An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new Config Tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the Config Tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentiometer (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The KL25Z can only run one firmware program at a time, so if you install the Pinscape firmware on your KL25Z, it will replace and erase your existing VirtuaPin proprietary firmware. If you do this, the only way to restore your VirtuaPin firmware is to physically ship the KL25Z back to VirtuaPin and ask them to re-flash it. They don't allow you to do this at home, and they don't even allow you to back up your firmware, since they want to protect their proprietary software from copying. For all of these reasons, if you want to run the Pinscape software, I strongly recommend that you buy a "blank" retail KL25Z to use with Pinscape. They only cost about $15 and are available at several online retailers, including Amazon, Mouser, and eBay. The blank retail boards don't come with any proprietary firmware pre-installed, so installing Pinscape won't delete anything that you paid extra for.

With those warnings in mind, if you're absolutely sure that you don't mind permanently erasing your VirtuaPin firmware, it is at least possible to use Pinscape as a replacement for the VirtuaPin firmware. Pinscape uses the same button wiring conventions as the VirtuaPin setup, so you can keep your buttons (although you'll have to update the GPIO pin mappings in the Config Tool to match your physical wiring). As of the June, 2021 firmware, the Vishay VCNL4010 plunger sensor that comes with the VirtuaPin v3 plunger kit is supported, so you can also keep your plunger, if you have that chip. (You should check to be sure that's the sensor chip you have before committing to this route, if keeping the plunger sensor is important to you. The older VirtuaPin plunger kits came with different IR sensors that the Pinscape software doesn't handle.)

diff -r cbff13b98441 -r d832bcab089e main.cpp
--- a/main.cpp	Sat Sep 26 02:15:59 2015 +0000
+++ b/main.cpp	Wed Oct 21 21:53:07 2015 +0000
@@ -143,10 +143,24 @@
 //    The software can control a set of daisy-chained TLC5940 chips, which provide
 //    16 PWM outputs per chip.  Two of these chips give you the full complement
 //    of 32 output ports of an actual LedWiz, and four give you 64 ports, which
-//    should be plenty for nearly any virtual pinball project.
+//    should be plenty for nearly any virtual pinball project.  A private, extended
+//    version of the LedWiz protocol lets the host control the extra outputs, up to
+//    128 outputs per KL25Z (8 TLC5940s).  To take advantage of the extra outputs
+//    on the PC side, you need software that knows about the protocol extensions,
+//    which means you need the latest version of DirectOutput Framework (DOF).  VP
+//    uses DOF for its output, so VP will be able to use the added ports without any
+//    extra work on your part.  Older software (e.g., Future Pinball) that doesn't
+//    use DOF will still be able to use the LedWiz-compatible protocol, so it'll be
+//    able to control your first 32 ports (numbered 1-32 in the LedWiz scheme), but
+//    older software won't be able to address higher-numbered ports.  That shouldn't
+//    be a problem because older software wouldn't know what to do with the extra
+//    devices anyway - FP, for example, is limited to a pre-defined set of outputs.
+//    As long as you put the most common devices on the first 32 outputs, and use
+//    higher numbered ports for the less common devices that older software can't
+//    use anyway, you'll get maximum functionality out of software new and old.
-// The on-board LED on the KL25Z flashes to indicate the current device status:
+// STATUS LIGHTS:  The on-board LED on the KL25Z flashes to indicate the current 
+// device status.  The flash patterns are:
 //    two short red flashes = the device is powered but hasn't successfully
 //        connected to the host via USB (either it's not physically connected
@@ -169,14 +183,14 @@
 //    alternating blue/green = everything's working
-// Software configuration: you can change option settings by sending special
+// Software configuration: you can some change option settings by sending special
 // USB commands from the PC.  I've provided a Windows program for this purpose;
 // refer to the documentation for details.  For reference, here's the format
 // of the USB command for option changes:
 //    length of report = 8 bytes
 //    byte 0 = 65 (0x41)
-//    byte 1 = 1 (0x01)
+//    byte 1 = 1  (0x01)
 //    byte 2 = new LedWiz unit number, 0x01 to 0x0f
 //    byte 3 = feature enable bit mask:
 //             0x01 = enable CCD (default = on)
@@ -188,14 +202,14 @@
 //    length = 8 bytes
 //    byte 0 = 65 (0x41)
-//    byte 1 = 2 (0x02)
+//    byte 1 = 2  (0x02)
 // Exposure reports: the host can request a report of the full set of pixel
 // values for the next frame by sending this special packet:
 //    length = 8 bytes
 //    byte 0 = 65 (0x41)
-//    byte 1 = 3 (0x03)
+//    byte 1 = 3  (0x03)
 // We'll respond with a series of special reports giving the exposure status.
