An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

USBJoystick/USBJoystick.cpp

Committer:
mjr
Date:
12 months ago
Revision:
109:310ac82cbbee
Parent:
108:bd5d4bd4383b

File content as of revision 109:310ac82cbbee:

/* Copyright (c) 2010-2011 mbed.org, MIT License
* Modified Mouse code for Joystick - WH 2012
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software
* and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without
* restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
* distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
* Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or
* substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
* BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
* NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
* DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
*/
 
#include "stdint.h"
#include "USBJoystick.h"

#include "config.h"  // Pinscape configuration



// Maximum report sizes
const int MAX_REPORT_JS_TX = USBJoystick::reportLen;
const int MAX_REPORT_JS_RX = 8;
const int MAX_REPORT_KB_TX = 8;
const int MAX_REPORT_KB_RX = 4;

bool USBJoystick::update(int16_t x, int16_t y, int16_t z, uint32_t buttons, uint16_t status) 
{
   _x = x;
   _y = y;
   _z = z;
   _buttonsLo = (uint16_t)(buttons & 0xffff);
   _buttonsHi = (uint16_t)((buttons >> 16) & 0xffff);
   _status = status;
 
   // send the report
   return update();
}

bool USBJoystick::update() 
{
   HID_REPORT report;

   // Fill the report according to the Joystick Descriptor
#define put(idx, val) (report.data[idx] = (val) & 0xff, report.data[(idx)+1] = ((val) >> 8) & 0xff)
#define putbe(idx, val) (report.data[(idx)+1] = (val) & 0xff, report.data[idx] = ((val) >> 8) & 0xff)
#define putl(idx, val) (put(idx, val), put((idx)+2, (val) >> 16))
#define putlbe(idx, val) (putbe((idx)+2, val), putbe(idx, (val) >> 16))
#define put64(idx, val) (putl(idx, val), putl((idx)+4, (val) >> 32))
   put(0, _status);
   put(2, 0);  // second word of status - zero in high bit identifies as normal joystick report
   put(4, _buttonsLo);
   put(6, _buttonsHi);
   put(8, _x);
   put(10, _y);
   put(12, _z);
   
   // important: keep reportLen in sync with the actual byte length of
   // the reports we build here
   report.length = reportLen;
 
   // send the report
   return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::kbUpdate(uint8_t data[8])
{
    // set up the report
    HID_REPORT report;
    report.data[0] = REPORT_ID_KB;      // report ID = keyboard
    memcpy(&report.data[1], data, 8);   // copy the kb report data
    report.length = 9;                  // length = ID prefix + kb report length
    
    // send it to endpoint 4 (the keyboard interface endpoint)
    return writeTO(EP4IN, report.data, report.length, MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::mediaUpdate(uint8_t data)
{
    // set up the report
    HID_REPORT report;
    report.data[0] = REPORT_ID_MEDIA;   // report ID = media
    report.data[1] = data;              // key pressed bits
    report.length = 2;
    
    // send it
    return writeTO(EP4IN, report.data, report.length, MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT, 100);
}
 
bool USBJoystick::sendPlungerStatus(
    int npix, int plungerPos, int flags, uint32_t avgScanTime, uint32_t processingTime)
{
    HID_REPORT report;
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate it's an extended
    // exposure report.
    put(0, 0x87FF);
    
    // start at the second byte
    int ofs = 2;
    
    // write the report subtype (0) to byte 2
    report.data[ofs++] = 0;

    // write the number of pixels to bytes 3-4
    put(ofs, uint16_t(npix));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // write the detected plunger position to bytes 5-6
    put(ofs, uint16_t(plungerPos));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // Add the calibration mode flag if applicable
    extern bool plungerCalMode;
    if (plungerCalMode) flags |= 0x04;
    
    // write the flags to byte 7
    report.data[ofs++] = flags;
    
    // write the average scan time in 10us intervals to bytes 8-10
    uint32_t t = uint32_t(avgScanTime / 10);
    report.data[ofs++] = t & 0xff;
    report.data[ofs++] = (t >> 8) & 0xff;
    report.data[ofs++] = (t >> 16) & 0xff;
    
