An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.



File content as of revision 26:cb71c4af2912:

// Pinscape Controller Configuration
// To customize your private configuration, simply open this file in the 
// mbed on-line IDE, make your changes, save the file, and click the Compile
// button at the top of the window.  That will generate a customized .bin
// file that you can download onto your KL25Z board.

#ifndef CONFIG_H
#define CONFIG_H

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Enable/disable joystick functions.
// This controls whether or not we send joystick reports to the PC with the 
// plunger and accelerometer readings.  By default, this is enabled.   If
// you want to use two or more physical KL25Z Pinscape controllers in your
// system (e.g., if you want to increase the number of output ports
// available by using two or more KL25Z's), you should disable the joystick
// features on the second (and third+) controller.  It's not useful to have
// more than one board reporting the accelerometer readings to the host -
// doing so will just add USB overhead.  This setting lets you turn off the
// reports for the secondary controllers, turning the secondary boards into
// output-only devices.
// Note that you can't use button inputs on a controller that has the
// joystick features disabled, because the buttons are handled via the
// joystick reports.  Wire all of your buttons to the primary KL25Z that
// has the joystick features enabled.
// To disable the joystick features, just comment out the next line (add
// two slashes at the beginning of the line).

// Accelerometer orientation.  The accelerometer feature lets Visual Pinball 
// (and other pinball software) sense nudges to the cabinet, and simulate 
// the effect on the ball's trajectory during play.  We report the direction
// of the accelerometer readings as well as the strength, so it's important
// for VP and the KL25Z to agree on the physical orientation of the
// accelerometer relative to the cabinet.  The accelerometer on the KL25Z
// is always mounted the same way on the board, but we still have to know
// which way you mount the board in your cabinet.  We assume as default
// orientation where the KL25Z is mounted flat on the bottom of your
// cabinet with the USB ports pointing forward, toward the coin door.  If
// it's more convenient for you to mount the board in a different direction,
// you simply need to select the matching direction here.  Comment out the
// ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_FRONT line and un-comment the line that matches
// your board's orientation.

#define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_FRONT      // USB ports pointing toward front of cabinet
// #define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_LEFT    // USB ports pointing toward left side of cab
// #define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_RIGHT   // USB ports pointing toward right side of cab
// #define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_REAR    // USB ports pointing toward back of cabinet

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// LedWiz default unit number.
// Each LedWiz device has a unit number, from 1 to 16.  This lets you install
// more than one LedWiz in your system: as long as each one has a different
// unit number, the software on the PC can tell them apart and route commands 
// to the right device.
// A *real* LedWiz has its unit number set at the factory; they set it to
// unit 1 unless you specifically request a different number when you place
// your order.
// For our *emulated* LedWiz, we default to unit #8.  However, if we're set 
// up as a secondary Pinscape controller with the joystick functions turned 
// off, we'll use unit #9 instead.  
// The reason we start at unit #8 is that we want to avoid conflicting with
// any real LedWiz devices you have in your system.  If you have a real
// LedWiz, it's probably unit #1, since that's the standard factor setting.
// If you have two real LedWiz's, they're probably units #1 and #2.  If you 
// have three... well, I don't think anyone actually has three, but if you 
// did it would probably be unit #3.  And so on.  That's why we start at #8 - 
// it seems really unlikely that this will conflict with anybody's existing 
// setup.  On the off chance it does, simply change the setting here to a 
// different unit number that's not already used in your system.
// Note 1:  the unit number here is the *user visible* unit number that
// you use on the PC side.  It's the number you specify in your DOF
// configuration and so forth.  Internally, the USB reports subtract
// one from this number - e.g., nominal unit #1 shows up as 0 in the USB
// reports.  If you're trying to puzzle out why all of the USB reports
// are all off by one from the unit number you select here, that's why.
// Note 2:  the DOF Configtool (google it) knows about the Pinscape 
// controller (it's known there as just a "KL25Z" rather than Pinscape).
// And the DOF tool knows that it uses #8 as its default unit number, so
// it names the .ini file for this controller xxx8.ini.  If you change the 
// unit number here, remember to rename the DOF-generated .ini file to 
// match, by changing the "8" at the end of the filename to the new number
// you set here.
   0x08;   // joystick enabled - assume we're the primary KL25Z, so use unit #8
   0x09;   // joystick disabled - assume we're a secondary, output-only KL25Z, so use #9