 // Each report has the following structure:
@@ -215,7 +229,33 @@
 // descriptor, which would have broken LedWiz compatibility.  Given that
 // constraint, we have to re-use the joystick report type, making for
 // this somewhat kludgey approach.
+// Configuration query: the host can request a full report of our hardware
+// configuration with this message.
+//    length = 8 bytes
+//    byte 0 = 65 (0x41)
+//    byte 1 = 4  (0x04)
+// We'll response with one report containing the configuration status:
+//    bytes 0:1 = 0x8800.  This has the bit pattern 10001 in the high
+//                5 bits, which distinguishes it from regular joystick
+//                reports and from exposure status reports.
+//    bytes 2:3 = number of outputs
+//    remaining bytes = reserved for future use; set to 0 in current version
+// Turn off all outputs: this message tells the device to turn off all
+// outputs and restore power-up LedWiz defaults.  This sets outputs #1-32
+// to profile 48 (full brightness) and switch state Off, sets all extended
+// outputs (#33 and above) to brightness 0, and sets the LedWiz flash rate
+// to 2.
+//    length = 8 bytes
+//    byte 0 = 65 (0x41)
+//    byte 1 = 5  (0x05)
 #include "mbed.h"
 #include "math.h"
 #include "USBJoystick.h"
@@ -225,7 +265,6 @@
 #include "crc32.h"
 #include "TLC5940.h"
-// our local configuration file
 #include "config.h"
@@ -243,35 +282,27 @@
 inline float round(float x) { return x > 0 ? floor(x + 0.5) : ceil(x - 0.5); }
-// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-// USB device vendor ID, product ID, and version.  
+// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+// USB product version number
-// We use the vendor ID for the LedWiz, so that the PC-side software can
-// identify us as capable of performing LedWiz commands.  The LedWiz uses
-// a product ID value from 0xF0 to 0xFF; the last four bits identify the
-// unit number (e.g., product ID 0xF7 means unit #7).  This allows multiple
-// LedWiz units to be installed in a single PC; the software on the PC side
-// uses the unit number to route commands to the devices attached to each
-// unit.  On the real LedWiz, the unit number must be set in the firmware
-// at the factory; it's not configurable by the end user.  Most LedWiz's
-// ship with the unit number set to 0, but the vendor will set different
-// unit numbers if requested at the time of purchase.  So if you have a
-// single LedWiz already installed in your cabinet, and you didn't ask for
-// a non-default unit number, your existing LedWiz will be unit 0.
-// Note that the USB_PRODUCT_ID value set here omits the unit number.  We
-// take the unit number from the saved configuration.  We provide a
-// configuration command that can be sent via the USB connection to change
-// the unit number, so that users can select the unit number without having
-// to install a different version of the software.  We'll combine the base
-// product ID here with the unit number to get the actual product ID that
-// we send to the USB controller.
-const uint16_t USB_VENDOR_ID = 0xFAFA;
-const uint16_t USB_PRODUCT_ID = 0x00F0;
-const uint16_t USB_VERSION_NO = 0x0006;
+const uint16_t USB_VERSION_NO = 0x0007;
+// Build the full USB product ID.  If we're using the LedWiz compatible
+// vendor ID, the full product ID is the combination of the LedWiz base
+// product ID (0x00F0) and the 0-based unit number (0-15).  If we're not
+// trying to be LedWiz compatible, we just use the exact product ID
+// specified in config.h.
+#define MAKE_USB_PRODUCT_ID(vid, pidbase, unit) \
+    ((vid) == 0xFAFA && (pidbase) == 0x00F0 ? (pidbase) | (unit) : (pidbase))
+// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 // Joystick axis report range - we report from -JOYMAX to +JOYMAX
 #define JOYMAX 4096
 // --------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -357,16 +388,6 @@
 // for 32 outputs).  Every port in this mode has full PWM support.
-// Figure the number of outputs.  If we're in the default LedWiz mode,
-// we have a fixed set of 32 outputs.  If we're in TLC5940 enhanced mode,
-// we have 16 outputs per chip.  To simplify the LedWiz compatibility code,
-// always use a minimum of 32 outputs even if we have fewer than two of the
-// TLC5940 chips.
-#if !defined(ENABLE_TLC5940) || (TLC_NCHIPS) < 2
-# define NUM_OUTPUTS   32
-# define NUM_OUTPUTS   ((TLC5940_NCHIPS)*16)
 // Current starting output index for "PBA" messages from the PC (using
 // the LedWiz USB protocol).  Each PBA message implicitly uses the
@@ -385,10 +406,27 @@
     virtual void set(float val) = 0;
+// LwOut class for unmapped ports.  The LedWiz protocol is hardwired
+// for 32 ports, but we might not want to assign all 32 software ports
+// to physical output pins - the KL25Z has a limited number of GPIO
+// ports, so we might not have enough available GPIOs to fill out the
+// full LedWiz complement after assigning GPIOs for other functions.
