An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

config.h

Committer:
mjr
Date:
2017-03-24
Revision:
80:94dc2946871b
Parent:
78:1e00b3fa11af
Child:
82:4f6209cb5c33

File content as of revision 80:94dc2946871b:

// Pinscape Controller Configuration
//
// New for 2016:  dynamic configuration!  To configure the controller,
// connect the KL25Z to your PC, install the STANDARD pre-compiled .bin 
// file, and run the Windows config tool.  There's no need (as there was in 
// the past) to edit the source code or to compile a custom version of the 
// binary just to customize setup options.
//
// In earlier versions, configuration was handled mostly with #ifdef and
// similar constructs.  To customize the setup, you had to create a private 
// forked copy of the source code, edit the constants defined in config.h, 
// and compile a custom binary.  That's no longer necessary!
//
// The new approach is to do everything (or as much as possible, anyway)
// via the Windows config tool.  You shouldn't have to recompile a custom
// version just to make a configurable change.  Of course, you're still free
// to create a custom version if you want to add entirely new features or 
// make changes that go beyond what the setup tool exposes.
//

// Pre-packaged configuration selection.
//
// IMPORTANT!  If you just want to create a custom configuration, DON'T
// modify this file, DON'T use these macros, and DON'T compiler on mbed.
// Instead, use the unmodified standard build and configure your system
// using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.  That's easier and better
// because the config tool will be able to back up your settings to a
// local file on your PC, and will automatically preserve your settings
// across upgrades.  You won't have to worry about merging your changes
// into every update of the repository source code, since you'll never
// have to change the source code.
//
// The different configurations here are purely for testing purposes.  
// The standard build uses the STANDARD_CONFIG settings, which are the 
// same as the original version where you had to modify config.h by hand 
// to customize your system.
// 
#define STANDARD_CONFIG       1     // standard settings, based on v1 base settings
#define TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN     0     // configuration for the expansion boards
#define TEST_KEEP_PRINTF      0     // for debugging purposes, keep printf() enabled
                                    // by leaving the SDA UART GPIO pins unallocated


#ifndef CONFIG_H
#define CONFIG_H

// Plunger type codes
// NOTE!  These values are part of the external USB interface.  New
// values can be added, but the meaning of an existing assigned number 
// should remain fixed to keep the PC-side config tool compatible across 
// versions.
const int PlungerType_None      = 0;     // no plunger
const int PlungerType_TSL1410RS = 1;     // TSL1410R linear image sensor (1280x1 pixels, 400dpi), serial mode
const int PlungerType_TSL1410RP = 2;     // TSL1410R, parallel mode (reads the two sensor sections concurrently)
const int PlungerType_TSL1412SS = 3;     // TSL1412S linear image sensor (1536x1 pixels, 400dpi), serial mode
const int PlungerType_TSL1412SP = 4;     // TSL1412S, parallel mode
const int PlungerType_Pot       = 5;     // potentionmeter
const int PlungerType_OptQuad   = 6;     // AEDR8300 optical quadrature sensor
const int PlungerType_MagQuad   = 7;     // AS5304 magnetic quadrature sensor

// Accelerometer orientation codes
// These values are part of the external USB interface
const int OrientationFront     = 0;      // USB ports pointed toward front of cabinet
const int OrientationLeft      = 1;      // ports pointed toward left side of cabinet
const int OrientationRight     = 2;      // ports pointed toward right side of cabinet
const int OrientationRear      = 3;      // ports pointed toward back of cabinet

// Accelerometer dynamic range codes
const int AccelRange1G         = 0;      // +/-1G
const int AccelRange2G         = 1;      // +/-2G
const int AccelRange4G         = 2;      // +/-4G
const int AccelRange8G         = 3;      // +/-8G

// input button types
const int BtnTypeNone          = 0;      // unused
const int BtnTypeJoystick      = 1;      // joystick button
const int BtnTypeKey           = 2;      // keyboard key
const int BtnTypeMedia         = 3;      // media control key

// input button flags
const uint8_t BtnFlagPulse     = 0x01;   // pulse mode - reports each change in the physical switch state
                                         // as a brief press of the logical button/keyboard key
                                         