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// TLC5940 PWM controller chip setup - Enhanced LedWiz emulation
// By default, the Pinscape Controller software can provide limited LedWiz
// emulation through the KL25Z's on-board GPIO ports.  This lets you hook
// up external devices, such as LED flashers or solenoids, to the KL25Z
// outputs (using external circuitry to boost power - KL25Z GPIO ports
// are limited to a meager 4mA per port).  This capability is limited by
// the number of available GPIO ports on the KL25Z, and even smaller limit
// of 10 PWM-capable GPIO ports.
// As an alternative, the controller software lets you use external PWM
// controller chips to control essentially unlimited channels with full
// PWM control on all channels.  This requires building external circuitry
// using TLC5940 chips.  Each TLC5940 chip provides 16 full PWM channels,
// and you can daisy-chain multiple TLC5940 chips together to set up 32, 
// 48, 64, or more channels.
// If you do add TLC5940 circuits to your controller hardware, use this
// section to configure the connection to the KL25Z.
// Note that if you're using TLC5940 outputs, ALL of the outputs must go
// through the TLC5940s - you can't mix TLC5940s and the default GPIO
// device outputs.  This lets us take GPIO ports that we'd normally use
// for device outputs and reassign them to control the TLC5940 hardware.

// Uncomment this line if using TLC5940 chips
#define ENABLE_TLC5940

// Number of TLC5940 chips you're using.  For a full LedWiz-compatible
// setup, you need two of these chips, for 32 outputs.
#define TLC5940_NCHIPS   3

// If you're using TLC5940s, change any of these as needed to match the
// GPIO pins that you connected to the TLC5940 control pins.  Note that
// SIN and SCLK *must* be connected to the KL25Z SPI0 MOSI and SCLK
// outputs, respectively, which effectively limits them to the default
// selections, and that the GSCLK pin must be PWM-capable.
#define TLC5940_SIN    PTC6    // Must connect to SPI0 MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
#define TLC5940_SCLK   PTC5    // Must connect to SPI0 SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1; however, PTD1 isn't
                               //   recommended because it's hard-wired to the on-board blue LED
#define TLC5940_XLAT   PTC10   // Any GPIO pin can be used
#define TLC5940_BLANK  PTC0    // Any GPIO pin can be used
#define TLC5940_GSCLK  PTD4    // Must be a PWM-capable pin

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Plunger CCD sensor.
// If you're NOT using the CCD sensor, comment out the next line (by adding
// two slashes at the start of the line).


// Physical pixel count for your sensor.  This software has been tested with
// TAOS TSL1410R (1280 pixels) and TSL1412R (1536 pixels) sensors.  It might
// work with other similar sensors as well, but you'll probably have to make
// some changes to the software interface to the sensor if you're using any
// sensor outside of the TAOS TSL14xxR series.
// If you're not using a CCD sensor, you can ignore this.
const int CCD_NPIXELS = 1280;

