An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Sat Apr 18 19:08:55 2020 +0000
TCD1103 DMA setup time padding to fix sporadic missed first pixel in transfer; fix TV ON so that the TV ON IR commands don't have to be grouped in the IR command first slots

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 1 // FreescaleIAP - custom version
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 2 //
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 3 // This is a simplified version of Erik Olieman's FreescaleIAP, a flash
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 4 // memory writer for Freescale boards. This version combines erase, write,
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 5 // and verify into a single API call. The caller only has to give us a
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 6 // buffer (of any length) to write, and the address to write it to, and
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 7 // we'll do the whole thing - essentially a memcpy() to flash.
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 8 //
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 9 // This version uses an assembler implementation of the core code that
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 10 // launches an FTFA command and waits for completion, to minimize the
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 11 // size of the code and to ensure that it's placed in RAM. The KL25Z
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 12 // flash controller prohibits any flash reads while an FTFA command is
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 13 // executing. This includes instruction fetches; any instruction fetch
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 14 // from flash while an FTFA command is running will fail, which will
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 15 // freeze the CPU. Placing the execute/wait code in RAM ensures that
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 16 // the wait loop itself won't trigger a fetch. It's also vital to disable
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 17 // interrupts while the execute/wait code is running, to ensure that we
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 18 // don't jump to an ISR in flash during the wait.
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 19 //
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 20 // Despite the dire warnings in the hardware reference manual about putting
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 21 // the FTFA execute/wait code in RAM, it doesn't actually appear to be
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 22 // necessary, as long as the wait loop is very small (in terms of machine
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 23 // code instruction count). In testing, Erik has found that a flash-resident
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 24 // version of the code is stable, and further found (by testing combinations
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 25 // of cache control settings via the platform control register, MCM_PLACR)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 26 // that the stability comes from the loop fitting into CPU cache, which
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 27 // allows the loop to execute without any fetches taking place. Even so,
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 28 // I'm keeping the RAM version, out of an abundance of caution: just in
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 29 // case there are any rare or oddball conditions (interrupt timing, say)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 30 // where the cache trick breaks. Putting the code in RAM seems pretty
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 31 // much guaranteed to work, whereas the cache trick seems somewhat to be
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 32 // relying on a happy accident, and I personally don't know the M0+
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 33 // architecture well enough to be able to convince myself that it really
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 34 // will work under all conditions. There doesn't seem to be any benefit
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 35 // to not using the assembler, either, as it's very simple code and takes
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 36 // up little RAM (about 40 bytes).
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 37
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 38
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 39 #include "FreescaleIAP.h"
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 40
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 41 //#define IAPDEBUG
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 42
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 43 // assembly interface
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 44 extern "C" {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 45 // Execute the current FTFA command and wait for completion.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 46 // This is an assembler implementation that runs entirely in RAM,
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 47 // to ensure strict compliance with the prohibition on reading
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 48 // flash (for instruction fetches or any other reason) during FTFA
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 49 // execution.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 50 void iapExecAndWait();
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 51 }
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 52
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 53 enum FCMD {
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 54 Read1s = 0x01,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 55 ProgramCheck = 0x02,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 56 ReadResource = 0x03,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 57 ProgramLongword = 0x06,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 58 EraseSector = 0x09,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 59 Read1sBlock = 0x40,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 60 ReadOnce = 0x41,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 61 ProgramOnce = 0x43,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 62 EraseAll = 0x44,
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 63 VerifyBackdoor = 0x45
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 64 };
mjr 2:c174f9ee414a 65
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 66 // Get the size of the flash memory on the device
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 67 uint32_t FreescaleIAP::flashSize(void)
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 68 {
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 69 uint32_t retval = (SIM->FCFG2 & 0x7F000000u) >> (24-13);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 70 if (SIM->FCFG2 & (1<<23)) // Possible second flash bank
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 71 retval += (SIM->FCFG2 & 0x007F0000u) >> (16-13);
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 72 return retval;
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 73 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 74
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 75 // Check if an error occurred
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 76 static FreescaleIAP::IAPCode checkError(void)
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 77 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 78 if (FTFA->FSTAT & FTFA_FSTAT_FPVIOL_MASK) {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 79 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 80 printf("IAP: Protection violation\r\n");
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 81 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 82 return FreescaleIAP::ProtectionError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 83 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 84 if (FTFA->FSTAT & FTFA_FSTAT_ACCERR_MASK) {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 85 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 86 printf("IAP: Flash access error\r\n");