+// This class is used to populate the LedWiz mapping array for ports
+// that aren't connected to physical outputs; it simply ignores value 
+// changes.
+class LwUnusedOut: public LwOut
+    LwUnusedOut() { }
+    virtual void set(float val) { }
-#ifdef ENABLE_TLC5940
-// The TLC5940 interface object.
+#if TLC5940_NCHIPS
+// The TLC5940 interface object.  Set this up with the port assignments
+// set in config.h.
 TLC5940 tlc5940(TLC5940_SCLK, TLC5940_SIN, TLC5940_GSCLK, TLC5940_BLANK,
     TLC5940_XLAT, TLC5940_NCHIPS);
@@ -410,7 +448,31 @@
     float prv;
-#else // ENABLE_TLC5940
+// Inverted voltage version of TLC5940 class (Active Low - logical "on"
+// is represented by 0V on output)
+class Lw5940OutInv: public Lw5940Out
+    Lw5940OutInv(int idx) : Lw5940Out(idx) { }
+    virtual void set(float val) { Lw5940Out::set(1.0 - val); }
+// No TLC5940 chips are attached, so we shouldn't encounter any ports
+// in the map marked for TLC5940 outputs.  If we do, treat them as unused.
+class Lw5940Out: public LwUnusedOut
+    Lw5940Out(int idx) { }
+class Lw5940OutInv: public Lw5940Out
+    Lw5940OutInv(int idx) : Lw5940Out(idx) { }
+#endif // TLC5940_NCHIPS
 // Default LedWiz mode - using on-board GPIO ports.  In this mode, we
@@ -434,6 +496,16 @@
     float prv;
+// Inverted voltage PWM-capable GPIO port.  This is the Active Low
+// version of the port - logical "on" is represnted by 0V on the
+// GPIO pin.
+class LwPwmOutInv: public LwPwmOut
+    LwPwmOutInv(PinName pin) : LwPwmOut(pin) { }
+    virtual void set(float val) { LwPwmOut::set(1.0 - val); }
 // LwOut class for a Digital-Only (Non-PWM) GPIO port
 class LwDigOut: public LwOut
@@ -448,21 +520,12 @@
     float prv;
-#endif // ENABLE_TLC5940
-// LwOut class for unmapped ports.  The LedWiz protocol is hardwired
-// for 32 ports, but we might not want to assign all 32 software ports
-// to physical output pins - the KL25Z has a limited number of GPIO
-// ports, so we might not have enough available GPIOs to fill out the
-// full LedWiz complement after assigning GPIOs for other functions.
-// This class is used to populate the LedWiz mapping array for ports
-// that aren't connected to physical outputs; it simply ignores value 
-// changes.
-class LwUnusedOut: public LwOut
+// Inverted voltage digital out
+class LwDigOutInv: public LwDigOut
-    LwUnusedOut() { }
-    virtual void set(float val) { }
+    LwDigOutInv(PinName pin) : LwDigOut(pin) { }
+    virtual void set(float val) { LwDigOut::set(1.0 - val); }
 // Array of output physical pin assignments.  This array is indexed
@@ -472,48 +535,127 @@
 // physical GPIO pin for the port specified in the ledWizPortMap[] 
 // array in config.h.  If we're using TLC5940 chips for the outputs,
 // we map each logical port to the corresponding TLC5940 output.
-static LwOut *lwPin[NUM_OUTPUTS];
+static int numOutputs;
+static LwOut **lwPin;
+// Current absolute brightness level for an output.  This is a float
+// value from 0.0 for fully off to 1.0 for fully on.  This is the final
+// derived value for the port.  For outputs set by LedWiz messages, 
+// this is derived from the LedWiz state, and is updated on each pulse 
+// timer interrupt for lights in flashing states.  For outputs set by 
+// extended protocol messages, this is simply the brightness last set.
+static float *outLevel;
 // initialize the output pin array
 void initLwOut()
-    for (int i = 0 ; i < countof(lwPin) ; ++i)
+    // Figure out how many outputs we have.  We always have at least
+    // 32 outputs, since that's the number fixed by the original LedWiz
+    // protocol.  If we're using TLC5940 chips, we use our own custom
+    // extended protocol that allows for many more ports.  In this case,
+    // we have 16 outputs per TLC5940, plus any assigned to GPIO pins.