// Number of pixels from the CCD to sample on each high-res scan.  We don't
// sample every pixel from the sensor on each scan, because (a) we don't
// have to, and (b) we don't want to.  We don't have to sample all of the
// pixels because these sensors have much finer resolution than we need to
// get good results.  On a typical pinball cabinet setup with a 1920x1080
// HD TV display, the on-screen plunger travel distance is about 165 pixels,
// so that's all the pixels we need to sample for pixel-accurate animation.
// Even so, we still *could* sample at higher resolution, but we don't *want*
// to sample more pixels than we have to,  because reading each pixel takes 
// time.  The limiting factor for read speed is the sampling time for the ADC 
// (analog to digital  converter); it needs about 20us per sample to get an 
// accurate voltage reading.  We want to animate the on-screen plunger in 
// real time, with minimal lag, so it's important that we complete each scan 
// as quickly as possible.  The fewer pixels we sample, the faster we 
// complete each scan.
// Happily, the time needed to read the approximately 165 pixels required
// for pixel-accurate positioning on the display is short enough that we can
// complete a scan within the cycle time for USB reports.  USB gives us a
// whole separate timing factor; we can't go much *faster* with USB than
// sending a new report about every 10ms.  The sensor timing is such that
// we can read about 165 pixels in well under 10ms.  So that's really the
// sweet spot for our scans.
// Note that we distribute the sampled pixels evenly across the full range
// of the sensor's pixels.  That is, we read every nth pixel, and skip the
// ones in between.  That means that the sample count here has to be an even
// divisor of the physical pixel count.  Empirically, reading every 8th
// pixel gives us good results on both the TSL1410R and TSL1412R, so you
// shouldn't need to change this if you're using one of those sensors.  If
// you're using a different sensor, you should be sure to adjust this so that 
// it works out to an integer result with no remainder.

// The KL25Z pins that the CCD sensor is physically attached to:
//  CCD_SI_PIN = the SI (sensor data input) pin
//  CCD_CLOCK_PIN = the sensor clock pin
//  CCD_SO_PIN = the SO (sensor data output) pin
// The SI an Clock pins are DigitalOut pins, so these can be set to just
// about any gpio pins that aren't used for something else.  The SO pin must
// be an AnalogIn capable pin - only a few of the KL25Z gpio pins qualify, 
// so check the pinout diagram to find suitable candidates if you need to 
// change this.  Note that some of the gpio pins shown in the mbed pinout
// diagrams are committed to other uses by the mbed software or by the KL25Z
// wiring itself, so if you do change these, be sure that the new pins you
// select are really available.

const PinName CCD_SI_PIN = PTE20;
const PinName CCD_CLOCK_PIN = PTE21;
const PinName CCD_SO_PIN = PTB0;

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Plunger potentiometer sensor.
// If you're using a potentiometer as the plunger sensor, un-comment the
// next line (by removing the two slashes at the start of the line), and 
// also comment out the ENABLE_CCD_SENSOR line above.


// The KL25Z pin that your potentiometer is attached to.  The potentiometer
// requires wiring three connectins:
// - Wire the fixed resistance end of the potentiometer nearest the KNOB 
//   end of the plunger to the 3.3V output from the KL25Z
// - Wire the other fixed resistance end to KL25Z Ground
// -  Wire the potentiometer wiper (the variable output terminal) to the 
//    KL25Z pin identified below.  
// Note that you can change the pin selection below, but if you do, the new
// pin must be AnalogIn capable.  Only a few of the KL25Z pins qualify.  Refer
// to the KL25Z pinout diagram to find another AnalogIn pin if you need to
// change this for any reason.  Note that the default is to use the same analog 
// input that the CCD sensor would use if it were enabled, which is why you 
// have to be sure to disable the CCD support in the software if you're using 
// a potentiometer as the sensor.

const PinName POT_PIN = PTB0;

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Plunger calibration button and indicator light.
// These specify the pin names of the plunger calibration button connections.
// If you're not using these, you can set these to NC.  (You can even use the
// button but not the LED; set the LED to NC if you're only using the button.)
// If you're using the button, wire one terminal of a momentary switch or
// pushbutton to the input pin you select, and wire the other terminal to the 
// KL25Z ground.  Push and hold the button for a few seconds to enter plunger 
// calibration mode.
// If you're using the LED, you'll need to build a little transistor power
// booster circuit to power the LED, as described in the build guide.  The
// LED gives you visual confirmation that the you've triggered calibration
// mode and lets you know when the mode times out.  Note that the LED on
// board the KL25Z also changes color to indicate the same information, so
// if the KL25Z is positioned so that you can see it while you're doing the
// calibration, you don't really need a separate button LED.  But the
// separate LED is spiffy, especially if it's embedded in the pushbutton.
// Note that you can skip the pushbutton altogether and trigger calibration
// from the Windows control software.  But again, the button is spiffier.