// button setup structure
struct ButtonCfg
{
    // physical GPIO pin - a Wire-to-PinName mapping index
    uint8_t pin;
    
    // Key type and value reported to the PC
    uint8_t typ;        // key type reported to PC - a BtnTypeXxx value
    uint8_t val;        // key value reported - meaning depends on 'typ' value:
                        //   none     -> no PC input reports (val is unused)
                        //   joystick -> val is joystick button number (1..32)
                        //   keyboard -> val is USB scan code
    uint8_t IRCommand;  // IR command to send when the button is pressed, as
                        // an IR command slot number: 1..MAX_IR_CODES, or 0
                        // if no IR command is to be sent
                        
    // Shifted key type and value.  These used when the button is pressed 
    // while the Local Shift Button is being held down.  We send the key
    // code given here instead of the regular typ/val code in this case.
    // If typ2 is BtnTypeNone, we use the regular typ/val code whether or
    // not the shift button is being held.
    uint8_t typ2;       // shifted key type
    uint8_t val2;       // shifted key value
    uint8_t IRCommand2; // IR command to send when shifted button is pressed
    
    // key flags - a bitwise combination of BtnFlagXxx values
    uint8_t flags;

    void set(uint8_t pin, uint8_t typ, uint8_t val, uint8_t flags = 0)
    {
        this->pin = pin;
        this->typ = typ;
        this->val = val;
        this->IRCommand = 0;
        this->flags = flags;
        this->typ2 = 0;
        this->val2 = 0;
        this->IRCommand2 = 0;
    }
        
} __attribute__((packed));
    

// maximum number of input button mappings in configuration
const int MAX_BUTTONS = 48;

// extra slots for virtual buttons (ZB Launch Ball)
const int VIRTUAL_BUTTONS = 1;              // total number of buttons
const int ZBL_BUTTON_CFG = MAX_BUTTONS;     // index of ZB Launch Ball slot

// LedWiz output port type codes
// These values are part of the external USB interface
const int PortTypeDisabled     = 0;      // port is disabled - not visible to LedWiz/DOF host
const int PortTypeGPIOPWM      = 1;      // GPIO port, PWM enabled
const int PortTypeGPIODig      = 2;      // GPIO port, digital out
const int PortTypeTLC5940      = 3;      // TLC5940 port
const int PortType74HC595      = 4;      // 74HC595 port
const int PortTypeVirtual      = 5;      // Virtual port - visible to host software, but not connected 
                                         //  to a physical output

// LedWiz output port flag bits
const uint8_t PortFlagActiveLow  = 0x01; // physical output is active-low
const uint8_t PortFlagNoisemaker = 0x02; // noisemaker device - disable when night mode is engaged
const uint8_t PortFlagGamma      = 0x04; // apply gamma correction to this output

// maximum number of output ports
const int MAX_OUT_PORTS = 128;

// port configuration data
struct LedWizPortCfg
{
    uint8_t typ;        // port type:  a PortTypeXxx value
    uint8_t pin;        // physical output pin:  for a GPIO port, this is an index in the 
                        // USB-to-PinName mapping list; for a TLC5940 or 74HC595 port, it's 
                        // the output number, starting from 0 for OUT0 on the first chip in 
                        // the daisy chain.  For inactive and virtual ports, it's unused.
    uint8_t flags;      // flags:  a combination of PortFlagXxx values
    
    void set(uint8_t typ, uint8_t pin, uint8_t flags = 0)
    {
        this->typ = typ;
        this->pin = pin;
        this->flags = flags;
    }
        
} __attribute__ ((packed));

// IR command configuration flags
const uint8_t IRFlagTVON = 0x01;     // send command at TV ON time
const uint8_t IRFlagDittos = 0x02;   // use "ditto" codes on send

// IR command configuration data
struct IRCommandCfg
{
    uint8_t flags;      // flags: a combination of IRFlagXxx values
    uint8_t keytype;    // key type to send when IR command is received
    uint8_t keycode;    // key code to send when IR command is received
    uint8_t protocol;   // IR protocol ID (see IRRemote/IRProtocolID.h)
    struct
    {
        uint32_t lo;    // low 32 bits of code
        uint32_t hi;    // high 32 bits of code
    } code;             // 64-bit command code (protocol-specific; see IRProtocols.h)
} __attribute__ ((packed));