    // write the processing time to bytes 11-13
    t = uint32_t(processingTime / 10);
    report.data[ofs++] = t & 0xff;
    report.data[ofs++] = (t >> 8) & 0xff;
    report.data[ofs++] = (t >> 16) & 0xff;
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::sendPlungerStatus2(
    int nativeScale, 
    int jitterLo, int jitterHi, int rawPos,
    int axcTime)
{
    HID_REPORT report;
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate it's an extended
    // exposure report.
    put(0, 0x87FF);
    
    // start at the second byte
    int ofs = 2;
    
    // write the report subtype (1) to byte 2
    report.data[ofs++] = 1;

    // write the native scale to bytes 3:4
    put(ofs, uint16_t(nativeScale));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // limit the jitter filter bounds to the native scale
    if (jitterLo < 0) 
        jitterLo = 0;
    else if (jitterLo > nativeScale) 
        jitterLo = nativeScale;
    if (jitterHi < 0)
        jitterHi = 0;
    else if (jitterHi > nativeScale)
        jitterHi = nativeScale;
    
    // write the jitter filter window bounds to 5:6 and 7:8
    put(ofs, uint16_t(jitterLo));
    ofs += 2;
    put(ofs, uint16_t(jitterHi));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // add the raw position
    put(ofs, uint16_t(rawPos));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // add the auto-exposure time
    put(ofs, uint16_t(axcTime));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::sendPlungerStatusBarcode(
        int nbits, int codetype, int startOfs, int pixPerBit, int raw, int mask)
{
    HID_REPORT report;
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate it's an extended
    // status report for barcode sensors
    put(0, 0x87FF);
    
    // start at the second byte
    int ofs = 2;
    
    // write the report subtype (2) to byte 2
    report.data[ofs++] = 2;

    // write the bit count and code type
    report.data[ofs++] = nbits;
    report.data[ofs++] = codetype;
    
    // write the bar code starting pixel offset
    put(ofs, uint16_t(startOfs));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // write the pixel width per bit
    report.data[ofs++] = pixPerBit;
    
    // write the raw bar code and success bit mask
    put(ofs, uint16_t(raw));
    ofs += 2;
    put(ofs, uint16_t(mask));
    ofs += 2;
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::sendPlungerStatusQuadrature(int chA, int chB)
{
    HID_REPORT report;
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // set the status bits to indicate that it's an extended
    // status report for quadrature sensors
    put(0, 0x87FF);
    int ofs = 2;
    
    // write the report subtype (3)
    report.data[ofs++] = 3;
    
    // write the channel "A" and channel "B" values
    report.data[ofs++] = static_cast<uint8_t>(chA);
    report.data[ofs++] = static_cast<uint8_t>(chB);
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}


bool USBJoystick::sendPlungerPix(int &idx, int npix, const uint8_t *pix)
{
    HID_REPORT report;
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate it's an exposure report.
    // The high 5 bits of the status word are set to 10000, and the
    // low 11 bits are the current pixel index.
    uint16_t s = idx | 0x8000;
    put(0, s);
    
    // start at the second byte
    int ofs = 2;
    
    // now fill out the remaining bytes with exposure values
    report.length = reportLen;
    for ( ; ofs < report.length ; ++ofs)
        report.data[ofs] = (idx < npix ? pix[idx++] : 0);
    
    // send the report
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::reportID(int index)
{
    HID_REPORT report;

    // initially fill the report with zeros
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate that it's an ID report
    uint16_t s = 0x9000;
    put(0, s);
    
    // add the requested ID index
    report.data[2] = (uint8_t)index;
    
    // figure out which ID we're reporting
    switch (index)
    {
    case 1:
        // KL25Z CPU ID
        putbe(3, SIM->UIDMH);
        putlbe(5, SIM->UIDML);
        putlbe(9, SIM->UIDL);
        break;
        
    case 2:
        // OpenSDA ID.  Copy the low-order 80 bits of the OpenSDA ID.
        // (The stored value is 128 bits = 16 bytes; we only want the last
        // 80 bits = 10 bytes.  So skip ahead 16 and back up 10 to get
        // the starting point.)
        extern const char *getOpenSDAID();
        memcpy(&report.data[3], getOpenSDAID() + 16 - 10, 10);
        break;
    }
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::reportBuildInfo(const char *date)
{
    HID_REPORT report;

    // initially fill the report with zeros
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate that it's a build
    // info report
    uint16_t s = 0xA000;
    put(0, s);
    