+    // start with 16 ports per TLC5940
+    numOutputs = TLC5940_NCHIPS * 16;
+    // add outputs assigned to GPIO pins in the LedWiz-to-pin mapping
+    int i;
+    for (i = 0 ; i < countof(ledWizPortMap) ; ++i)
-#ifdef ENABLE_TLC5940
-        // Set up a TLC5940 output.  If the output is within range of
-        // the connected number of chips (16 outputs per chip), assign it
-        // to the current index, otherwise leave it unattached.
-        if (i < (TLC5940_NCHIPS)*16)
-            lwPin[i] = new Lw5940Out(i);
-        else
-            lwPin[i] = new LwUnusedOut();
+        if (ledWizPortMap[i].pin != NC)
+            ++numOutputs;
+    }
+    // always set up at least 32 outputs, so that we don't have to
+    // check bounds on commands from the basic LedWiz protocol
+    if (numOutputs < 32)
+        numOutputs = 32;
+    // allocate the pin array
+    lwPin = new LwOut*[numOutputs];    
+    // allocate the current brightness array
+    outLevel = new float[numOutputs];
+    // allocate a temporary array to keep track of which physical 
+    // TLC5940 ports we've assigned so far
+    char *tlcasi = new char[TLC5940_NCHIPS*16+1];
+    memset(tlcasi, 0, TLC5940_NCHIPS*16);
-#else // ENABLE_TLC5940
-        // Set up the GPIO pin.  If the pin is not connected ("NC" in the
-        // pin map), set up a dummy "unused" output for it.  If it's a
-        // real pin, set up a PWM-capable or Digital-Only output handler
-        // object, according to the pin type in the map.
-        PinName p = (i < countof(ledWizPortMap) ? ledWizPortMap[i].pin : NC);
-        if (p == NC)
-            lwPin[i] = new LwUnusedOut();
-        else if (ledWizPortMap[i].isPWM)
-            lwPin[i] = new LwPwmOut(p);
-        else
-            lwPin[i] = new LwDigOut(p);
+    // assign all pins from the port map in config.h
+    for (i = 0 ; i < countof(ledWizPortMap) ; ++i)
+    {
+        // Figure out which type of pin to assign to this port:
+        //
+        // - If it has a valid GPIO pin (other than "NC"), create a PWM
+        //   or Digital output pin according to the port type.
+        //
+        // - If the pin has a TLC5940 port number, set up a TLC5940 port.
+        //
+        // - Otherwise, the pin is unconnected, so set up an unused out.
+        //
+        PinName p = ledWizPortMap[i].pin;
+        int flags = ledWizPortMap[i].flags;
+        int tlcPortNum = ledWizPortMap[i].tlcPortNum;
+        int isPwm = flags & PORT_IS_PWM;
+        int activeLow = flags & PORT_ACTIVE_LOW;
+        if (p != NC)
+        {
+            // This output is a GPIO - set it up as PWM or Digital, and 
+            // active high or low, as marked
+            if (isPwm)
+                lwPin[i] = activeLow ? new LwPwmOutInv(p) : new LwPwmOut(p);
+            else
+                lwPin[i] = activeLow ? new LwDigOutInv(p) : new LwDigOut(p);
+        }
+        else if (tlcPortNum != 0)
+        {
+            // It's a TLC5940 port.  Note that the port numbering in the map
+            // starts at 1, but internally we number the ports starting at 0,
+            // so subtract one to get the correct numbering.
+            lwPin[i] = activeLow ? new Lw5940OutInv(tlcPortNum-1) : new Lw5940Out(tlcPortNum-1);
-#endif // ENABLE_TLC5940
+            // mark this port as used, so that we don't reassign it when we
+            // fill out the remaining unassigned ports
+            tlcasi[tlcPortNum-1] = 1;
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            // it's not a GPIO or TLC5940 port -> it's not connected
+            lwPin[i] = new LwUnusedOut();
+        }
+        lwPin[i]->set(0);
+    // find the next unassigned tlc port
+    int tlcnxt;
+    for (tlcnxt = 0 ; tlcnxt < TLC5940_NCHIPS*16 && tlcasi[tlcnxt] ; ++tlcnxt) ;
+    // assign any remaining pins
+    for ( ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
+    {
+        // If we have any more unassigned TLC5940 outputs, assign this LedWiz
+        // port to the next available TLC5940 output.  Otherwise make it
+        // unconnected.