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 87 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 88 return FreescaleIAP::AccessError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 89 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 90 if (FTFA->FSTAT & FTFA_FSTAT_RDCOLERR_MASK) {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 91 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 92 printf("IAP: Collision error\r\n");
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 93 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 94 return FreescaleIAP::CollisionError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 95 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 96 if (FTFA->FSTAT & FTFA_FSTAT_MGSTAT0_MASK) {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 97 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 98 printf("IAP: Runtime error\r\n");
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 99 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 100 return FreescaleIAP::RuntimeError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 101 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 102 return FreescaleIAP::Success;
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 103 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 104
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 105 // check for proper address alignment
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 106 static bool checkAlign(int address)
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 107 {
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 108 bool retval = address & 0x03;
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 109 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 110 if (retval)
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 111 printf("IAP: Alignment violation\r\n");
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 112 #endif
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 113 return retval;
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 114 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 115
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 116 // clear errors in the FTFA
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 117 static void clearErrors()
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 118 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 119 // wait for any previous command to complete
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 120 while (!(FTFA->FSTAT & FTFA_FSTAT_CCIF_MASK)) ;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 121
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 122 // clear the error bits
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 125 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 126
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 127 static FreescaleIAP::IAPCode eraseSector(int address)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 128 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 129 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 130 printf("IAP: Erasing sector at %x\r\n", address);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 131 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 132
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 133 // ensure proper alignment
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 134 if (checkAlign(address))
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 135 return FreescaleIAP::AlignError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 136
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 137 // clear errors
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 138 clearErrors();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 139
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 140 // Set up the command
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 141 FTFA->FCCOB0 = EraseSector;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 142 FTFA->FCCOB1 = (address >> 16) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 143 FTFA->FCCOB2 = (address >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 144 FTFA->FCCOB3 = address & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 145
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 146 // execute
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 147 iapExecAndWait();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 148
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 149 // check the result
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 150 return checkError();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 151 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 152
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 153 static FreescaleIAP::IAPCode verifySectorErased(int address)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 154 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 155 // Always verify in whole sectors. The
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 156 const unsigned int count = SECTOR_SIZE/4;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 157
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 158 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 159 printf("IAP: Verify erased at %x, %d longwords (%d bytes)\r\n", address, count, count*4);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 160 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 161
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 162 if (checkAlign(address))
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 163 return FreescaleIAP::AlignError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 164
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 165 // clear errors
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 166 clearErrors();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 167
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 168 // Set up command
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 169 FTFA->FCCOB0 = Read1s;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 170 FTFA->FCCOB1 = (address >> 16) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 171 FTFA->FCCOB2 = (address >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 172 FTFA->FCCOB3 = address & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 173 FTFA->FCCOB4 = (count >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 174 FTFA->FCCOB5 = count & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 175 FTFA->FCCOB6 = 0;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 176
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 177 // execute
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 178 iapExecAndWait();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 179
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 180 // check the result
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 181 FreescaleIAP::IAPCode retval = checkError();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 182 if (retval == FreescaleIAP::RuntimeError) {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 183 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 184 printf("IAP: Flash was not erased\r\n");
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 185 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 186 return FreescaleIAP::EraseError;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 187 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 188 return retval;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 189 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 190
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 191 // Write one sector. This always writes a full sector, even if the
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 192 // requested length is greater or less than the sector size:
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 193 //
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 194 // - if len > SECTOR_SIZE, we write the first SECTOR_SIZE bytes of the data
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 195 //
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 196 // - if len < SECTOR_SIZE, we write the data, then fill in the rest of the
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 197 // sector with 0xFF bytes ('1' bits)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 198 //
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 199