    // Parse the date.  This is given in the standard __DATE__ " " __TIME
    // macro format, "Mon dd yyyy hh:mm:ss" (e.g., "Feb 16 2016 12:15:06").
    static const char mon[][4] = {
        "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr", "May", "Jun", 
        "Jul", "Aug", "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec" 
    };
    long dd = (atol(date + 7) * 10000L) // YYYY0000
        + (atol(date + 4));             // 000000DD
    for (int i = 0 ; i < 12 ; ++i)
    {
        if (memcmp(mon[i], date, 3) == 0)
        {
            dd += (i+1)*100;         // 0000MM00
            break;
        }
    }
    
    // parse the time into a long formatted as decimal HHMMSS (e.g.,
    // "12:15:06" turns into 121506 decimal)
    long tt = (atol(date+12)*10000)
        + (atol(date+15)*100)
        + (atol(date+18));
    
    // store the build date and time
    putl(2, dd);
    putl(6, tt);
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::reportConfigVar(const uint8_t *data)
{
    HID_REPORT report;

    // initially fill the report with zeros
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate that it's a config 
    // variable report
    uint16_t s = 0x9800;
    put(0, s);
    
    // Copy the variable data (7 bytes, starting with the variable ID)
    memcpy(report.data + 2, data, 7);
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::reportConfig(
    int numOutputs, int unitNo, 
    int plungerZero, int plungerMax, int plungerRlsTime,
    bool configured, bool sbxpbx, bool newAccelFeatures, 
    bool flashStatusFeature, bool reportTimingFeatures,
    bool chimeLogicFeature, size_t freeHeapBytes)
{
    HID_REPORT report;

    // initially fill the report with zeros
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // Set the special status bits to indicate that it's a config report.
    uint16_t s = 0x8800;
    put(0, s);
    
    // write the number of configured outputs
    put(2, numOutputs);
    
    // write the unit number
    put(4, unitNo);
    
    // write the plunger zero and max values
    put(6, plungerZero);
    put(8, plungerMax);
    report.data[10] = uint8_t(plungerRlsTime);
    
    // write the status bits: 
    //  0x01  -> configuration loaded
    //  0x02  -> SBX/PBX protocol extensions supported
    //  0x04  -> new accelerometer features supported
    //  0x08  -> flash status feature supported
    //  0x10  -> joystick report timing features supported
    //  0x20  -> chime logic feature supported
    report.data[11] = 
        (configured ? 0x01 : 0x00)
        | (sbxpbx ? 0x02 : 0x00)
        | (newAccelFeatures ? 0x04 : 0x00)
        | (flashStatusFeature ? 0x08 : 0x00)
        | (reportTimingFeatures ? 0x10 : 0x00)
        | (chimeLogicFeature ? 0x20 : 0x00);
    
    // write the free heap space
    put(12, freeHeapBytes);

    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

// report physical button status
bool USBJoystick::reportButtonStatus(int numButtons, const uint8_t *state)
{
    // initially fill the report with zeros
    HID_REPORT report;
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // set the special status bits to indicate that it's a buton report
    uint16_t s = 0xA100;
    put(0, s);
    
    // write the number of buttons
    report.data[2] = uint8_t(numButtons);
    
    // Write the buttons - these are packed into ceil(numButtons/8) bytes.
    size_t btnBytes = (numButtons+7)/8;
    if (btnBytes + 3 > reportLen) btnBytes = reportLen - 3;
    memcpy(&report.data[3], state, btnBytes);
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

// report raw IR timing codes (for learning mode)
bool USBJoystick::reportRawIR(int n, const uint16_t *data)
{
    // initially fill the report with zeros
    HID_REPORT report;
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // set the special status bits to indicate that it's an IR report
    uint16_t s = 0xA200;
    put(0, s);
    
    // limit the number of items reported to the available space
    if (n > maxRawIR)
        n = maxRawIR;
    
    // write the number of codes
    report.data[2] = uint8_t(n);
    
    // write the codes
    for (int i = 0, ofs = 3 ; i < n ; ++i, ofs += 2)
        put(ofs, data[i]);
    
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

// report a decoded IR command
bool USBJoystick::reportIRCode(uint8_t pro, uint8_t flags, uint64_t code)
{
    // initially fill the report with zeros
    HID_REPORT report;
    memset(report.data, 0, sizeof(report.data));
    
    // set the special status bits to indicate that it's an IR report
    uint16_t s = 0xA200;
    put(0, s);
    
    // set the raw count to 0xFF to flag that it's a decoded command
    report.data[2] = 0xFF;
    