// Maximum number of IR commands
const int MAX_IR_CODES = 16;


// Convert a physical pin name to a wire pin name
#define PINNAME_TO_WIRE(p) \
    uint8_t((p) == NC ? 0xFF : \
      (((p) & 0xF000 ) >> (PORT_SHIFT - 5)) | (((p) & 0xFF) >> 2))

struct Config
{
    // set all values to factory defaults
    void setFactoryDefaults()
    {
        // By default, pretend to be LedWiz unit #8.  This can be from 1 to 16.  Real
        // LedWiz units have their unit number set at the factory, and the vast majority
        // are set up as unit #1, since that's the default for anyone who doesn't ask
        // for a different setting.  It seems rare for anyone to use more than one unit
        // in a pin cab, but for the few who do, the others will probably be numbered
        // sequentially as #2, #3, etc.  It seems safe to assume that no one out there
        // has a unit #8, so we'll use that as our default.  This can be changed from 
        // the config tool, but for the sake of convenience, it's better to pick a
        // default that most people won't have to change.
        usbVendorID = 0xFAFA;      // LedWiz vendor code 
        usbProductID = 0x00F7;     // LedWiz product code for unit #8
                
        // Set the default Pinscape unit number to #1.  This is a separate identifier
        // from the LedWiz ID, so you don't have to worry about making this different
        // from your LedWiz units.  Each Pinscape unit should have a unique value for
        // this ID, though.
        //
        // Note that Pinscape unit #1 corresponds to DOF Pinscape #51, PS 2 -> DOF 52,
        // and so on - just add 50 to get the DOF ID.
        psUnitNo = 1;
        
        // set a disconnect reboot timeout of 10 seconds by default
        disconnectRebootTimeout = 10;
        
        // enable joystick reports
        joystickEnabled = true;
        
        // assume standard orientation, with USB ports toward front of cabinet
        accel.orientation = OrientationFront;
        
        // default dynamic range +/-1G
        accel.range = AccelRange1G;
        
        // default auto-centering time
        accel.autoCenterTime = 0;

        // assume a basic setup with no expansion boards
        expan.typ = 0;
        expan.vsn = 0;
        memset(expan.ext, 0, sizeof(expan.ext));

        // assume no plunger is attached
        plunger.enabled = 0x00;
        plunger.sensorType = PlungerType_None;
        
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN || STANDARD_CONFIG
        plunger.enabled = 0x01;
        plunger.sensorType = PlungerType_TSL1410RS;
        plunger.sensorPin[0] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE20); // SI
        plunger.sensorPin[1] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE21); // SCLK
        plunger.sensorPin[2] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB0);  // AO1 = PTB0 = ADC0_SE8
        plunger.sensorPin[3] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE22); // AO2 (parallel mode) = PTE22 = ADC0_SE3
#endif
        
        // default plunger calibration button settings
        plunger.cal.features = 0x03;                   // 0x01 = enable button, 0x02 = enable indicator lamp
        plunger.cal.btn = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE29);      // button input (DigitalIn port)
        plunger.cal.led = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE23);      // button output (DigitalOut port)
        
        // set the default plunger calibration
        plunger.cal.setDefaults();
        
        // disable the ZB Launch Ball by default
        plunger.zbLaunchBall.port = 0;                  // 0 = disabled
        plunger.zbLaunchBall.keytype = BtnTypeKey;      // keyboard key
        plunger.zbLaunchBall.keycode = 0x28;            // USB keyboard scan code for Enter key
        plunger.zbLaunchBall.pushDistance = 63;         // 63/1000 in == .063" == about 1/16"
        
        // assume no TV ON switch
        TVON.statusPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
        TVON.latchPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
        TVON.relayPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
        TVON.delayTime = 700;   // 7 seconds
        
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
        // expansion board TV ON wiring
        TVON.statusPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD2);
        TVON.latchPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE0);
        TVON.relayPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD3);
        TVON.delayTime = 700;   // 7 seconds
#endif