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 200 static FreescaleIAP::IAPCode writeSector(int address, const uint8_t *p, int len)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 201 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 202 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 203 printf("IAP: Writing sector at %x with length %d\r\n", address, len);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 204 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 205
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 206 // program the sector, one longword (32 bits) at a time
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 207 for (int ofs = 0 ; ofs < SECTOR_SIZE ; ofs += 4, address += 4, p += 4, len -= 4)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 208 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 209 // clear errors
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 210 clearErrors();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 211
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 212 // Set up the command
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 213 FTFA->FCCOB0 = ProgramLongword;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 214 FTFA->FCCOB1 = (address >> 16) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 215 FTFA->FCCOB2 = (address >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 216 FTFA->FCCOB3 = address & 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 217
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 218 // Load the longword to write. If we're past the end of the source
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 219 // data, write all '1' bits to the balance of the sector.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 220 FTFA->FCCOB4 = len > 3 ? p[3] : 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 221 FTFA->FCCOB5 = len > 2 ? p[2] : 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 222 FTFA->FCCOB6 = len > 1 ? p[1] : 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 223 FTFA->FCCOB7 = len > 0 ? p[0] : 0xFF;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 224
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 225 // execute
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 226 iapExecAndWait();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 227
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 228 // check errors
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 229 FreescaleIAP::IAPCode status = checkError();
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 230 if (status != FreescaleIAP::Success)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 231 return status;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 232 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 233
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 234 // no problems
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 235 return FreescaleIAP::Success;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 236 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 237
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 238 // Program a block of memory into flash.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 239 FreescaleIAP::IAPCode FreescaleIAP::programFlash(
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 240 int address, const void *src, unsigned int length)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 241 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 242 #ifdef IAPDEBUG
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 243 printf("IAP: Programming flash at %x with length %d\r\n", address, length);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 244 #endif
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 245
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 246 // presume success
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 247 FreescaleIAP::IAPCode status = FreescaleIAP::Success;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 248
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 249 // Show diagnostic LED colors while writing. I'm finally convinced this
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 250 // is well and truly 100% reliable now, but I've been wrong before, so
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 251 // we'll keep this for now. The idea is that if we freeze up, we'll at
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 252 // least know which stage we're at from the last color displayed.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 253 extern void diagLED(int,int,int);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 254
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 255 // try a few times if we fail to verify
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 256 for (int tries = 0 ; tries < 5 ; ++tries)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 257 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 258 // Do the write one sector at a time
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 259 int curaddr = address;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 260 const uint8_t *p = (const uint8_t *)src;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 261 int rem = (int)length;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 262 for ( ; rem > 0 ; curaddr += SECTOR_SIZE, p += SECTOR_SIZE, rem -= SECTOR_SIZE)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 263 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 264 // erase the sector (red LED)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 265 diagLED(1, 0, 0);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 266 if ((status = eraseSector(curaddr)) != FreescaleIAP::Success)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 267 break;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 268
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 269 // verify that the sector is erased (yellow LED)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 270 diagLED(1, 1, 0);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 271 if ((status = verifySectorErased(curaddr)) != FreescaleIAP::Success)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 272 break;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 273
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 274 // write the data (white LED)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 275 diagLED(1, 1, 1);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 276 if ((status = writeSector(curaddr, p, rem)) != FreescaleIAP::Success)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 277 break;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 278
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 279 // back from write (purple LED)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 280 diagLED(1, 0, 1);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 281 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 282
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 283 // if we didn't encounter an FTFA error, verify the write
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 284 if (status == FreescaleIAP::Success)
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 285 {
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 286 // Verify the write. If it was successful, we're done.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 287 if (memcmp((void *)address, src, length) == 0)
mjr 80:94dc2946871b 288 {
mjr 80:94dc2946871b 289 // LEDs to green on success
mjr 80:94dc2946871b 290 diagLED(0, 1, 0);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 291 break;
mjr 80:94dc2946871b 292 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 293
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 294 // We have a mismatch between the flash data and the source.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 295 // Flag the error and go back for another attempt.
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 296 status = FreescaleIAP::VerifyError;
mjr 80:94dc2946871b 297 diagLED(1, 0, 0);
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 298 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 299 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 300
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 301 // return the result
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 302 return status;
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 303 }
mjr 79:682ae3171a08 304