    // write the data
    report.data[3] = pro;
    report.data[4] = flags;
    put64(5, code);
        
    // send the report
    report.length = reportLen;
    return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

bool USBJoystick::move(int16_t x, int16_t y) 
{
     _x = x;
     _y = y;
     return update();
}

bool USBJoystick::setZ(int16_t z) 
{
    _z = z;
    return update();
}
 
bool USBJoystick::buttons(uint32_t buttons) 
{
     _buttonsLo = (uint16_t)(buttons & 0xffff);
     _buttonsHi = (uint16_t)((buttons >> 16) & 0xffff);
     return update();
}

bool USBJoystick::updateStatus(uint32_t status)
{
   HID_REPORT report;

   // Fill the report according to the Joystick Descriptor
   memset(report.data, 0, reportLen);
   put(0, status);
   report.length = reportLen;
 
   // send the report
   return sendTO(&report, 100);
}

void USBJoystick::_init() {
 
   _x = 0;                       
   _y = 0;     
   _z = 0;
   _buttonsLo = 0x0000;
   _buttonsHi = 0x0000;
   _status = 0;
}
 
 
// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// USB HID Report Descriptor - Joystick
//
static const uint8_t reportDescriptorJS[] = 
{         
    USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x01,            // Generic desktop
    USAGE(1), 0x04,                 // Joystick
    COLLECTION(1), 0x01,            // Application
    
        // input report (device to host)
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x06,        // generic device controls - for config status
        USAGE(1), 0x00,             // undefined device control
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,   // 8-bit values
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0xFF,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,       // 8 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x04,      // 4 reports (4 bytes)
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute

        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x09,        // Buttons
        USAGE_MINIMUM(1), 0x01,     // { buttons }
        USAGE_MAXIMUM(1), 0x20,     // {  1-32   }
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,   // 1-bit buttons - 0...
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0x01,   // ...to 1
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x01,       // 1 bit per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x20,      // 32 reports
        UNIT_EXPONENT(1), 0x00,     // Unit_Exponent (0)
        UNIT(1), 0x00,              // Unit (None)                                           
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute
       
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x01,        // Generic desktop
        USAGE(1), 0x30,             // X axis
        USAGE(1), 0x31,             // Y axis
        USAGE(1), 0x32,             // Z axis
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(2), 0x00,0xF0,   // each value ranges -4096
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(2), 0x00,0x10,   // ...to +4096
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x10,       // 16 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x03,      // 3 reports (X, Y, Z)
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute
         
        // output report (host to device)
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,       // 8 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x08,      // output report count - 8-byte LedWiz format
        0x09, 0x01,                 // usage
        0x91, 0x01,                 // Output (array)

    END_COLLECTION(0)
};

// Joystick report descriptor with "R" axis reports.  This version
// uses Rx and Ry for the accelerometer readings and Rz for the
// plunger, instead of the standard X/Y/Z axes.  This can be used
// to avoid conflicts with other devices reporting on the normal
// X/Y/Z axes.
static const uint8_t reportDescriptorJS_RXRYRZ[] = 
{         
    USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x01,            // Generic desktop
    USAGE(1), 0x04,                 // Joystick
    COLLECTION(1), 0x01,            // Application
    
        // input report (device to host)
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x06,        // generic device controls - for config status
        USAGE(1), 0x00,             // undefined device control
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,   // 8-bit values
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0xFF,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,       // 8 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x04,      // 4 reports (4 bytes)
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute

        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x09,        // Buttons
        USAGE_MINIMUM(1), 0x01,     // { buttons }
        USAGE_MAXIMUM(1), 0x20,     // {  1-32   }
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,   // 1-bit buttons - 0...
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0x01,   // ...to 1
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x01,       // 1 bit per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x20,      // 32 reports
        UNIT_EXPONENT(1), 0x00,     // Unit_Exponent (0)
        UNIT(1), 0x00,              // Unit (None)                                           
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute
       
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x01,        // Generic desktop
        USAGE(1), 0x33,             // Rx axis ("X rotation")
        USAGE(1), 0x34,             // Ry axis
        USAGE(1), 0x35,             // Rz axis
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(2), 0x00,0xF0,   // each value ranges -4096
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(2), 0x00,0x10,   // ...to +4096
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x10,       // 16 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x03,      // 3 reports (X, Y, Z)
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute
         