        // assume no night mode switch or indicator lamp
        nightMode.btn = 0;
        nightMode.flags = 0;
        nightMode.port = 0;
        
        // assume no TLC5940 chips
        tlc5940.nchips = 0;
        
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
        // for expansion board testing purposes, assume the common setup
        // with one main board and one power board
        tlc5940.nchips = 4;
#endif

        // Default TLC5940 pin assignments.  Note that it's harmless to set
        // these to valid pins even if no TLC5940 chips are actually present,
        // since the main program won't allocate the connections if 'nchips'
        // is zero.  This means that the pins are free to be used for other
        // purposes (such as output ports) if not using TLC5940 chips.
        tlc5940.sin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC6);
        tlc5940.sclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC5);
        tlc5940.xlat = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC10);
        tlc5940.blank = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC7);        
#if TEST_KEEP_PRINTF
        tlc5940.gsclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA13);     // PTA1 is reserved for SDA printf()
#else
        tlc5940.gsclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA1);
#endif
        
        // assume no 74HC595 chips
        hc595.nchips = 0;

#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
        // for expansion board testing purposes, assume one chime board
        hc595.nchips = 1;
#endif
    
        // Default 74HC595 pin assignments.  As with the TLC5940 pins, it's
        // harmless to assign pins here even if no 74HC595 chips are used,
        // since the main program won't actually allocate the pins if 'nchips'
        // is zero.
        hc595.sin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA5);
        hc595.sclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA4);
        hc595.latch = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA12);
        hc595.ena = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD4);
        
        
        // Default IR hardware pin assignments.  On the expansion boards,
        // the sensor is connected to PTA13, and the emitter LED is on PTC9.
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
        IR.sensor = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA13);
        IR.emitter = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC9);
#else
        IR.sensor = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
        IR.emitter = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
#endif     

        // clear out all IR slots
        memset(IRCommand, 0, sizeof(IRCommand));
        for (int i = 0 ; i < MAX_IR_CODES ; ++i)
        {
            IRCommand[i].protocol = 0;
            IRCommand[i].keytype = BtnTypeNone;
        }
   
        // initially configure with no LedWiz output ports
        outPort[0].typ = PortTypeDisabled;
        
        // initially configure with no shift key
        shiftButton.idx = 0;
        shiftButton.mode = 0;
            
        // initially configure with no input buttons
        for (int i = 0 ; i < MAX_BUTTONS ; ++i)
            button[i].set(PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC), BtnTypeNone, 0);

#if STANDARD_CONFIG | TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
        // For the standard configuration, assign 24 input ports to
        // joystick buttons 1-24.  Assign the same GPIO pins used
        // in the original v1 default configuration.  For expansion
        // board testing purposes, also assign the input ports, with
        // the noted differences.
        for (int i = 0 ; i < 24 ; ++i) {
            static const int bp[] = {
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC2),  // 1
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB3),  // 2
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB2),  // 3
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB1),  // 4
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE30), // 5 
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC11), // 6 - expansion boards use PTC11 for this, since PTE22
                                        //     is reserved for a plunger connection
#elif STANDARD_CONFIG
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE22), // 6 - original standalone setup uses PTE22
#endif
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE5),  // 7
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE4),  // 8
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE3),  // 9
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE2),  // 10
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB11), // 11 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB10), // 12 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB9),  // 13
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB8),  // 14
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC12), // 15 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC13), // 16 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC16), // 17 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC17), // 18 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA16), // 19 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA17), // 20 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE31), // 21 
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD6),  // 22
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD7),  // 23
                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE1)   // 24
            };               
            button[i].set(bp[i], 
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
                // For expansion board testing only, assign the inputs
                // to keyboard keys A, B, etc.  This isn't useful; it's
                // just for testing purposes.  Note that the USB key code
                // for "A" is 4, "B" is 5, and so on sequentially through 
                // the alphabet.
                BtnTypeKey, i+4);
#elif STANDARD_CONFIG
                // For the standard configuration, assign the input to
                // joystick buttons 1-24, as in the original v1 default
                // configuration.
                BtnTypeJoystick, i+1);
#endif

