An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new Config Tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the Config Tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentiometer (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The KL25Z can only run one firmware program at a time, so if you install the Pinscape firmware on your KL25Z, it will replace and erase your existing VirtuaPin proprietary firmware. If you do this, the only way to restore your VirtuaPin firmware is to physically ship the KL25Z back to VirtuaPin and ask them to re-flash it. They don't allow you to do this at home, and they don't even allow you to back up your firmware, since they want to protect their proprietary software from copying. For all of these reasons, if you want to run the Pinscape software, I strongly recommend that you buy a "blank" retail KL25Z to use with Pinscape. They only cost about $15 and are available at several online retailers, including Amazon, Mouser, and eBay. The blank retail boards don't come with any proprietary firmware pre-installed, so installing Pinscape won't delete anything that you paid extra for.

With those warnings in mind, if you're absolutely sure that you don't mind permanently erasing your VirtuaPin firmware, it is at least possible to use Pinscape as a replacement for the VirtuaPin firmware. Pinscape uses the same button wiring conventions as the VirtuaPin setup, so you can keep your buttons (although you'll have to update the GPIO pin mappings in the Config Tool to match your physical wiring). As of the June, 2021 firmware, the Vishay VCNL4010 plunger sensor that comes with the VirtuaPin v3 plunger kit is supported, so you can also keep your plunger, if you have that chip. (You should check to be sure that's the sensor chip you have before committing to this route, if keeping the plunger sensor is important to you. The older VirtuaPin plunger kits came with different IR sensors that the Pinscape software doesn't handle.)

Tue May 09 05:48:37 2017 +0000
AEDR-8300, VL6180X, TLC59116; new plunger firing detection

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 1 // Bit Bang BitBangI2C implementation for KL25Z
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 2 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 3
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 4 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 5 #include "BitBangI2C.h"
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 6
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 7
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 8 // --------------------------------------------------------------------------
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 9 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 10 // Debugging:
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 11 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 12 // 0 -> no debugging
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 13 // 1 -> print (on console) error messages only
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 14 // 2 -> print full diagnostics
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 15 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 16 // dprintf() = general debug diagnostics (printed only in case 2)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 17 // eprintf() = error diagnostics (printed in case 1 and above)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 18 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 19 #define BBI2C_DEBUG 0
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 20 #if BBI2C_DEBUG
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 21 # define eprintf(...) printf(__VA_ARGS__)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 22 # if BBI2C_DEBUG >= 2
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 23 # define dprintf(...) printf(__VA_ARGS__)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 24 # else
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 25 # define dprintf(...)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 26 # endif
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 27 static const char *dbgbytes(const uint8_t *bytes, size_t len)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 28 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 29 static char buf[128];
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 30 char *p = buf;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 31 for (int i = 0 ; i < len && p + 4 < buf + sizeof(buf) ; ++i)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 32 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 33 if (i > 0) *p++ = ',';
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 34 sprintf(p, "%02x", bytes[i]);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 35 p += 2;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 36 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 37 *p = '\0';
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 38 return buf;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 39 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 40 #else
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 41 # define dprintf(...)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 42 # define eprintf(...)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 43 #endif
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 44
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 45 // --------------------------------------------------------------------------
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 46 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 47 // Bit-bang I2C implementation
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 48 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 49 BitBangI2C::BitBangI2C(PinName sda, PinName scl, bool internalPullup) :
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 50 sdaPin(sda, internalPullup), sclPin(scl, internalPullup)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 51 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 52 // set the default frequency to 100kHz
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 53 frequency(100000);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 54
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 55 // we're initially in a stop
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 56 inStop = true;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 57 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 58
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 59 void BitBangI2C::frequency(uint32_t freq)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 60 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 61 // figure the clock time per cycle
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 62 clkPeriod_us = 1000000/freq;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 63
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 64 // Figure wait times according to frequency
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 65 if (freq <= 100000)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 66 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 67 // standard mode I2C bus - up to 100kHz
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 68
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 69 // nanosecond parameters
