3 years, 10 months ago.

[GNU Make] Offline Compiler: Undefined Reference Problem

In short: received "undefined reference" error while compiling an example code:

Compile Error

/usr/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/4.9.3/../../../../arm-none-eabi/bin/ld: warning: cannot find entry symbol Reset_Handler; defaulting to 0000000008000000
main.o: In function `__static_initialization_and_destruction_0':
/home/htsai/stmProjects/blink/../mbed/DigitalOut.h:49: undefined reference to `gpio_init_out'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
make: *** [blink.elf] Error 1

The code is exported from a very simple blink program for STM32_NUCLEO_F303RE:

main.cpp

#include "mbed.h"

DigitalOut myled(LED1);

int main() {
    while(1) {
        myled = 1; // LED is ON
        wait(0.2); // 200 ms
        myled = 0; // LED is OFF
        wait(1.0); // 1 sec
    }
}

I copied the linker script (STM32F303XE_FLASH.ld) from official stm32cubeF3 because it doesn't come with mbed, and modified my Makefile as:

Makefile

# This file was automagically generated by mbed.org. For more information, 
# see http://mbed.org/handbook/Exporting-to-GCC-ARM-Embedded

GCC_BIN = 
PROJECT = blink
OBJECTS = ./main.o 
SYS_OBJECTS = 
INCLUDE_PATHS = -I. -I../mbed -I../mbed/TARGET_NUCLEO_F303RE -I../mbed/TARGET_NUCLEO_F303RE/TARGET_STM/TARGET_STM32F3 -I../mbed/TARGET_NUCLEO_F303RE/TARGET_STM/TARGET_STM32F3/TARGET_NUCLEO_F303RE
LIBRARY_PATHS = 
LIBRARIES = 
LINKER_SCRIPT = ../STM32F303XE_FLASH.ld

############################################################################### 
AS      = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-as
CC      = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-gcc
CPP     = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-g++
LD      = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-gcc
OBJCOPY = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-objcopy
OBJDUMP = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-objdump
SIZE    = $(GCC_BIN)arm-none-eabi-size 

ifeq ($(HARDFP),1)
	FLOAT_ABI = hard
else
	FLOAT_ABI = softfp
endif


CPU = -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mthumb -mfpu=fpv4-sp-d16 -mfloat-abi=$(FLOAT_ABI) 
CC_FLAGS = $(CPU) -c -g -fno-common -fmessage-length=0 -Wall -Wextra -fno-exceptions -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections -fomit-frame-pointer -MMD -MP
CC_SYMBOLS = -DTARGET_RTOS_M4_M7 -DTARGET_FF_ARDUINO -DTOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM -DTOOLCHAIN_GCC -DTARGET_STM32F303RE -DTARGET_CORTEX_M -D__FPU_PRESENT=1 -D__MBED__=1 -DTARGET_M4 -DTARGET_FF_MORPHO -DTARGET_STM -DMBED_BUILD_TIMESTAMP=1454081451.86 -DTARGET_NUCLEO_F303RE -DTARGET_STM32F3 -D__CORTEX_M4 -DARM_MATH_CM4 

LD_FLAGS = $(CPU) -Wl,--gc-sections --specs=nano.specs -u _printf_float -u _scanf_float -Wl,--wrap,main -Wl,-Map=$(PROJECT).map,--cref
LD_SYS_LIBS = -lstdc++ -lsupc++ -lm -lc -lgcc -lnosys


ifeq ($(DEBUG), 1)
  CC_FLAGS += -DDEBUG -O0
else
  CC_FLAGS += -DNDEBUG -Os
endif

.PHONY: all clean lst size

all: $(PROJECT).bin $(PROJECT).hex size


clean:
	rm -f $(PROJECT).bin $(PROJECT).elf $(PROJECT).hex $(PROJECT).map $(PROJECT).lst $(OBJECTS) $(DEPS)


.asm.o:
	$(CC) $(CPU) -c -x assembler-with-cpp -o $@ $<
.s.o:
	$(CC) $(CPU) -c -x assembler-with-cpp -o $@ $<
.S.o:
	$(CC) $(CPU) -c -x assembler-with-cpp -o $@ $<

.c.o:
	$(CC)  $(CC_FLAGS) $(CC_SYMBOLS) -std=gnu99   $(INCLUDE_PATHS) -o $@ $<

.cpp.o:
	$(CPP) $(CC_FLAGS) $(CC_SYMBOLS) -std=gnu++98 -fno-rtti $(INCLUDE_PATHS) -o $@ $<



$(PROJECT).elf: $(OBJECTS) $(SYS_OBJECTS)
	$(LD) $(LD_FLAGS) -T$(LINKER_SCRIPT) $(LIBRARY_PATHS) -o $@ $^ $(LIBRARIES) $(LD_SYS_LIBS) $(LIBRARIES) $(LD_SYS_LIBS)


$(PROJECT).bin: $(PROJECT).elf
	$(OBJCOPY) -O binary $< $@

$(PROJECT).hex: $(PROJECT).elf
	@$(OBJCOPY) -O ihex $< $@

$(PROJECT).lst: $(PROJECT).elf
	@$(OBJDUMP) -Sdh $< > $@

lst: $(PROJECT).lst

size: $(PROJECT).elf
	$(SIZE) $(PROJECT).elf

DEPS = $(OBJECTS:.o=.d) $(SYS_OBJECTS:.o=.d)
-include $(DEPS)

Toolchain is installed from terry.guo's repo with the following version information:

Toolchain Ver

$ arm-none-eabi-gcc --version 
arm-none-eabi-gcc (GNU Tools for ARM Embedded Processors) 4.9.3 20150529 (release) [ARM/embedded-4_9-branch revision 227977]
Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

mbed library is directly cloned from default branch with mercury. No luck so far. I'll try this SDK in the next couple of hours. https://github.com/mbedmicro/mbed

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