        }
#endif
        
#if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
        // For testing purposes, configure the basic complement of 
        // expansion board ports.  AS MENTIONED ABOVE, THIS IS PURELY FOR
        // TESTING.  DON'T USE THIS METHOD TO CONFIGURE YOUR EXPANSION 
        // BOARDS FOR ACTUAL DEPLOYMENT.  It's much easier and cleaner
        // to use the unmodified standard build, and customize your
        // installation with the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.
        //
        // For this testing setup, we'll configure one main board, one
        // power board, and one chime board.  The *physical* ports on
        // the board are shown below.  The logical (LedWiz/DOF) numbering
        // ISN'T sequential through the physical ports, because we want
        // to arrange the DOF ports so that the most important and most
        // common toys are assigned to ports 1-32.  Those ports are
        // special because they're accessible to ALL software on the PC,
        // including older LedWiz-only software such as Future Pinball.
        // Ports above 32 are accessible only to modern DOF software,
        // like Visual Pinball and PinballX.
        //
        //   Main board
        //     TLC ports 0-15  -> flashers
        //     TLC ports 16    -> strobe
        //     TLC ports 17-31 -> flippers
        //     Dig GPIO PTC8   -> knocker (timer-protected outputs)
        //
        //   Power board:
        //     TLC ports 32-63 -> general purpose outputs
        //
        //   Chime board:
        //     HC595 ports 0-7 -> timer-protected outputs
        //
        {
            int n = 0;
            
            // 1-15 = flashers (TLC ports 0-15)
            // 16   = strobe   (TLC port 15)
            for (int i = 0 ; i < 16 ; ++i)
                outPort[n++].set(PortTypeTLC5940, i, PortFlagGamma);
            
            // 17 = knocker (PTC8)
            outPort[n++].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC8));
            
            // 18-49 = power board outputs 1-32 (TLC ports 32-63)
            for (int i = 0 ; i < 32 ; ++i)
                outPort[n++].set(PortTypeTLC5940, i+32);
            
            // 50-65 = flipper RGB (TLC ports 16-31)
            for (int i = 0 ; i < 16 ; ++i)
                outPort[n++].set(PortTypeTLC5940, i+16, PortFlagGamma);
                
            // 66-73 = chime board ports 1-8 (74HC595 ports 0-7)
            for (int i = 0 ; i < 8 ; ++i)
                outPort[n++].set(PortType74HC595, i);
                
            // set Disabled to signify end of configured outputs
            outPort[n].typ = PortTypeDisabled;
        }
#endif

#if STANDARD_CONFIG
        //
        // For the standard build, set up the original complement
        // of 22 ports from the v1 default onfiguration.  
        //
        // IMPORTANT!  As mentioned above, don't edit this file to
        // customize this for your machine.  Instead, use the unmodified
        // standard build, and customize your installation using the
        // Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.
        //
#if TEST_KEEP_PRINTF
        outPort[ 0].set(PortTypeVirtual, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC));       // port 1  = NC to keep debug printf (PTA1 is SDA UART)
        outPort[ 1].set(PortTypeVirtual, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC));       // port 2  = NC to keep debug printf (PTA2 is SDA UART)
#else
        outPort[ 0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA1));     // port 1  = PTA1
        outPort[ 1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA2));     // port 2  = PTA2
#endif
        outPort[ 2].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD4));     // port 3  = PTD4
        outPort[ 3].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA12));    // port 4  = PTA12
        outPort[ 4].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA4));     // port 5  = PTA4
        outPort[ 5].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA5));     // port 6  = PTA5
        outPort[ 6].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA13));    // port 7  = PTA13
        outPort[ 7].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD5));     // port 8  = PTD5
        outPort[ 8].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD0));     // port 9  = PTD0
        outPort[ 9].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD3));     // port 10 = PTD3
        outPort[10].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD2));     // port 11 = PTD2
        outPort[11].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC8));     // port 12 = PTC8
        outPort[12].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC9));     // port 13 = PTC9
        outPort[13].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC7));     // port 14 = PTC7
        outPort[14].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC0));     // port 15 = PTC0
        outPort[15].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC3));     // port 16 = PTC3
        outPort[16].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC4));     // port 17 = PTC4
        outPort[17].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC5));     // port 18 = PTC5
        outPort[18].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC6));     // port 19 = PTC6
        outPort[19].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC10));    // port 20 = PTC10
        outPort[20].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC11));    // port 21 = PTC11
        outPort[21].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE0));     // port 22 = PTE0
#endif
    }        
    