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 70 tLow = calcHiResWaitTime(4700);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 71 tHigh = calcHiResWaitTime(4000);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 72 tHdSta = calcHiResWaitTime(4000);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 73 tSuSta = calcHiResWaitTime(4700);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 74 tSuSto = calcHiResWaitTime(4000);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 75 tAck = calcHiResWaitTime(300);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 76 tSuDat = calcHiResWaitTime(250);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 77 tBuf = calcHiResWaitTime(4700);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 78 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 79 else if (freq <= 400000)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 80 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 81 // fast mode I2C - up to 400kHz
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 82
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 83 // nanosecond parameters
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 84 tLow = calcHiResWaitTime(1300);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 85 tHigh = calcHiResWaitTime(600);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 86 tHdSta = calcHiResWaitTime(600);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 87 tSuSta = calcHiResWaitTime(600);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 88 tSuSto = calcHiResWaitTime(600);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 89 tAck = calcHiResWaitTime(100);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 90 tSuDat = calcHiResWaitTime(100);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 91 tBuf = calcHiResWaitTime(1300);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 92 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 93 else
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 94 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 95 // fast mode plus - up to 1MHz
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 96
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 97 // nanosecond parameters
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 98 tLow = calcHiResWaitTime(500);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 99 tHigh = calcHiResWaitTime(260);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 100 tHdSta = calcHiResWaitTime(260);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 101 tSuSta = calcHiResWaitTime(260);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 102 tSuSto = calcHiResWaitTime(260);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 103 tAck = calcHiResWaitTime(50);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 104 tSuDat = calcHiResWaitTime(50);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 105 tBuf = calcHiResWaitTime(500);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 106 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 107 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 108
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 109 void BitBangI2C::start()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 110 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 111 // check to see if we're starting after a stop, or if this is a
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 112 // repeated start
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 113 if (inStop)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 114 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 115 // in a stop - make sure we waited for the minimum hold time
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 116 hiResWait(tBuf);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 117 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 118 else
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 119 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 120 // repeated start - take data high
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 121 sdaHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 122 hiResWait(tSuDat);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 123
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 124 // take clock high
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 125 sclHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 126
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 127 // wait for the minimum setup period
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 128 hiResWait(tSuSta);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 129 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 130
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 131 // take data low
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 132 sdaLo();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 133
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 134 // wait for the setup period and take clock low
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 135 hiResWait(tHdSta);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 136 sclLo();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 137
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 138 // wait for the low period
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 139 hiResWait(tLow);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 140
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 141 // no longer in a stop
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 142 inStop = false;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 143 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 144
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 145 void BitBangI2C::stop()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 146 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 147 // if we're not in a stop, enter one
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 148 if (!inStop)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 149 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 150 // take SDA low
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 151 sdaLo();
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 152
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 153 // take SCL high
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 154 sclHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 155 hiResWait(tSuSto);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 156
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 157 // take SDA high
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 158 sdaHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 159
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 160 // we're in a stop
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 161 inStop = true;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 162 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 163 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 164
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 165 bool BitBangI2C::wait(uint32_t timeout_us)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 166 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 167 // set up a timer to monitor the timeout period
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 168 Timer t;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 169 t.start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 170
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 171 // wait for an ACK
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 172 for (;;)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 173 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 174 // if SDA is low, it's an ACK
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 175 if (!
