed, start the hold period
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 209 if (calBtnTimer.read_ms() - calBtnDownTime > 50)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 210 calBtnState = 2;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 211 break;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 212
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 213 case 2:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 214 // in the hold period - if the button has been held down
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 215 // for the entire hold period, move to calibration mode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 216 if (calBtnTimer.read_ms() - calBtnDownTime > 2050)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 217 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 218 // enter calibration mode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 219 calBtnState = 3;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 220
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 221 // reset the calibration limits
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 222 plungerMax = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 223 plungerMin = npix;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 224 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 225 break;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 226 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 227 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 228 else
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 229 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 230 // Button released. If we're not already in calibration mode,
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 231 // reset the button state. Once calibration mode starts, it sticks
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 232 // until the calibration time elapses.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 233 if (calBtnState != 3)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 234 calBtnState = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 235 else if (calBtnTimer.read_ms() - calBtnDownTime > 32500)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 236 calBtnState = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 237 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 238
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 239 // light/flash the calibration button light, if applicable
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 240 int newCalBtnLit = calBtnLit;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 241 switch (calBtnState)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 242 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 243 case 2:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 244 // in the hold period - flash the light
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 245 newCalBtnLit = (((calBtnTimer.read_ms() - calBtnDownTime)/250) & 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 246 break;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 247
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 248 case 3:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 249 // calibration mode - show steady on
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 250 newCalBtnLit = true;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 251 break;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 252
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 253 default:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 254 // not calibrating/holding - show steady off
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 255 newCalBtnLit = false;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 256 break;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 257 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 258 if (calBtnLit != newCalBtnLit)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 259 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 260 calBtnLit = newCalBtnLit;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 261 calBtnLed = (calBtnLit ? 1 : 0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 262 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 263
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 264 // read the plunger sensor
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 265 int znew = z;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 266 /* if (ccdTimer.read_ms() - t0ccd > 33) */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 267 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 268 // read the sensor at reduced resolution
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 269 uint16_t pix[npix];
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 270, npix, 0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 271
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 272 #if 0
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 273 // debug - send samples every 5 seconds
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 274 if (ccdDbgTimer.read_ms() - t0ccdDbg > 5000)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 275 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 276 for (int i = 0 ; i < npix ; ++i)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 277 printf("%x ", pix[i]);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 278 printf("\r\n\r\n");
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 279
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 280 ccdDbgTimer.reset();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 281 t0ccdDbg = ccdDbgTimer.read_ms();
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 282 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 283 #endif
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 284
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 285 // check which end is the brighter - this is the "tip" end
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 286 // of the plunger
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 287 long avg1 = (long(pix[0]) + long(pix[1]) + long(pix[2]) + long(pix[3]) + long(pix[4]))/5;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 288 long avg2 = (long(pix[npix-1]) + long(pix[npix-2]) + long(pix[npix-3]) + long(pix[npix-4]) + long(pix[npix-5]))/5;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 289
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 290 // figure the midpoint in the brightness
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 291 long midpt = (avg1 + avg2)/2 * 3;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 292
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 293 // Work from the bright end to the dark end. VP interprets the
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 294 // Z axis value as the amount the plunger is pulled: the minimum
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 295 // is the rest position, the maximum is fully pulled. So we
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 296 // essentially want to report how much of the sensor is lit,
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 297 // since this increases as the plunger is pulled back.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 298 int si = 1, di = 1;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 299 if (avg1 < avg2)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 300 si = npix - 1, di = -1;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 301
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 302 // scan for the midpoint
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 303 for (int n = 1, i = si ; n < npix - 1 ; ++n, i += di)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 304 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 305 // if we've crossed the midpoint, report this position
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 306 if (long(pix[i-1]) + long(pix[i]) + long(pix[i+1]) < midpt)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 307 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 308 // note the new position
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 309 int pos = abs(i - si);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 310
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 311 // Calibrate, or apply calibration, depending on the mode.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 312 // In either case, normalize to a 0-127 range. VP appears to