    // --- USB DEVICE CONFIGURATION ---
    
    // USB device identification - vendor ID and product ID.  For LedLWiz
    // emulation, use vendor ID 0xFAFA and product ID 0x00EF + unit#, where
    // unit# is the nominal LedWiz unit number from 1 to 16.  Alternatively,
    // if LedWiz emulation isn't desired or causes any driver conflicts on
    // the host, we have a private Pinscape assignment as vendor ID 0x1209 
    // and product ID 0xEAEA (registered with http://pid.codes, a registry
    // for open-source USB projects).
    uint16_t usbVendorID;
    uint16_t usbProductID;
    
    // Pinscape Controller unit number.  This is the nominal unit number,
    // from 1 to 16.  We report this in the status query; DOF uses it to
    // distinguish among Pinscape units.  Note that this doesn't affect 
    // the LedWiz unit numbering, which is implied by the USB Product ID.
    uint8_t psUnitNo;
            
    // Are joystick reports enabled?  Joystick reports can be turned off, to
    // use the device as purely an output controller.
    uint8_t joystickEnabled;
    
    // Timeout for rebooting the KL25Z when the connection is lost.  On some
    // hosts, the mbed USB stack has problems reconnecting after an initial
    // connection is dropped.  As a workaround, we can automatically reboot
    // the KL25Z when it detects that it's no longer connected, after the
    // interval set here expires.  The timeout is in seconds; setting this
    // to 0 disables the automatic reboot.
    uint8_t disconnectRebootTimeout;
    
    // --- ACCELEROMETER ---
    struct
    {
        // accelerometer orientation (OrientationXxx value)
        uint8_t orientation;
    
        // dynamic range (AccelRangeXxx value)
        uint8_t range;
    
        // Auto-centering mode:
        //   0 = auto-centering on, 5-second timer
        //   1-60 = auto-centering on with the given timer in seconds
        //   255 = auto-centering off
        uint8_t autoCenterTime;
    
    } accel;
    
    
    // --- EXPANSION BOARDS ---
    struct
    {
        uint8_t typ;        // expansion board set type:
                            //    1 -> Pinscape expansion boards
        uint8_t vsn;        // board set interface version
        uint8_t ext[3];     // board set type-specific extended data
        
    } expan;
    
    
    // --- PLUNGER CONFIGURATION ---
    struct
    {
        // Plunger enabled/disabled.  Note that we use the status flag
        // bit 0x01 if enabled, 0x00 if disabled.  This conveniently
        // can be tested as though it's a bool, but should always be
        // stored as 0x01 or 0x00 so that it can be OR'ed into the
        // status report flag bits.
        uint8_t enabled;

        // plunger sensor type
        uint8_t sensorType;
    
        // Plunger sensor pins.  To accommodate a wide range of sensor types,
        // we keep a generic list of 4 pin assignments.  The use of each pin
        // varies by sensor.  The lists below are in order of the generic
        // pins; NC means that the pin isn't used by the sensor.  Each pin's
        // GPIO usage is also listed.  Certain usages limit which physical
        // pins can be assigned (e.g., AnalogIn or PwmOut).
        //
        // TSL1410R/1412R, serial:    SI (DigitalOut), CLK (DigitalOut), AO (AnalogIn),  NC
        // TSL1410R/1412R, parallel:  SI (DigitalOut), CLK (DigitalOut), AO1 (AnalogIn), AO2 (AnalogIn)
        // Potentiometer:             AO (AnalogIn),   NC,               NC,             NC
        // AEDR8300:                  A (InterruptIn), B (InterruptIn),  NC,             NC
        // AS5304:                    A (InterruptIn), B (InterruptIn),  NC,             NC
        //
        // Note!  These are stored in uint8_t WIRE format, not PinName format.
        uint8_t sensorPin[4];
        