+        if (tlcnxt < TLC5940_NCHIPS*16)
+        {
+            // we have a TLC5940 output available - assign it
+            lwPin[i] = new Lw5940Out(tlcnxt);
+            // find the next unassigned TLC5940 output, for the next port
+            for (++tlcnxt ; tlcnxt < TLC5940_NCHIPS*16 && tlcasi[tlcnxt] ; ++tlcnxt) ;
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            // no more ports available - set up this port as unconnected
+            lwPin[i] = new LwUnusedOut();
+        }
+    }
+    // done with the temporary TLC5940 port assignment list
+    delete [] tlcasi;
-// Current absolute brightness level for an output.  This is a float
-// value from 0.0 for fully off to 1.0 for fully on.  This is the final
-// derived value for the port.  For outputs set by LedWiz messages, 
-// this is derived from te LedWiz state, and is updated on each pulse 
-// timer interrupt for lights in flashing states.  For outputs set by 
-// extended protocol messages, this is simply the brightness last set.
-static float outLevel[NUM_OUTPUTS];
 // LedWiz output states.
 // The LedWiz protocol has two separate control axes for each output.
@@ -1252,6 +1394,263 @@
     } d;
+// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+// Simple binary (on/off) input debouncer.  Requires an input to be stable 
+// for a given interval before allowing an update.
+class Debouncer
+    Debouncer(bool initVal, float tmin)
+    {
+        t.start();
+        this->stable = this->prv = initVal;
+        this->tmin = tmin;
+    }
+    // Get the current stable value
+    bool val() const { return stable; }
+    // Apply a new sample.  This tells us the new raw reading from the
+    // input device.
+    void sampleIn(bool val)
+    {
+        // If the new raw reading is different from the previous
+        // raw reading, we've detected an edge - start the clock
+        // on the sample reader.
+        if (val != prv)
+        {
+            // we have an edge - reset the sample clock
+            t.reset();
+            // this is now the previous raw sample for nxt time
+            prv = val;
+        }
+        else if (val != stable)
+        {
+            // The new raw sample is the same as the last raw sample,
+            // and different from the stable value.  This means that
+            // the sample value has been the same for the time currently
+            // indicated by our timer.  If enough time has elapsed to
+            // consider the value stable, apply the new value.
+            if ( > tmin)
+                stable = val;
+        }
+    }
+    // current stable value
+    bool stable;
+    // last raw sample value
+    bool prv;
+    // elapsed time since last raw input change
+    Timer t;
+    // Minimum time interval for stability, in seconds.  Input readings 
+    // must be stable for this long before the stable value is updated.
+    float tmin;
+// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+// Turn off all outputs and restore everything to the default LedWiz
+// state.  This sets outputs #1-32 to LedWiz profile value 48 (full
+// brightness) and switch state Off, sets all extended outputs (#33
+// and above) to zero brightness, and sets the LedWiz flash rate to 2.
+// This effectively restores the power-on conditions.
+void allOutputsOff()
+    // reset all LedWiz outputs to OFF/48
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < 32 ; ++i)
+    {
+        outLevel[i] = 0;
+        wizOn[i] = 0;
+        wizVal[i] = 48;
+        lwPin[i]->set(0);
+    }
+    // reset all extended outputs (ports >32) to full off (brightness 0)
+    for (int i = 32 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
+    {
+        outLevel[i] = 0;
+        lwPin[i]->set(0);
+    }
+    // restore default LedWiz flash rate
+    wizSpeed = 2;
+// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+// TV ON timer.  If this feature is enabled, we toggle a TV power switch
+// relay (connected to a GPIO pin) to turn on the cab's TV monitors shortly
+// after the system is powered.  This is useful for TVs that don't remember
+// their power state and don't turn back on automatically after being
+// unplugged and plugged in again.  This feature requires external
+// circuitry, which is built in to the expansion board and can also be
+// built separately - see the Build Guide for the circuit plan.
+// Theory of operation: to use this feature, the cabinet must have a 
+// secondary PC-style power supply (PSU2) for the feedback devices, and
+// this secondary supply must be plugged in to the same power strip or 
+// switched outlet that controls power to the TVs.  This lets us use PSU2
+// as a proxy for the TV power state - when PSU2 is on, the TV outlet is 
+// powered, and when PSU2 is off, the TV outlet is off.  We use a little 
+// latch circuit powered by PSU2 to monitor the status.  The latch has a 
+// current state, ON or OFF, that we can read via a GPIO input pin, and 
+// we can set the state to ON by pulsing a separate GPIO output pin.  As 
+// long as PSU2 is powered off, the latch stays in the OFF state, even if 
+// we try to set it by pulsing the SET pin.  When PSU2 is turned on after 
+// being off, the latch starts receiving power but stays in the OFF state, 
+// since this is the initial condition when the power first comes on.  So 
+// if our latch state pin is reading OFF, we know that PSU2 is either off 
+// now or *was* off some time since we last checked.  We use a timer to 
+// check the state periodically.  Each time we see the state is OFF, we 
+// try pulsing the SET pin.  If the state still reads as OFF, we know 
+// that PSU2 is currently off; if the state changes to ON, though, we 
+// know that PSU2 has gone from OFF to ON some time between now and the 
+// previous check.  When we see this condition, we start a countdown
+// timer, and pulse the TV switch relay when the countdown ends.
