An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new Config Tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the Config Tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentiometer (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The KL25Z can only run one firmware program at a time, so if you install the Pinscape firmware on your KL25Z, it will replace and erase your existing VirtuaPin proprietary firmware. If you do this, the only way to restore your VirtuaPin firmware is to physically ship the KL25Z back to VirtuaPin and ask them to re-flash it. They don't allow you to do this at home, and they don't even allow you to back up your firmware, since they want to protect their proprietary software from copying. For all of these reasons, if you want to run the Pinscape software, I strongly recommend that you buy a "blank" retail KL25Z to use with Pinscape. They only cost about $15 and are available at several online retailers, including Amazon, Mouser, and eBay. The blank retail boards don't come with any proprietary firmware pre-installed, so installing Pinscape won't delete anything that you paid extra for.

With those warnings in mind, if you're absolutely sure that you don't mind permanently erasing your VirtuaPin firmware, it is at least possible to use Pinscape as a replacement for the VirtuaPin firmware. Pinscape uses the same button wiring conventions as the VirtuaPin setup, so you can keep your buttons (although you'll have to update the GPIO pin mappings in the Config Tool to match your physical wiring). As of the June, 2021 firmware, the Vishay VCNL4010 plunger sensor that comes with the VirtuaPin v3 plunger kit is supported, so you can also keep your plunger, if you have that chip. (You should check to be sure that's the sensor chip you have before committing to this route, if keeping the plunger sensor is important to you. The older VirtuaPin plunger kits came with different IR sensors that the Pinscape software doesn't handle.)

Tue May 09 05:48:37 2017 +0000
AEDR-8300, VL6180X, TLC59116; new plunger firing detection

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 1 // VL6180X Time of Flight sensor interface
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 2
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 3 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 4 #include "VL6180X.h"
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 5
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 6 VL6180X::VL6180X(PinName sda, PinName scl, uint8_t addr, PinName gpio0,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 7 bool internalPullups)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 8 : i2c(sda, scl, internalPullups), gpio0Pin(gpio0)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 9 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 10 // remember the address
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 11 this->addr = addr;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 12
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 13 // start in single-shot distance mode
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 14 distMode = 0;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 15 rangeStarted = false;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 16
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 17 // initially reset the sensor by holding GPIO0/CE low
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 18 gpio0Pin.mode(PullNone);
mjr 85:3c28aee81cde 19 gpio0Pin.output();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 20 gpio0Pin.write(0);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 21 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 22
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 23 VL6180X::~VL6180X()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 24 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 25 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 26
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 27 bool VL6180X::init()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 28 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 29 // hold reset low for 10ms
mjr 85:3c28aee81cde 30 gpio0Pin.output();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 31 gpio0Pin.write(0);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 32 wait_us(10000);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 33
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 34 // release reset and allow 10ms for the sensor to reboot
mjr 85:3c28aee81cde 35 gpio0Pin.input();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 36 wait_us(10000);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 37
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 38 // reset the I2C bus
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 39 i2c.reset();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 40
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 41 // check that the sensor's reset register reads as '1'
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 42 Timer t;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 43 t.start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 44 while (readReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_FRESH_OUT_OF_RESET) != 1)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 45 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 46 if (t.read_us() > 1000000)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 47 return false;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 48 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 49
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 50 // clear reset flag
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 51 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_FRESH_OUT_OF_RESET, 0);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 52
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 53 // give the device 50ms before sending the startup sequence
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 54 wait_ms(50);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 55
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 56 // Send the mandatory initial register assignments, per the manufacturer's app notes:
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 57 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 58 writeReg8(0x0207, 0x01);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 59 writeReg8(0x0208, 0x01);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 60 writeReg8(0x0096, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 61 writeReg8(0x0097, 0xfd);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 62 writeReg8(0x00e3, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 63 writeReg8(0x00e4, 0x04);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 64 writeReg8(0x00e5, 0x02);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 65 writeReg8(0x00e6, 0x01);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 66 writeReg8(0x00e7, 0x03);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 67 writeReg8(0x00f5, 0x02);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 68 writeReg8(0x00d9, 0x05);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 69 writeReg8(0x00db, 0xce);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 70 writeReg8(0x00dc, 0x03);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 71 writeReg8(0x00dd, 0xf8);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 72 writeReg8(0x009f, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 73 writeReg8(0x00a3, 0x3c);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 74 writeReg8(0x00b7, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 75 writeReg8(0x00bb, 0x3c);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 76 writeReg8(0x00b2, 0x09);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 77 writeReg8(0x00ca, 0x09);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 78 writeReg8(0x0198, 0x01);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 79 writeReg8(0x01b0, 0x17);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 80 writeReg8(0x01ad, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 81 writeReg8(0x00ff, 0x05);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 82 writeReg8(0x0100, 0x05);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 83 writeReg8(0x0199, 0x05);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 84 writeReg8(0x01a6, 0x1b);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 85 writeReg8(0x01ac, 0x3e);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 86 writeReg8(0x01a7, 0x1f);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 87 writeReg8(0x0030, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 88
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 89 // allow time to settle
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 90 wait_us(1000);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 91
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 92 // start the sample timer
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 93 sampleTimer.start();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 94
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 95 // success
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 96 return true;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 97 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 98
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 99 void VL6180X::setDefaults()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 100 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 101 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_GROUPED_PARAMETER_HOLD, 0x01); // set parameter hold while updating settings
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 102
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 103 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_INTERRUPT_CONFIG_GPIO, 4); // Enable interrupts from range only
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 104 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_MODE_GPIO1, 0x00); // Disable GPIO1