        // ZB LAUNCH BALL button setup.
        //
        // This configures the "ZB Launch Ball" feature in DOF, based on Zeb's (of 
        // zebsboards.com) scheme for using a mechanical plunger as a Launch button.
        // Set the port to 0 to disable the feature.
        //
        // The port number is an LedWiz port number that we monitor for activation.
        // This port isn't meant to be connected to a physical device, although it
        // can be if desired.  It's primarily to let the host tell the controller
        // when the ZB Launch feature is active.  The port numbering starts at 1;
        // set this to zero to disable the feature.
        //
        // The key type and code has the same meaning as for a button mapping.  This
        // sets the key input sent to the PC when the plunger triggers a launch when
        // the mode is active.  For example, set keytype=2 and keycode=0x28 to send
        // the Enter key (which is the key almost all PC pinball software uses for
        // plunger and Launch button input).
        //
        // The "push distance" is the distance, in 1/1000 inch units, for registering a 
        // push on the plunger as a button push.  If the player pushes the plunger 
        // forward of the rest position by this amount, we'll treat it as pushing the 
        // button, even if the player didn't pull back the plunger first.  This lets 
        // the player treat the plunger knob as a button for games where it's meaningful
        // to hold down the Launch button for specific intervals (e.g., "Championship 
        // Pub").
        struct
        {
            uint8_t port;
            uint8_t keytype;
            uint8_t keycode;
            uint16_t pushDistance;
        
        } zbLaunchBall;
           
        // --- PLUNGER CALIBRATION ---
        struct
        {
            // has the plunger been calibrated?
            bool calibrated;
            
            // Feature enable mask:
            //
            //  0x01 = calibration button enabled
            //  0x02 = indicator light enabled
            uint8_t features;
        
            // calibration button switch pin
            uint8_t btn;
        
            // calibration button indicator light pin
            uint8_t led;
            
            // Plunger calibration min, zero, and max.  These are in terms of the
            // unsigned 16-bit scale (0x0000..0xffff) that we use for the raw sensor
            // readings.
            //
            // The zero point is the rest position (aka park position), where the
            // plunger is in equilibrium between the main spring and the barrel 
            // spring.  In the standard setup, the plunger can travel a small 
            // distance forward of the rest position, because the barrel spring 
            // can be compressed a bit.  The minimum is the maximum forward point 
            // where the barrel spring can't be compressed any further.
            uint16_t min;
            uint16_t zero;
            uint16_t max;
            
            // Measured release time, in milliseconds.
            uint8_t tRelease;
    
            // Reset the plunger calibration
            void setDefaults()
            {
                calibrated = false;       // not calibrated
                min = 0;                  // assume we can go all the way forward...
                max = 0xffff;             // ...and all the way back
                zero = max/6;             // the rest position is usually around 1/2" back = 1/6 of total travel
                tRelease = 65;            // standard 65ms release time
            }
            
            // Begin calibration.  This sets each limit to the worst
            // case point - for example, we set the retracted position
            // to all the way forward.  Each actual reading that comes
            // in is then checked against the current limit, and if it's
            // outside of the limit, we reset the limit to the new reading.
            void begin()
            {
                min = 0;                  // we don't calibrate the maximum forward position, so keep this at zero
                zero = 0xffff;            // set the zero position all the way back
                max = 0;                  // set the retracted position all the way forward
                tRelease = 65;            // revert to a default release time
            }

        } cal;

    } plunger;

    
    // --- TV ON SWITCH ---
    //
    // To use the TV ON switch feature, the special power sensing circuitry
    // implemented on the Expansion Board must be attached (or an equivalent
    // circuit, as described in the Build Guide).  The circuitry lets us
    // detect power state changes on the secondary power supply.
    struct 
    {
        // PSU2 power status sense (DigitalIn pin).  This pin goes LOW when the
        // secondary power supply is turned off, and remains LOW until the LATCH
        // pin is raised high AND the secondary PSU is turned on.  Once HIGH,
        // it remains HIGH as long as the secondary PSU is on.
        uint8_t statusPin;
    