        // output report (host to device)
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,       // 8 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x08,      // output report count - 8-byte LedWiz format
        0x09, 0x01,                 // usage
        0x91, 0x01,                 // Output (array)

    END_COLLECTION(0)
};


// 
// USB HID Report Descriptor - Keyboard/Media Control
//
static const uint8_t reportDescriptorKB[] = 
{
    USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x01,                    // Generic Desktop
    USAGE(1), 0x06,                         // Keyboard
    COLLECTION(1), 0x01,                    // Application
        REPORT_ID(1), REPORT_ID_KB,

        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x07,                    // Key Codes
        USAGE_MINIMUM(1), 0xE0,
        USAGE_MAXIMUM(1), 0xE7,
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x08,
        INPUT(1), 0x02,                         // Data, Variable, Absolute
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,
        INPUT(1), 0x01,                         // Constant

        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x05,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x01,
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x08,                    // LEDs
        USAGE_MINIMUM(1), 0x01,
        USAGE_MAXIMUM(1), 0x05,
        OUTPUT(1), 0x02,                        // Data, Variable, Absolute
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x03,
        OUTPUT(1), 0x01,                        // Constant

        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x06,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0xA4,
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x07,                    // Key Codes
        USAGE_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,
        USAGE_MAXIMUM(1), 0xA4,
        INPUT(1), 0x00,                         // Data, Array
    END_COLLECTION(0),

    // Media Control
    USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x0C,
    USAGE(1), 0x01,
    COLLECTION(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_ID(1), REPORT_ID_MEDIA,
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x0C,
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x01,
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x07,
        USAGE(1), 0xE2,             // Mute -> 0x01
        USAGE(1), 0xE9,             // Volume Up -> 0x02
        USAGE(1), 0xEA,             // Volume Down -> 0x04
        USAGE(1), 0xB5,             // Next Track -> 0x08
        USAGE(1), 0xB6,             // Previous Track -> 0x10
        USAGE(1), 0xB7,             // Stop -> 0x20
        USAGE(1), 0xCD,             // Play / Pause -> 0x40
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Input (Data, Variable, Absolute) -> 0x80
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x01,
        INPUT(1), 0x01,
    END_COLLECTION(0),
};

// 
// USB HID Report Descriptor - LedWiz only, with no joystick or keyboard
// input reporting
//
static const uint8_t reportDescriptorLW[] = 
{         
    USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x01,            // Generic desktop
    USAGE(1), 0x00,                 // Undefined

    COLLECTION(1), 0x01,            // Application
     
        // input report (device to host)
        USAGE_PAGE(1), 0x06,        // generic device controls - for config status
        USAGE(1), 0x00,             // undefined device control
        LOGICAL_MINIMUM(1), 0x00,   // 8-bit values
        LOGICAL_MAXIMUM(1), 0xFF,
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,       // 8 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), USBJoystick::reportLen, // standard report length (same as if we were in joystick mode)
        INPUT(1), 0x02,             // Data, Variable, Absolute

        // output report (host to device)
        REPORT_SIZE(1), 0x08,       // 8 bits per report
        REPORT_COUNT(1), 0x08,      // output report count (LEDWiz messages)
        0x09, 0x01,                 // usage
        0x91, 0x01,                 // Output (array)

    END_COLLECTION(0)
};


const uint8_t *USBJoystick::reportDesc(int idx, uint16_t &len) 
{    
    switch (idx)
    {
    case 0:
        // If the joystick is enabled, this is the joystick.
        // Otherwise, it's the plain LedWiz control interface.
        if (enableJoystick)
        {
            switch (axisFormat)
            {
            case AXIS_FORMAT_XYZ:
            default:
                len = sizeof(reportDescriptorJS);
                return reportDescriptorJS;
                
            case AXIS_FORMAT_RXRYRZ:
                len = sizeof(reportDescriptorJS_RXRYRZ);
                return reportDescriptorJS_RXRYRZ;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            len = sizeof(reportDescriptorLW);
            return reportDescriptorLW;
        }
        
    case 1:
        // This is the keyboard, if enabled.
        if (useKB)
        {
            len = sizeof(reportDescriptorKB);
            return reportDescriptorKB;
        }
        else
        {
            len = 0;
            return 0;
        }
        
    default:
        // Unknown interface ID
        len = 0;
        return 0;
    }
} 
 