+// This scheme might seem a little convoluted, but it neatly handles
+// all of the different cases that can occur:
+// - Most cabinets systems are set up with "soft" PC power switches, 
+//   so that the PC goes into "Soft Off" mode (ACPI state S5, in Windows
+//   parlance) when the user turns off the cabinet.  In this state, the
+//   motherboard supplies power to USB devices, so the KL25Z continues
+//   running without interruption.  The latch system lets us monitor
+//   the power state even when we're never rebooted, since the latch
+//   will turn off when PSU2 is off regardless of what the KL25Z is doing.
+// - Some cabinet builders might prefer to use "hard" power switches,
+//   cutting all power to the cabinet, including the PC motherboard (and
+//   thus the KL25Z) every time the machine is turned off.  This also
+//   applies to the "soft" switch case above when the cabinet is unplugged,
+//   a power outage occurs, etc.  In these cases, the KL25Z will do a cold
+//   boot when the PC is turned on.  We don't know whether the KL25Z
+//   will power up before or after PSU2, so it's not good enough to 
+//   observe the *current* state of PSU2 when we first check - if PSU2
+//   were to come on first, checking the current state alone would fool
+//   us into thinking that no action is required, because we would never
+//   have known that PSU2 was ever off.  The latch handles this case by
+//   letting us see that PSU2 *was* off before we checked.
+// - If the KL25Z is rebooted while the main system is running, or the 
+//   KL25Z is unplugged and plugged back in, we will correctly leave the 
+//   TVs as they are.  The latch state is independent of the KL25Z's 
+//   power or software state, so it's won't affect the latch state when
+//   the KL25Z is unplugged or rebooted; when we boot, we'll see that 
+//   the latch is already on and that we don't have to turn on the TVs.
+//   This is important because TV ON buttons are usually on/off toggles,
+//   so we don't want to push the button on a TV that's already on.
+// Current PSU2 state:
+//   1 -> default: latch was on at last check, or we haven't checked yet
+//   2 -> latch was off at last check, SET pulsed high
+//   3 -> SET pulsed low, ready to check status
+//   4 -> TV timer countdown in progress
+//   5 -> TV relay on
+int psu2_state = 1;
+DigitalIn psu2_status_sense(PSU2_STATUS_SENSE);
+DigitalOut psu2_status_set(PSU2_STATUS_SET);
+DigitalOut tv_relay(TV_RELAY_PIN);
+Timer tv_timer;
+void TVTimerInt()
+    // Check our internal state
+    switch (psu2_state)
+    {
+    case 1:
+        // Default state.  This means that the latch was on last
+        // time we checked or that this is the first check.  In
+        // either case, if the latch is off, switch to state 2 and
+        // try pulsing the latch.  Next time we check, if the latch
+        // stuck, it means that PSU2 is now on after being off.
+        if (!psu2_status_sense)
+        {
+            // switch to OFF state
+            psu2_state = 2;
+            // try setting the latch
+            psu2_status_set = 1;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 2:
+        // PSU2 was off last time we checked, and we tried setting
+        // the latch.  Drop the SET signal and go to CHECK state.
+        psu2_status_set = 0;
+        psu2_state = 3;
+        break;
+    case 3:
+        // CHECK state: we pulsed SET, and we're now ready to see
+        // if that stuck.  If the latch is now on, PSU2 has transitioned
+        // from OFF to ON, so start the TV countdown.  If the latch is
+        // off, our SET command didn't stick, so PSU2 is still off.
+        if (psu2_status_sense)
+        {
+            // The latch stuck, so PSU2 has transitioned from OFF
+            // to ON.  Start the TV countdown timer.
+            tv_timer.reset();
+            tv_timer.start();
+            psu2_state = 4;
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            // The latch didn't stick, so PSU2 was still off at
+            // our last check.  Try pulsing it again in case PSU2
+            // was turned on since the last check.
+            psu2_status_set = 1;
+            psu2_state = 2;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 4:
+        // TV timer countdown in progress.  If we've reached the
+        // delay time, pulse the relay.
+        if ( >= TV_DELAY_TIME)
+        {
+            // turn on the relay for one timer interval
+            tv_relay = 1;
+            psu2_state = 5;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 5:
+        // TV timer relay on.  We pulse this for one interval, so
+        // it's now time to turn it off and return to the default state.