        // PSU2 power status latch (DigitalOut pin)
        uint8_t latchPin;
        
        // TV ON relay pin (DigitalOut pin).  This pin controls the TV switch 
        // relay.  Raising the pin HIGH turns the relay ON (energizes the coil).
        uint8_t relayPin;
        
        // TV ON delay time, in 1/100 second units.  This is the interval between 
        // sensing that the secondary power supply has turned on and pulsing the 
        // TV ON switch relay.  
        int delayTime;
    
    } TVON;
    
    // --- Night Mode ---
    struct
    {
        uint8_t btn;        // night mode button number (1..MAX_BUTTONS, 0 = no button)
        uint8_t flags;      // flags:
                            //    0x01 = on/off switch (if not set, it's a momentary button)
        uint8_t port;       // indicator output port number (1..MAX_OUT_PORTS, 0 = no indicator)
    } nightMode;
    

    // --- TLC5940NT PWM Controller Chip Setup ---
    struct
    {
        // number of TLC5940NT chips connected in daisy chain
        int nchips;
        
        // pin connections (wire pin IDs)
        uint8_t sin;        // Serial data - must connect to SPIO MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
        uint8_t sclk;       // Serial clock - must connect to SPIO SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1
                            // (but don't use PTD1, since it's hard-wired to the on-board blue LED)
        uint8_t xlat;       // XLAT (latch) signal - connect to any GPIO pin
        uint8_t blank;      // BLANK signal - connect to any GPIO pin
        uint8_t gsclk;      // Grayscale clock - must connect to a PWM-out capable pin

    } tlc5940; 
    

    // --- 74HC595 Shift Register Setup ---
    struct
    {
        // number of 74HC595 chips attached in daisy chain
        int nchips;
        
        // pin connections
        uint8_t sin;        // Serial data - use any GPIO pin
        uint8_t sclk;       // Serial clock - use any GPIO pin
        uint8_t latch;      // Latch - use any GPIO pin
        uint8_t ena;        // Enable signal - use any GPIO pin
    
    } hc595;
    
    
    // --- IR Remote Control Hardware Setup ---
    struct
    {
        // sensor (receiver) GPIO input pin; must be interrupt-capable
        uint8_t sensor;
        
        // IR emitter LED GPIO output pin; must be PWM-capable
        uint8_t emitter;
    } IR;
    
    
    // --- Button Input Setup ---
    ButtonCfg button[MAX_BUTTONS + VIRTUAL_BUTTONS] __attribute__((packed));
    
    // Shift button.  This can be used to give each physical button a
    // second meaning.
    struct
    {
        // Shift button index, 1..MAX_BUTTONS.  If this is zero, there's
        // no shift button.
        uint8_t idx;
        
        // Shift button mode.  If the shift button has a key mapping or
        // IR command assigned, this determines what happens when the 
        // shift button is pressed in combination with another key.
        //
        // 0 = Shift OR Key mode.  In this mode, when you initially press
        // the shift button, nothing happens.  Instead, we wait to see if
        // any other buttons are pressed.  If so, we use the shifted meaning
        // of the other button, and we DON'T send the shift button's key or
        // IR command at all.  
        //
        // 1 = Shift AND Key mode.  In this mode, the shift button acts like
        // any other button: its assigned key is sent to the PC as soon as
        // you press it.  If you also press another button while the shift
        // button is down, the shifted meaning of the other button is used.
        //
        // Mode 0, the "OR" mode, is the default.  This allows a button with
        // a key assignment to do double duty as the shift button without
        // creating any confusing situations where the shift button's own
        // key is also sent to the PC during shift usage.  
        uint8_t mode;
    
    } shiftButton;

    // --- LedWiz Output Port Setup ---
    LedWizPortCfg outPort[MAX_OUT_PORTS] __attribute__ ((packed));  // LedWiz & extended output ports 

    // --- IR Command Slots ---
    IRCommandCfg IRCommand[MAX_IR_CODES] __attribute__ ((packed));
};

#endif