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 105 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_VHV_REPEAT_RATE, 0xFF); // Set auto calibration period (Max = 255)/(OFF = 0)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 106 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_INTERMEASUREMENT_PERIOD, 0x09); // Set default ranging inter-measurement period to 100ms
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 107 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_MAX_CONVERGENCE_TIME, 63); // Max range convergence time 63ms
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 108 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_RANGE_CHECK_ENABLES, 0x00); // S/N disable, ignore disable, early convergence test disable
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 109 writeReg16(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_EARLY_CONVERGENCE_ESTIMATE, 0x00); // abort range measurement if convergence rate below this value
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 110 writeReg8(VL6180X_READOUT_AVERAGING_SAMPLE_PERIOD, averagingSamplePeriod); // Sample averaging period (1.3ms + N*64.5us)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 111 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_THRESH_LOW, 0x00); // low threshold
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 112 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_THRESH_HIGH, 0xff); // high threshold
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 113
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 114 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_GROUPED_PARAMETER_HOLD, 0x00); // end parameter hold
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 115
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 116 // perform a single calibration; wait until it's done (within reason)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 117 Timer t;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 118 t.start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 119 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_VHV_RECALIBRATE, 0x01);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 120 while (readReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_VHV_RECALIBRATE) != 0)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 121 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 122 // if we've been waiting too long, abort
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 123 if (t.read_us() > 100000)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 124 break;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 125 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 126 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 127
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 128 void VL6180X::getID(struct VL6180X_ID &id)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 129 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 130 id.model = readReg8(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODEL_ID);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 131 id.modelRevMajor = readReg8(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODEL_REV_MAJOR) & 0x07;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 132 id.modelRevMinor = readReg8(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODEL_REV_MINOR) & 0x07;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 133 id.moduleRevMajor = readReg8(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODULE_REV_MAJOR) & 0x07;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 134 id.moduleRevMinor = readReg8(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODULE_REV_MINOR) & 0x07;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 135
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 136 uint16_t date = readReg16(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_DATE);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 137 uint16_t time = readReg16(VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_TIME) * 2;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 138 id.manufDate.year = 2010 + ((date >> 12) & 0x0f);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 139 id.manufDate.month = (date >> 8) & 0x0f;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 140 = (date >> 3) & 0x1f;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 141 id.manufDate.phase = uint8_t(date & 0x07);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 142 id.manufDate.hh = time/3600;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 143 = (time % 3600) / 60;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 144 = time % 60;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 145 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 146
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 147 void VL6180X::continuousDistanceMode(bool on)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 148 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 149 if (distMode != on)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 150 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 151 // remember the new mode
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 152 distMode = on;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 153
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 154 // Set continuous or single-shot mode. If starting continuous
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 155 // mode, set bits 0x01 (range mode = continuous) + 0x02 (start
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 156 // collecting samples now). If ending the mode, set all bits
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 157 // to zero to select single-shot mode without starting a reading.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 158 if (on)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 159 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 160 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_INTERRUPT_CONFIG_GPIO, 4); // Enable interrupts for ranging only
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 161 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSALS_INTERMEASUREMENT_PERIOD, 0); // minimum measurement interval (10ms)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 162 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_START, 0x03);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 163 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 164 else
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 165 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_START, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 166 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 167 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 168
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 169 bool VL6180X::rangeReady()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 170 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 171 // check if the status register says a sample is ready (bits 0-2/0x07)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 172 // or an error has occurred (bits 6-7/0xC0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 173 return ((readReg8(VL6180X_RESULT_INTERRUPT_STATUS_GPIO) & 0xC7) != 0);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 174 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 175
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 176 void VL6180X::startRangeReading()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 177 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 178 // start a new range reading if one isn't already in progress
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 179 if (!rangeStarted)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 180 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 181 tSampleStart = sampleTimer.read_us();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 182 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_INTERRUPT_CLEAR, 0x07);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 183 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_START, 0x00);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 184 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_START, 0x01);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 185 rangeStarted = true;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 186 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 187 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 188
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 189 int VL6180X::getRange(uint8_t &distance, uint32_t &tMid, uint32_t &dt, uint32_t timeout_us)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 190 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 191 // start a reading if one isn't already in progress
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 192 startRangeReading();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 193
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 194 // we're going to wait until this reading ends, so consider the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 195 // 'start' command consumed, no matter what happens next
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 196 rangeStarted = false;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 197
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 198 // wait for the sample
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 199 Timer t;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 200 t.start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 201 for (;;)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 202 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 203 // check for a sample
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 204 if (rangeReady())
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 205 break;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 206
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 207 // if we've exceeded the timeout, return failure
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 208 if (t.read_us() > timeout_us)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 209 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 210 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSRANGE_START, 0x00);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 211 return -1;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 212 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 213 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 214