// calibration button input 
const PinName CAL_BUTTON_PIN = PTE29;

// calibration button indicator LED
const PinName CAL_BUTTON_LED = PTE23;

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Pseudo "Launch Ball" button.
// Zeb of came up with a clever scheme for his plunger kit
// that lets the plunger simulate a Launch Ball button for tables where
// the original used a Launch button instead of a plunger (e.g., Medieval 
// Madness, T2, or Star Trek: The Next Generation).  The scheme uses an
// LedWiz output to tell us when such a table is loaded.  On the DOF
// Configtool site, this is called "ZB Launch Ball".  When this LedWiz
// output is ON, it tells us that the table will ignore the analog plunger
// because it doesn't have a plunger object, so the analog plunger should
// send a Launch Ball button press signal when the user releases the plunger.
// If you wish to use this feature, you need to do two things:
// First, adjust the two lines below to set the LedWiz output and joystick
// button you wish to use for this feature.  The defaults below should be
// fine for most people, but if you're using the Pinscape controller for
// your physical button wiring, you should set the launch button to match
// where you physically wired your actual Launch Ball button.  Likewise,
// change the LedWiz port if you're using the one below for some actual
// hardware output.  This is a virtual port that won't control any hardware;
// it's just for signaling the plunger that we're in "button mode".  Note
// that the numbering for the both the LedWiz port and joystick button 
// start at 1 to match the DOF Configtool and VP dialog numbering.
// Second, in the DOF Configtool, make sure you have a Pinscape controller
// in your cabinet configuration, then go to your Port Assignments and set
// the port defined below to "ZB Launch Ball".
// Third, open the Visual Pinball editor, open the Preferences | Keys
// dialog, and find the Plunger item.  Open the drop-down list under that
// item and select the button number defined below.
// To disable this feature, just set ZBLaunchBallPort to 0 here.

const int ZBLaunchBallPort = 32;
const int LaunchBallButton = 24;

// Distance necessary to push the plunger to activate the simulated 
// launch ball button, in inches.  A standard pinball plunger can be 
// pushed forward about 1/2".  However, the barrel spring is very
// stiff, and anything more than about 1/8" requires quite a bit
// of force.  Ideally the force required should be about the same as 
// for any ordinary pushbutton.
// On my cabinet, empirically, a distance around 2mm (.08") seems
// to work pretty well.  It's far enough that it doesn't trigger
// spuriously, but short enough that it responds to a reasonably
// light push.
// You might need to adjust this up or down to get the right feel.
// Alternatively, if you don't like the "push" gesture at all and
// would prefer to only make the plunger respond to a pull-and-release
// motion, simply set this to, say, 2.0 - it's impossible to push a 
// plunger forward that far, so that will effectively turn off the 
// push mode.
const float LaunchBallPushDistance = .08;

