An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Sat Apr 18 19:08:55 2020 +0000
TCD1103 DMA setup time padding to fix sporadic missed first pixel in transfer; fix TV ON so that the TV ON IR commands don't have to be grouped in the IR command first slots

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 1 /* Copyright (c) 2010-2011, MIT License
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 2 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 3 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 4 * and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 5 * restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 6 * distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 7 * Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 8 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 9 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 10 * substantial portions of the Software.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 11 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 17 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 18
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 19 #ifndef MMA8451Q_H
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 20 #define MMA8451Q_H
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 21
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 22 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 23
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 24 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 25 * MMA8451Q accelerometer example
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 26 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 27 * @code
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 28 * #include "mbed.h"
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 29 * #include "MMA8451Q.h"
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 30 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 31 * #define MMA8451_I2C_ADDRESS (0x1d<<1)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 32 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 33 * int main(void) {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 34 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 35 * MMA8451Q acc(P_E25, P_E24, MMA8451_I2C_ADDRESS);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 36 * PwmOut rled(LED_RED);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 37 * PwmOut gled(LED_GREEN);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 38 * PwmOut bled(LED_BLUE);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 39 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 40 * while (true) {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 41 * rled = 1.0 - abs(acc.getAccX());
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 42 * gled = 1.0 - abs(acc.getAccY());
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 43 * bled = 1.0 - abs(acc.getAccZ());
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 44 * wait(0.1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 45 * }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 46 * }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 47 * @endcode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 48 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 49 class MMA8451Q
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 50 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 51 public:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 52 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 53 * MMA8451Q constructor
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 54 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 55 * @param sda SDA pin
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 56 * @param sdl SCL pin
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 57 * @param addr addr of the I2C peripheral
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 58 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 59 MMA8451Q(PinName sda, PinName scl, int addr);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 60
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 61 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 62 * MMA8451Q destructor
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 63 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 64 ~MMA8451Q();
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 65
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 66 /**
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 67 * Reset the accelerometer hardware and set our initial parameters
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 68 */
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 69 void init();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 70
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 71 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 72 * Enter standby mode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 73 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 74 void standby();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 75
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 76 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 77 * Enter active mode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 78 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 79 void active();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 80
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 81 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 82 * Get the value of the WHO_AM_I register
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 83 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 84 * @returns WHO_AM_I value
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 85 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 86 uint8_t getWhoAmI();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 87
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 88 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 89 * Get X axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 90 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 91 * @returns X axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 92 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 93 float getAccX();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 94
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 95 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 96 * Get Y axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 97 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 98 * @returns Y axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 99 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 100 float getAccY();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 101
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 102 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 103 * Read an X,Y pair
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 104 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 105 void getAccXY(float &x, float &y);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 106
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 107 /**
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 108 * Read X,Y,Z as floats. This is the second most efficient way
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 109 * to fetch all three axes (after the integer version), since it
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 110 * fetches all axes in a single I2C transaction.
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 111 */
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 112 void getAccXYZ(float &x, float &y, float &z);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 113
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 114 /**
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 115 * Read X,Y,Z as integers. This reads the three axes in a single
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 116 * I2C transaction and returns them in the native integer scale,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 117 * so it's the most efficient way to read the current 3D status.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 118 * Each axis value is represented an an integer using the device's
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 119 * native 14-bit scale, so each is in the range -8192..+8191.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 120 */
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 121 void getAccXYZ(int &x, int &y, int &z);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 122
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 123 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 124 * Get Z axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 125 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 126 * @returns Z axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 127 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 128 float getAccZ();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 129
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 130 /**
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 131 * Get XYZ axis acceleration
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 132 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 133 * @param res array where acceleration data will be stored
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 134 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 135 void getAccAllAxis(float * res);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 136
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 137 /**
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 138 * Set interrupt mode. 'pin' is 1 for INT1_ACCEL (PTA14) and 2 for INT2_ACCEL (PTA15).
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 139 * The caller is responsible for setting up an interrupt handler on the corresponding
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 140 * PTAxx pin.
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 141 */
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 142 void setInterruptMode(int pin);
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 143
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 144 /**
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 145 * Set the hardware dynamic range, in G. Valid ranges are 2, 4, and 8.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 146 */
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 147 void setRange(int g);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 148
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 149 /**
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 150 * Disable interrupts.
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 151 */
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 152 void clearInterruptMode();
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 153
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 154 /**
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 155 * Is a sample ready?
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 156 */
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 157 bool sampleReady();
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 158
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 159 /**
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 160 * Get the number of FIFO samples available
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 161 */
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 162 int getFIFOCount();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 163
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 164 private:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 165 I2C m_i2c;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 166 int m_addr;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 167 void readRegs(int addr, uint8_t * data, int len);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 168 void writeRegs(uint8_t * data, int len);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 169 int16_t getAccAxis(uint8_t addr);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 170
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 171 // Translate a 14-bit register value to a signed integer. The
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 172 // most significant 8 bits are in the first byte, and the least
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 173 // significant 6 bits are in the second byte. To adjust to a
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 174 // regular integer, left-justify the 14 bits in an int16_t, then
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 175 // divide by 4 to shift out the unused low two bits. Note that
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 176 // we have to divide rather than right-shift (>>) to ensure proper
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 177 // filling of the sign bits. The compiler should convert the
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 178 // divide-by-4 to an arithmetic shift right by 2, so this should
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 179 // still be efficient.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 180 inline int xlat14(const uint8_t *buf)
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 181 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 182 // Store the 16 bits left-justified in an int16_t, then cast
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 183 // to a regular int to sign-extend to the full int width.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 184 // Divide the result by 4 to shift out the unused 2 bits
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 185 // at the right end.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 186 return int(int16_t((buf[0] << 8) | buf[1])) / 4;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 187 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 188
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 189 };
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 190
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 191 #endif