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 215 // check for errors
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 216 uint8_t err = (readReg8(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_STATUS) >> 4) & 0x0F;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 217
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 218 // read the distance
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 219 distance = readReg8(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_VAL);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 220
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 221 // Read the convergence time, and compute the overall sample time.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 222 // Per the data sheet, the total execution time is the sum of the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 223 // fixed 3.2ms pre-calculation time, the convergence time, and the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 224 // readout averaging time. We can query the convergence time for
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 225 // each reading from the sensor. The averaging time is a controlled
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 226 // by the READOUT_AVERAGING_SAMPLE_PERIOD setting, which we set to
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 227 // our constant value averagingSamplePeriod.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 228 dt =
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 229 3200 // fixed 3.2ms pre-calculation period
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 230 + readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_CONV_TIME) // convergence time
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 231 + (1300 + 48*averagingSamplePeriod); // readout averaging period
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 232
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 233 // figure the midpoint of the sample time - the starting time
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 234 // plus half the collection time
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 235 tMid = tSampleStart + dt/2;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 236
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 237 // clear the data-ready interrupt
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 238 writeReg8(VL6180X_SYSTEM_INTERRUPT_CLEAR, 0x07);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 239
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 240 // return the error code
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 241 return err;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 242 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 243
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 244 void VL6180X::getRangeStats(VL6180X_RangeStats &stats)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 245 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 246 stats.returnRate = readReg16(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_RATE);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 247 stats.refReturnRate = readReg16(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_RATE);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 248 stats.returnCnt = readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_SIGNAL_COUNT);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 249 stats.refReturnCnt = readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_SIGNAL_COUNT);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 250 stats.ambCnt = readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_AMB_COUNT);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 251 stats.refAmbCnt = readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_AMB_COUNT);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 252 stats.convTime = readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_CONV_TIME);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 253 stats.refConvTime = readReg32(VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_CONV_TIME);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 254 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 255
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 256 uint8_t VL6180X::readReg8(uint16_t registerAddr)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 257 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 258 // write the request - MSB+LSB of register address
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 259 uint8_t data_write[2];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 260 data_write[0] = (registerAddr >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 261 data_write[1] = registerAddr & 0xFF;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 262 if (i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 2, false))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 263 return 0x00;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 264
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 265 // read the result
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 266 uint8_t data_read[1];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 267 if ( << 1, data_read, 1))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 268 return 0x00;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 269
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 270 // return the result
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 271 return data_read[0];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 272 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 273
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 274 uint16_t VL6180X::readReg16(uint16_t registerAddr)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 275 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 276 // write the request - MSB+LSB of register address
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 277 uint8_t data_write[2];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 278 data_write[0] = (registerAddr >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 279 data_write[1] = registerAddr & 0xFF;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 280 if (i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 2, false))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 281 return 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 282
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 283 // read the result
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 284 uint8_t data_read[2];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 285 if ( << 1, data_read, 2))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 286 return 00;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 287
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 288 // return the result
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 289 return (data_read[0] << 8) | data_read[1];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 290 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 291
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 292 uint32_t VL6180X::readReg32(uint16_t registerAddr)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 293 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 294 // write the request - MSB+LSB of register address
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 295 uint8_t data_write[2];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 296 data_write[0] = (registerAddr >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 297 data_write[1] = registerAddr & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 298 if (i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 2, false))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 299 return 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 300
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 301 // read the result
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 302 uint8_t data_read[4];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 303 if ( << 1, data_read, 4))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 304 return 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 305
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 306 // return the result
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 307 return (data_read[0] << 24) | (data_read[1] << 16) | (data_read[2] << 8) | data_read[1];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 308 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 309
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 310 void VL6180X::writeReg8(uint16_t registerAddr, uint8_t data)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 311 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 312 uint8_t data_write[3];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 313 data_write[0] = (registerAddr >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 314 data_write[1] = registerAddr & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 315 data_write[2] = data & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 316 i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 3);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 317 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 318
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 319 void VL6180X::writeReg16(uint16_t registerAddr, uint16_t data)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 320 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 321 uint8_t data_write[4];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 322 data_write[0] = (registerAddr >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 323 data_write[1] = registerAddr & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 324 data_write[2] = (data >> 8) & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 325 data_write[3] = data & 0xFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 326 i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 4);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 327 }