#endif // CONFIG_H

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Joystick button input pin assignments.  
// You can wire up to 32 GPIO ports to buttons (equipped with 
// momentary switches).  Connect each switch between the desired 
// GPIO port and ground (J9 pin 12 or 14).  When the button is pressed, 
// we'll tell the host PC that the corresponding joystick button is 
// pressed.  We debounce the keystrokes in software, so you can simply 
// wire directly to pushbuttons with no additional external hardware.
// Note that we assign 24 buttons by default, even though the USB
// joystick interface can handle up to 32 buttons.  VP itself only
// allows mapping of up to 24 buttons in the preferences dialog 
// (although it can recognize 32 buttons internally).  If you want 
// more buttons, you can reassign pins that are assigned by default
// as LedWiz outputs.  To reassign a pin, find the pin you wish to
// reassign in the LedWizPortMap array below, and change the pin name 
// there to NC (for Not Connected).  You can then change one of the
// "NC" entries below to the reallocated pin name.  The limit is 32
// buttons total.
// (If you're using TLC5940 chips to control outputs, ALL of the
// LedWiz mapped ports can be reassigned as keys, except, of course,
// those taken over for the 5940 interface.)
// Note: PTD1 (pin J2-12) should NOT be assigned as a button input,
// as this pin is physically connected on the KL25Z to the on-board
// indicator LED's blue segment.  This precludes any other use of
// the pin.
PinName buttonMap[] = {
    PTC2,      // J10 pin 10, joystick button 1
    PTB3,      // J10 pin 8,  joystick button 2
    PTB2,      // J10 pin 6,  joystick button 3
    PTB1,      // J10 pin 4,  joystick button 4
    PTE30,     // J10 pin 11, joystick button 5
    PTE22,     // J10 pin 5,  joystick button 6
    PTE5,      // J9 pin 15,  joystick button 7
    PTE4,      // J9 pin 13,  joystick button 8
    PTE3,      // J9 pin 11,  joystick button 9
    PTE2,      // J9 pin 9,   joystick button 10
    PTB11,     // J9 pin 7,   joystick button 11
    PTB10,     // J9 pin 5,   joystick button 12
    PTB9,      // J9 pin 3,   joystick button 13
    PTB8,      // J9 pin 1,   joystick button 14
    PTC12,     // J2 pin 1,   joystick button 15
    PTC13,     // J2 pin 3,   joystick button 16
    PTC16,     // J2 pin 5,   joystick button 17
    PTC17,     // J2 pin 7,   joystick button 18
    PTA16,     // J2 pin 9,   joystick button 19
    PTA17,     // J2 pin 11,  joystick button 20
    PTE31,     // J2 pin 13,  joystick button 21
    PTD6,      // J2 pin 17,  joystick button 22
    PTD7,      // J2 pin 19,  joystick button 23
    PTE1,      // J2 pin 20,  joystick button 24

    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 25
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 26
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 27
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 28
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 29
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 30
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 31
    NC         // not used,   joystick button 32