 const uint8_t *USBJoystick::stringImanufacturerDesc() {
    static const uint8_t stringImanufacturerDescriptor[] = {
        0x0E,                                            /* bLength */
        STRING_DESCRIPTOR,                               /* bDescriptorType 0x03 (String Descriptor) */
        'm',0,'j',0,'r',0,'n',0,'e',0,'t',0              /* bString iManufacturer - mjrnet */
    };
    return stringImanufacturerDescriptor;
}

const uint8_t *USBJoystick::stringIserialDesc() 
{
    // set up a buffer with space for the length prefix byte, descriptor type
    // byte, and serial number (as a wide-character string)
    const int numChars = 3 + 16 + 1 + 1 + 3;
    static uint8_t buf[2 + numChars*2];
    uint8_t *dst = buf;
    
    // store a placeholder for the length, followed by the descriptor type byte
    *dst++ = 0;
    *dst++ = STRING_DESCRIPTOR;

    // Create an ASCII version of our unique serial number string:
    //
    //   PSCxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxi[a]vvv
    //
    // where:
    //   
    //   xxx... = decimal representation of low 64 bits of CPU ID (16 hex digits)
    //   i      = interface type:  first character is J if joystick is enabled,
    //             L = LedWiz/control interface only, no input
    //             J = Joystick + LedWiz
    //             K = Keyboard + LedWiz
    //             C = Joystick + Keyboard + LedWiz ("C" for combo)
    //   a      = joystick axis types:
    //             <empty> = X,Y,Z, or no joystick interface at all
    //             A       = Rx,Ry,Rz
    //   vvv    = version suffix
    //
    // The suffix for the interface type resolves a problem on some Windows systems
    // when switching between interface types.  Windows can cache device information
    // that includes the interface descriptors, and it won't recognize a change in
    // the interfaces once the information is cached, causing connection failures.
    // The cache key includes the device serial number, though, so this can be 
    // resolved by changing the serial number when the interface setup changes.
    char xbuf[numChars + 1];
    uint32_t x = SIM->UIDML;
    static char ifcCode[] = "LJKC";
    static const char *axisCode[] = { "", "A" };
    sprintf(xbuf, "PSC%08lX%08lX%c%s008",
        SIM->UIDML, 
        SIM->UIDL, 
        ifcCode[(enableJoystick ? 0x01 : 0x00) | (useKB ? 0x02 : 0x00)],
        axisCode[(enableJoystick ? axisFormat : 0)]);

    // copy the ascii bytes into the descriptor buffer, converting to unicode
    // 16-bit little-endian characters
    for (char *src = xbuf ; *src != '\0' && dst < buf + sizeof(buf) ; )
    {
        *dst++ = *src++;
        *dst++ = '\0';
    }
    
    // store the final length (in bytes) in the length prefix byte
    buf[0] = dst - buf;
    
    // return the buffer    
    return buf;
}

const uint8_t *USBJoystick::stringIproductDesc() {
    static const uint8_t stringIproductDescriptor[] = {
        0x28,                                                       /*bLength*/
        STRING_DESCRIPTOR,                                          /*bDescriptorType 0x03*/
        'P',0,'i',0,'n',0,'s',0,'c',0,'a',0,'p',0,'e',0,
        ' ',0,'C',0,'o',0,'n',0,'t',0,'r',0,'o',0,'l',0,
        'l',0,'e',0,'r',0                                           /*String iProduct */
    };
    return stringIproductDescriptor;
}

#define DEFAULT_CONFIGURATION (1)

const uint8_t *USBJoystick::configurationDesc() 
{
    int rptlen0 = reportDescLength(0);
    int rptlen1 = reportDescLength(1);
    if (useKB)
    {
        const int cfglenKB = 
            ((1 * CONFIGURATION_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH)
             + (2 * INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH)
             + (2 * HID_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH)
             + (4 * ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH));
        static uint8_t configurationDescriptorWithKB[] = 
        {
            CONFIGURATION_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,// bLength
            CONFIGURATION_DESCRIPTOR,       // bDescriptorType
            LSB(cfglenKB),                  // wTotalLength (LSB)
            MSB(cfglenKB),                  // wTotalLength (MSB)
            0x02,                           // bNumInterfaces - TWO INTERFACES (JOYSTICK + KEYBOARD)
            DEFAULT_CONFIGURATION,          // bConfigurationValue
            0x00,                           // iConfiguration
            C_RESERVED | C_SELF_POWERED,    // bmAttributes
            C_POWER(0),                     // bMaxPower
        