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 313 // ignore negative Z axis values.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 314 if (calBtnState == 3)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 315 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 316 // calibrating - note if we're expanding the calibration envelope
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 317 if (pos < plungerMin)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 318 plungerMin = pos;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 319 if (pos > plungerMax)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 320 plungerMax = pos;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 321
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 322 // normalize to the full physical range while calibrating
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 323 znew = int(float(pos)/npix * 127);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 324 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 325 else
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 326 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 327 // running normally - normalize to the calibration range
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 328 if (pos < plungerMin)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 329 pos = plungerMin;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 330 if (pos > plungerMax)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 331 pos = plungerMax;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 332 znew = int(float(pos - plungerMin)/(plungerMax - plungerMin + 1) * 127);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 333 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 334
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 335 // done
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 336 break;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 337 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 338 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 339
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 340 // reset the timer
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 341 ccdTimer.reset();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 342 t0ccd = ccdTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 343 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 344
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 345 // read the accelerometer
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 346 float xa, ya;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 347 accel.getAccXY(xa, ya);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 348
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 349 // check for auto-centering every so often
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 350 if (acTimer.read_ms() - t0ac > 1000)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 351 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 352 // add the sample to the history list
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 353 accPrv[iAccPrv].x = xa;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 354 accPrv[iAccPrv].y = ya;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 355
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 356 // store the slot
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 357 iAccPrv += 1;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 358 iAccPrv %= maxAccPrv;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 359 nAccPrv += 1;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 360
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 361 // If we have a full complement, check for stability. The
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 362 // raw accelerometer input is in the rnage -4096 to 4096, but
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 363 // the class cover normalizes to a unit interval (-1.0 .. +1.0).
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 364 const float accTol = .005;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 365 if (nAccPrv >= maxAccPrv
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 366 && accPrv[0].dist(accPrv[1]) < accTol
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 367 && accPrv[0].dist(accPrv[2]) < accTol
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 368 && accPrv[0].dist(accPrv[3]) < accTol
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 369 && accPrv[0].dist(accPrv[4]) < accTol)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 370 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 371 // figure the new center
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 372 xCenter = (accPrv[0].x + accPrv[1].x + accPrv[2].x + accPrv[3].x + accPrv[4].x)/5.0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 373 yCenter = (accPrv[0].y + accPrv[1].y + accPrv[2].y + accPrv[3].y + accPrv[4].y)/5.0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 374 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 375
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 376 // reset the auto-center timer
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 377 acTimer.reset();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 378 t0ac = acTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 379 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 380
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 381 // adjust for our auto centering
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 382 xa -= xCenter;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 383 ya -= yCenter;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 384
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 385 // confine to the unit interval
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 386 if (xa < -1.0) xa = -1.0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 387 if (xa > 1.0) xa = 1.0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 388 if (ya < -1.0) ya = -1.0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 389 if (ya > 1.0) ya = 1.0;
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 390
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 391 // figure the new mouse report data
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 392 int xnew = (int)(127 * xa);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 393 int ynew = (int)(127 * ya);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 394
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 395 // send an update if the position has changed
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 396 // if (xnew != x || ynew != y || znew != z)
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 397 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 398 x = xnew;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 399 y = ynew;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 400 z = znew;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 401
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 402 // Send the status report. Note that the X axis needs to be
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 403 // reversed, becasue the native accelerometer reports seem to
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 404 // assume that the card is component side down.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 405 js.update(x, -y, z, 0);
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 406 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 407
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 408 // show a heartbeat flash in blue every so often
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 409 if (hbTimer.read_ms() - t0Hb > 1000)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 410 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 411 // invert the blue LED state
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 412 hb = !hb;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 413 led3 = (hb ? .5 : 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 414
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 415 // reset the heartbeat timer
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 416 hbTimer.reset();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 417 t0Hb = hbTimer.read_ms();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 418 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 419 }
mjr 0:5acbbe3f4cf4 420 }