+        tv_relay = 0;
+        psu2_state = 1;
+        break;
+    }
+Ticker tv_ticker;
+void startTVTimer()
+    // Set up our time routine to run every 1/4 second.  
+    tv_ticker.attach(&TVTimerInt, 0.25);
+// TV timer not used - just provide a dummy startup function
+void startTVTimer() { }
+#endif // ENABLE_TV_TIMER
 // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -1269,12 +1668,31 @@
     ledG = 1;
     ledB = 1;
+    // start the TV timer, if applicable
+    startTVTimer();
+    // we're not connected/awake yet
+    bool connected = false;
+    time_t connectChangeTime = time(0);
+#if TLC5940_NCHIPS
+    // start the TLC5940 clock
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i) lwPin[i]->set(1.0);
+    tlc5940.start();
+    // enable power to the TLC5940 opto/LED outputs
+# ifdef TLC5940_PWRENA
+    DigitalOut tlcPwrEna(TLC5940_PWRENA);
+    tlcPwrEna = 1;
+# endif
     // initialize the LedWiz ports
     // initialize the button input ports
     // we don't need a reset yet
     bool needReset = false;
@@ -1314,7 +1732,7 @@
     // number from the saved configuration.
     MyUSBJoystick js(
-        USB_PRODUCT_ID | cfg.d.ledWizUnitNo,
     // last report timer - we use this to throttle reports, since VP
@@ -1360,11 +1778,6 @@
     bool reportPix = false;
-#ifdef ENABLE_TLC5940
-    // start the TLC5940 clock
-    tlc5940.start();
     // create our plunger sensor object
     PlungerSensor plungerSensor;
@@ -1467,7 +1880,11 @@
     // Device status.  We report this on each update so that the host config
     // tool can detect our current settings.  This is a bit mask consisting
     // of these bits:
-    //    0x01  -> plunger sensor enabled
+    //    0x0001  -> plunger sensor enabled
+    //    0x8000  -> RESERVED - must always be zero
+    //
+    // Note that the high bit (0x8000) must always be 0, since we use that
+    // to distinguish special request reply packets.
     uint16_t statusFlags = (cfg.d.plungerEnabled ? 0x01 : 0x00);
     // we're all set up - now just loop, processing sensor reports and 
@@ -1486,6 +1903,24 @@
             // all Led-Wiz reports are 8 bytes exactly
             if (report.length == 8)
+                // LedWiz commands come in two varieties:  SBA and PBA.  An
+                // SBA is marked by the first byte having value 64 (0x40).  In
+                // the real LedWiz protocol, any other value in the first byte
+                // means it's a PBA message.  However, *valid* PBA messages
+                // always have a first byte (and in fact all 8 bytes) in the
+                // range 0-49 or 129-132.  Anything else is invalid.  We take
+                // advantage of this to implement private protocol extensions.
+                // So our full protocol is as follows:
+                //
+                // first byte =
+                //   0-48     -> LWZ-PBA
+                //   64       -> LWZ SBA 
+                //   65       -> private control message; second byte specifies subtype
+                //   129-132  -> LWZ-PBA
+                //   200-219  -> extended bank brightness set for outputs N to N+6, where
+                //               N is (first byte - 200)*7
+                //   other    -> reserved for future use
+                //
                 uint8_t *data =;
                 if (data[0] == 64) 
@@ -1497,11 +1932,27 @@
                     // update all on/off states
                     for (int i = 0, bit = 1, ri = 1 ; i < 32 ; ++i, bit <<= 1)
+                        // figure the on/off state bit for this output
                         if (bit == 0x100) {
                             bit = 1;
+                        // set the on/off state
                         wizOn[i] = ((data[ri] & bit) != 0);
+                        // If the wizVal setting is 255, it means that this
+                        // output was last set to a brightness value with the
+                        // extended protocol.  Return it to LedWiz control by
+                        // rescaling the brightness setting to the LedWiz range
+                        // and updating wizVal with the result.  If it's any
+                        // other value, it was previously set by a PBA message,
+                        // so simply retain the last setting - in the normal
+                        // LedWiz protocol, the "profile" (brightness) and on/off
+                        // states are independent, so an SBA just turns an output
+                        // on or off but retains its last brightness level.