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// LED-Wiz emulation output pin assignments.  
//   NOTE!  This section isn't used if you have TLC5940 outputs - ALL
//   device outputs will be through the 5940s if you're using them.
//   See the TLC5940 setup section above to configure your interface
//   pins if you're using those chips.
// The LED-Wiz protocol allows setting individual intensity levels
// on all outputs, with 48 levels of intensity.  This can be used
// to control lamp brightness and motor speeds, among other things.
// Unfortunately, the KL25Z only has 10 PWM channels, so while we 
// can support the full complement of 32 outputs, we can only provide 
// PWM dimming/speed control on 10 of them.  The remaining outputs 
// can only be switched fully on and fully off - we can't support
// dimming on these, so they'll ignore any intensity level setting 
// requested by the host.  Use these for devices that don't have any
// use for intensity settings anyway, such as contactors and knockers.
// Ports with pins assigned as "NC" are not connected.  That is,
// there's no physical pin for that LedWiz port number.  You can
// send LedWiz commands to turn NC ports on and off, but doing so
// will have no effect.  The reason we leave some ports unassigned
// is that we don't have enough physical GPIO pins to fill out the
// full LedWiz complement of 32 ports.  Many pins are already taken
// for other purposes, such as button inputs or the plunger CCD
// interface.
// The mapping between physical output pins on the KL25Z and the
// assigned LED-Wiz port numbers is essentially arbitrary - you can
// customize this by changing the entries in the array below if you
// wish to rearrange the pins for any reason.  Be aware that some
// of the physical outputs are already used for other purposes
// (e.g., some of the GPIO pins on header J10 are used for the
// CCD sensor - but you can of course reassign those as well by
// changing the corresponding declarations elsewhere in this module).
// The assignments we make here have two main objectives: first,
// to group the outputs on headers J1 and J2 (to facilitate neater
// wiring by keeping the output pins together physically), and
// second, to make the physical pin layout match the LED-Wiz port
// numbering order to the extent possible.  There's one big wrench
// in the works, though, which is the limited number and discontiguous
// placement of the KL25Z PWM-capable output pins.  This prevents
// us from doing the most obvious sequential ordering of the pins,
// so we end up with the outputs arranged into several blocks.
// Hopefully this isn't too confusing; for more detailed rationale,
// read on...
// With the LED-Wiz, the host software configuration usually 
// assumes that each RGB LED is hooked up to three consecutive ports
// (for the red, green, and blue components, which need to be 
// physically wired to separate outputs to allow each color to be 
// controlled independently).  To facilitate this, we arrange the 
// PWM-enabled outputs so that they're grouped together in the 
// port numbering scheme.  Unfortunately, these outputs aren't
// together in a single group in the physical pin layout, so to
// group them logically in the LED-Wiz port numbering scheme, we
// have to break up the overall numbering scheme into several blocks.
// So our port numbering goes sequentially down each column of
// header pins, but there are several break points where we have
// to interrupt the obvious sequence to keep the PWM pins grouped
// logically.
// In the list below, "pin J1-2" refers to pin 2 on header J1 on
// the KL25Z, using the standard pin numbering in the KL25Z 
// documentation - this is the physical pin that the port controls.
// "LW port 1" means LED-Wiz port 1 - this is the LED-Wiz port
// number that you use on the PC side (in the DirectOutput config
// file, for example) to address the port.  PWM-capable ports are
// marked as such - we group the PWM-capable ports into the first
// 10 LED-Wiz port numbers.
// If you wish to reallocate a pin in the array below to some other
// use, such as a button input port, simply change the pin name in
// the entry to NC (for Not Connected).  This will disable the given
// logical LedWiz port number and free up the physical pin.
// If you wish to reallocate a pin currently assigned to the button
// input array, simply change the entry for the pin in the buttonMap[]
// array above to NC (for "not connected"), and plug the pin name into
// a slot of your choice in the array below.
// Note: PTD1 (pin J2-12) should NOT be assigned as an LedWiz output,
// as this pin is physically connected on the KL25Z to the on-board
// indicator LED's blue segment.  This precludes any other use of
// the pin.
struct {
    PinName pin;
    bool isPWM;
} ledWizPortMap[32] = {
    { PTA1, true },      // pin J1-2,  LW port 1  (PWM capable - TPM 2.0 = channel 9)
    { PTA2, true },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 2  (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
    { PTD4, true },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 3  (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
    { PTA12, true },     // pin J1-8,  LW port 4  (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
    { PTA4, true },      // pin J1-10, LW port 5  (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
    { PTA5, true },      // pin J1-12, LW port 6  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)
    { PTA13, true },     // pin J2-2,  LW port 7  (PWM capable - TPM 1.1 = channel 13)
    { PTD5, true },      // pin J2-4,  LW port 8  (PWM capable - TPM 0.5 = channel 6)
    { PTD0, true },      // pin J2-6,  LW port 9  (PWM capable - TPM 0.0 = channel 1)
    { PTD3, true },      // pin J2-10, LW port 10 (PWM capable - TPM 0.3 = channel 4)
    { PTD2, false },     // pin J2-8,  LW port 11
    { PTC8, false },     // pin J1-14, LW port 12
    { PTC9, false },     // pin J1-16, LW port 13
    { PTC7, false },     // pin J1-1,  LW port 14
    { PTC0, false },     // pin J1-3,  LW port 15
    { PTC3, false },     // pin J1-5,  LW port 16
    { PTC4, false },     // pin J1-7,  LW port 17
    { PTC5, false },     // pin J1-9,  LW port 18
    { PTC6, false },     // pin J1-11, LW port 19
    { PTC10, false },    // pin J1-13, LW port 20
    { PTC11, false },    // pin J1-15, LW port 21
    { PTE0, false },     // pin J2-18, LW port 22
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 23
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 24
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 25
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 26
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 27
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 28
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 29
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 30
    { NC, false },       // Not connected,  LW port 31
    { NC, false }        // Not connected,  LW port 32

#endif // DECL_EXTERNS