            // ***** INTERFACE 0 - JOYSTICK/LEDWIZ ******
            INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,    // bLength
            INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR,           // bDescriptorType
            0x00,                           // bInterfaceNumber
            0x00,                           // bAlternateSetting
            0x02,                           // bNumEndpoints
            HID_CLASS,                      // bInterfaceClass
            HID_SUBCLASS_NONE,              // bInterfaceSubClass
            HID_PROTOCOL_NONE,              // bInterfaceProtocol
            0x00,                           // iInterface
        
            HID_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,          // bLength
            HID_DESCRIPTOR,                 // bDescriptorType
            LSB(HID_VERSION_1_11),          // bcdHID (LSB)
            MSB(HID_VERSION_1_11),          // bcdHID (MSB)
            0x00,                           // bCountryCode
            0x01,                           // bNumDescriptors
            REPORT_DESCRIPTOR,              // bDescriptorType
            LSB(rptlen0),                   // wDescriptorLength (LSB)
            MSB(rptlen0),                   // wDescriptorLength (MSB)
        
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,     // bLength
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR,            // bDescriptorType
            PHY_TO_DESC(EPINT_IN),          // bEndpointAddress - EPINT == EP1
            E_INTERRUPT,                    // bmAttributes
            LSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (LSB)
            MSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (MSB)
            1,                              // bInterval (milliseconds)
        
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,     // bLength
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR,            // bDescriptorType
            PHY_TO_DESC(EPINT_OUT),         // bEndpointAddress - EPINT == EP1
            E_INTERRUPT,                    // bmAttributes
            LSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (LSB)
            MSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (MSB)
            1,                              // bInterval (milliseconds)
            
            // ****** INTERFACE 1 - KEYBOARD ******
            INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,    // bLength
            INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR,           // bDescriptorType
            0x01,                           // bInterfaceNumber
            0x00,                           // bAlternateSetting
            0x02,                           // bNumEndpoints
            HID_CLASS,                      // bInterfaceClass
            HID_SUBCLASS_BOOT,              // bInterfaceSubClass
            HID_PROTOCOL_KB,                // bInterfaceProtocol
            0x00,                           // iInterface
        
            HID_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,          // bLength
            HID_DESCRIPTOR,                 // bDescriptorType
            LSB(HID_VERSION_1_11),          // bcdHID (LSB)
            MSB(HID_VERSION_1_11),          // bcdHID (MSB)
            0x00,                           // bCountryCode
            0x01,                           // bNumDescriptors
            REPORT_DESCRIPTOR,              // bDescriptorType
            LSB(rptlen1),                   // wDescriptorLength (LSB)
            MSB(rptlen1),                   // wDescriptorLength (MSB)
        
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,     // bLength
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR,            // bDescriptorType
            PHY_TO_DESC(EP4IN),             // bEndpointAddress
            E_INTERRUPT,                    // bmAttributes
            LSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (LSB)
            MSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (MSB)
            1,                              // bInterval (milliseconds)
        
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,     // bLength
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR,            // bDescriptorType
            PHY_TO_DESC(EP4OUT),            // bEndpointAddress
            E_INTERRUPT,                    // bmAttributes
            LSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (LSB)
            MSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (MSB)
            1,                              // bInterval (milliseconds)

        };

        // Keyboard + joystick interfaces
        return configurationDescriptorWithKB;
    }
    else
    {
        // No keyboard - joystick interface only
        const int cfglenNoKB = 
            ((1 * CONFIGURATION_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH)
              + (1 * INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH)
              + (1 * HID_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH)
              + (2 * ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH));
        static uint8_t configurationDescriptorNoKB[] = 
        {
            CONFIGURATION_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,// bLength
            CONFIGURATION_DESCRIPTOR,       // bDescriptorType
            LSB(cfglenNoKB),                // wTotalLength (LSB)
            MSB(cfglenNoKB),                // wTotalLength (MSB)
            0x01,                           // bNumInterfaces
            DEFAULT_CONFIGURATION,          // bConfigurationValue
            0x00,                           // iConfiguration
            C_RESERVED | C_SELF_POWERED,    // bmAttributes
            C_POWER(0),                     // bMaxPower
        
            INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,    // bLength
            INTERFACE_DESCRIPTOR,           // bDescriptorType
            0x00,                           // bInterfaceNumber
            0x00,                           // bAlternateSetting
            0x02,                           // bNumEndpoints
            HID_CLASS,                      // bInterfaceClass
            HID_SUBCLASS_NONE,              // bInterfaceSubClass
            HID_PROTOCOL_NONE,              // bInterfaceProtocol (keyboard)
            0x00,                           // iInterface
        
            HID_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,          // bLength
            HID_DESCRIPTOR,                 // bDescriptorType
            LSB(HID_VERSION_1_11),          // bcdHID (LSB)
            MSB(HID_VERSION_1_11),          // bcdHID (MSB)
            0x00,                           // bCountryCode
            0x01,                           // bNumDescriptors
            REPORT_DESCRIPTOR,              // bDescriptorType
            (uint8_t)(LSB(rptlen0)),        // wDescriptorLength (LSB)
            (uint8_t)(MSB(rptlen0)),        // wDescriptorLength (MSB)
        
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,     // bLength
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR,            // bDescriptorType
            PHY_TO_DESC(EPINT_IN),          // bEndpointAddress
            E_INTERRUPT,                    // bmAttributes
            LSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (LSB)
            MSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (MSB)
            1,                              // bInterval (milliseconds)
        
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR_LENGTH,     // bLength
            ENDPOINT_DESCRIPTOR,            // bDescriptorType
            PHY_TO_DESC(EPINT_OUT),         // bEndpointAddress
            E_INTERRUPT,                    // bmAttributes
            LSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (LSB)
            MSB(MAX_PACKET_SIZE_EPINT),     // wMaxPacketSize (MSB)
            1                               // bInterval (milliseconds)
        };

        return configurationDescriptorNoKB;
    }
}

// Set the configuration.  We need to set up the endpoints for
// our active interfaces.
bool USBJoystick::USBCallback_setConfiguration(uint8_t configuration) 
{
    // we only have one valid configuration
    if (configuration != DEFAULT_CONFIGURATION)
        return false;
        
    // Configure endpoint 1 - we use this in all cases, for either
    // the combined joystick/ledwiz interface or just the ledwiz interface
    addEndpoint(EPINT_IN, MAX_REPORT_JS_TX + 1);
    addEndpoint(EPINT_OUT, MAX_REPORT_JS_RX + 1);
    readStart(EPINT_OUT, MAX_REPORT_JS_TX + 1);
    
    // if the keyboard is enabled, configure endpoint 4 for the kb interface
    if (useKB)
    {
        addEndpoint(EP4IN, MAX_REPORT_KB_TX + 1);
        addEndpoint(EP4OUT, MAX_REPORT_KB_RX + 1);
        readStart(EP4OUT, MAX_REPORT_KB_TX + 1);
    }

    // success
    return true;
}

// Handle incoming messages on the joystick/LedWiz interface = endpoint 1.
// This interface receives LedWiz protocol commands and commands using our
// custom LedWiz protocol extensions.
//
// We simply queue the messages in our circular buffer for processing in 
// the main loop.  The circular buffer object is designed for safe access
// from the interrupt handler using the rule that only the interrupt 
// handler can change the write pointer, and only the regular code can
// change the read pointer.
bool USBJoystick::EP1_OUT_callback()
{
    // Read this message
    union {
        LedWizMsg msg;
        uint8_t buf[MAX_HID_REPORT_SIZE];
    } buf;
    uint32_t bytesRead = 0;
    USBDevice::readEP(EP1OUT, buf.buf, &bytesRead, MAX_HID_REPORT_SIZE);
    
    // if it's the right length, queue it to our circular buffer
    if (bytesRead == 8)
        lwbuf.write(buf.msg);

    // start the next read
    return readStart(EP1OUT, MAX_HID_REPORT_SIZE);
}

// Handle incoming messages on the keyboard interface = endpoint 4.
// The host uses this to send updates for the keyboard indicator LEDs
// (caps lock, num lock, etc).  We don't do anything with these, but
// we have to read them to keep the pipe open.
bool USBJoystick::EP4_OUT_callback() 
{
    // read this message
    uint32_t bytesRead = 0;
    uint8_t led[MAX_HID_REPORT_SIZE];
    USBDevice::readEP(EP4OUT, led, &bytesRead, MAX_HID_REPORT_SIZE);

    // start the next read
    return readStart(EP4OUT, MAX_HID_REPORT_SIZE);
}