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 176 return true;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 177
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 178 // if we've reached the timeout, abort
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 179 if (t.read_us() > timeout_us)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 180 return false;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 181 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 182 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 183
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 184 void BitBangI2C::reset()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 185 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 186 // write out 9 '1' bits
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 187 for (int i = 0 ; i < 9 ; ++i)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 188 writeBit(1);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 189
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 190 // issue a start sequence
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 191 start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 192
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 193 // take the clock high
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 194 sclHi();
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 195
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 196 // wait for a few clock cycles
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 197 wait_us(4*clkPeriod_us);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 198 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 199
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 200 int BitBangI2C::write(uint8_t addr, const uint8_t *data, size_t len, bool repeated)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 201 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 202 dprintf("i2c.write, addr=%02x [%s] %srepeat\r\n",
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 203 addr, dbgbytes(data, len), repeated ? "" : "no ");
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 204
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 205 // send the start signal
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 206 start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 207
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 208 // send the address with the R/W bit set to WRITE (0)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 209 if (write(addr))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 210 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 211 eprintf(". i2c.write, address write failed, addr=%02x [%s] %srepeat\r\n",
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 212 addr, dbgbytes(data, len), repeated ? "": "no ");
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 213 return -1;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 214 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 215
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 216 // send the data bytes
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 217 for (int i = 0 ; i < len ; ++i)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 218 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 219 if (write(data[i]))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 220 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 221 eprintf(". i2c.write, write failed at byte %d, addr=%02x [%s] %srepeat\r\n",
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 222 i, addr, dbgbytes(data, len), repeated ? "" : "no ");
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 223 return -2;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 224 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 225 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 226
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 227 // send the stop, unless the start is to be repeated
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 228 if (!repeated)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 229 stop();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 230
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 231 // success
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 232 return 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 233 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 234
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 235 int BitBangI2C::read(uint8_t addr, uint8_t *data, size_t len, bool repeated)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 236 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 237 dprintf(", addr=%02x\r\n", addr);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 238
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 239 // send the start signal
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 240 start();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 241
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 242 // send the address with the R/W bit set to READ (1)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 243 if (write(addr | 0x01))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 244 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 245 eprintf("., read addr write failed, addr=%02x [%s] %srepeat\r\n",
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 246 addr, dbgbytes(data, len), repeated ? "" : "no ");
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 247 return -1;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 248 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 249
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 250 // Read the data. Send an ACK after each byte except the last,
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 251 // where we send a NAK.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 252 for ( ; len != 0 ; --len, ++data)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 253 *data = read(len > 1);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 254
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 255 // send the stop signal, unless a repeated start is indicated
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 256 if (!repeated)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 257 stop();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 258
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 259 // success
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 260 return 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 261 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 262
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 263 int BitBangI2C::write(uint8_t data)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 264 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 265 // write the bits, most significant first
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 266 for (int i = 0 ; i < 8 ; ++i, data <<= 1)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 267 writeBit(data & 0x80);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 268
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 269 // release SDA so the device can control it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 270 sdaHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 271
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 272 // read the ACK bit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 273 int ack = readBit();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 274
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 275 // take SDA low again
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 276 sdaLo();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 277
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 278 // return success if ACK was 0
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 279 return ack;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 280 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 281
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 282 int BitBangI2C::read(bool ack)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 283 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 284 // take SDA high before reading
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 285 sdaHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 286
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 287 // read 8 bits, most significant first
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 288 uint8_t data = 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 289 for (int i = 0 ; i < 8 ; ++i)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 290 data = (data << 1) | readBit();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 291
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 292 // switch to output mode and send the ACK bit
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 293 writeBit(!ack);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 294
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 295 // release SDA
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 296 sdaHi();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 297
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 298 // return the data byte we read
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 299 return data;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 300 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 301
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 302 int BitBangI2C::readBit()
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 303 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 304 // take the clock high (actually, release it to the pull-up)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 305 sclHi();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 306
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 307 // Wait (within reason) for it to actually read as high. The device
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 308 // can intentionally pull the clock line low to tell us to wait while
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 309 // it's working on preparing the data for us.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 310 int t = 0;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 311 do
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 312 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 313 // if the clock is high, we're ready to go
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 314 if (
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 315 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 316 // wait for the data setup time
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 317 hiResWait(tSuDat);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 318
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 319 // read the bit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 320 bool bit =;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 321
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 322 // take the clock low again
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 323 sclLo();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 324 hiResWait(tLow);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 325
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 326 // return the bit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 327 return bit;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 328 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 329 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 330 while (t++ < 100000);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 331
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 332 // we timed out
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 333 eprintf("i2c.readBit, clock stretching timeout\r\n");
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 334 return 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 335 }