+                        if (wizVal[i] == 255)
+                            wizVal[i] = (uint8_t)round(outLevel[i]*48);
                     // set the flash speed - enforce the value range 1-7
@@ -1571,21 +2022,88 @@
                         ledB = 0;
                         ledG = 1;
+                    else if (data[1] == 4)
+                    {
+                        // 4 = hardware configuration query
+                        // (No parameters)
+                        wait_ms(1);
+                        js.reportConfig(numOutputs, cfg.d.ledWizUnitNo);
+                    }
+                    else if (data[1] == 5)
+                    {
+                        // 5 = all outputs off, reset to LedWiz defaults
+                        allOutputsOff();
+                    }
+                else if (data[0] >= 200 && data[0] < 220)
+                {
+                    // Extended protocol - banked brightness update.  
+                    // data[0]-200 gives us the bank of 7 outputs we're setting:
+                    // 200 is outputs 0-6, 201 is outputs 7-13, 202 is 14-20, etc.
+                    // The remaining bytes are brightness levels, 0-255, for the
+                    // seven outputs in the selected bank.  The LedWiz flashing 
+                    // modes aren't accessible in this message type; we can only 
+                    // set a fixed brightness, but in exchange we get 8-bit 
+                    // resolution rather than the paltry 0-48 scale that the real
+                    // LedWiz uses.  There's no separate on/off status for outputs
+                    // adjusted with this message type, either, as there would be
+                    // for a PBA message - setting a non-zero value immediately
+                    // turns the output, overriding the last SBA setting.
+                    //
+                    // For outputs 0-31, this overrides any previous PBA/SBA
+                    // settings for the port.  Any subsequent PBA/SBA message will
+                    // in turn override the setting made here.  It's simple - the
+                    // most recent message of either type takes precedence.  For
+                    // outputs above the LedWiz range, PBA/SBA messages can't
+                    // address those ports anyway.
+                    int i0 = (data[0] - 200)*7;
+                    int i1 = i0 + 7 < numOutputs ? i0 + 7 : numOutputs; 
+                    for (int i = i0 ; i < i1 ; ++i)
+                    {
+                        // set the brightness level for the output
+                        float b = data[i-i0+1]/255.0;
+                        outLevel[i] = b;
+                        // if it's in the basic LedWiz output set, set the LedWiz
+                        // profile value to 255, which means "use outLevel"
+                        if (i < 32) 
+                            wizVal[i] = 255;
+                        // set the output
+                        lwPin[i]->set(b);
+                    }
+                }
-                    // LWZ-PBA - full state dump; each byte is one output
-                    // in the current bank.  pbaIdx keeps track of the bank;
-                    // this is incremented implicitly by each PBA message.
+                    // Everything else is LWZ-PBA.  This is a full "profile"
+                    // dump from the host for one bank of 8 outputs.  Each
+                    // byte sets one output in the current bank.  The current
+                    // bank is implied; the bank starts at 0 and is reset to 0
+                    // by any LWZ-SBA message, and is incremented to the next
+                    // bank by each LWZ-PBA message.  Our variable pbaIdx keeps
+                    // track of our notion of the current bank.  There's no direct
+                    // way for the host to select the bank; it just has to count
+                    // on us staying in sync.  In practice, the host will always
+                    // send a full set of 4 PBA messages in a row to set all 32
+                    // outputs.
+                    //
+                    // Note that a PBA implicitly overrides our extended profile
+                    // messages (message prefix 200-219), because this sets the
+                    // wizVal[] entry for each output, and that takes precedence
+                    // over the extended protocol settings.
+                    //
                     //printf("LWZ-PBA[%d] %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x\r\n",
                     //       pbaIdx, data[0], data[1], data[2], data[3], data[4], data[5], data[6], data[7]);
-                    // update all output profile settings
+                    // Update all output profile settings
                     for (int i = 0 ; i < 8 ; ++i)
                         wizVal[pbaIdx + i] = data[i];
-                    // update the physical LED state if this is the last bank                    
+                    // Update the physical LED state if this is the last bank.
+                    // Note that hosts always send a full set of four PBA
+                    // messages, so there's no need to do a physical update
+                    // until we've received the last bank's PBA message.
                     if (pbaIdx == 24)
@@ -2112,10 +2630,28 @@
             printf("%d,%d\r\n", x, y);
+        // check for connection status changes
+        int newConnected = js.isConnected() && !js.isSuspended();
+        if (newConnected != connected)
+        {
+            // give it a few seconds to stabilize
+            time_t tc = time(0);
+            if (tc - connectChangeTime > 3)
+            {
+                // note the new status
+                connected = newConnected;
+                connectChangeTime = tc;
+                // if we're no longer connected, turn off all outputs
+                if (!connected)
+                    allOutputsOff();
+            }
+        }
         // provide a visual status indication on the on-board LED
         if (calBtnState < 2 && hbTimer.read_ms() > 1000) 
-            if (js.isSuspended() || !js.isConnected())
+            if (!newConnected)
                 // suspended - turn off the LED
                 ledR = 1;