An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Revision:
53:9b2611964afc
Parent:
52:8298b2a73eb2
Child:
54:fd77a6b2f76c
--- a/config.h	Sat Mar 05 00:16:52 2016 +0000
+++ b/config.h	Fri Apr 22 17:58:35 2016 +0000
@@ -26,7 +26,6 @@
 #ifndef CONFIG_H
 #define CONFIG_H
 
-
 // Plunger type codes
 // NOTE!  These values are part of the external USB interface.  New
 // values can be added, but the meaning of an existing assigned number 
@@ -49,11 +48,9 @@
 const int OrientationRear      = 3;      // ports pointed toward back of cabinet
 
 // input button types
+const int BtnTypeNone          = 0;      // unused
 const int BtnTypeJoystick      = 1;      // joystick button
-const int BtnTypeKey           = 2;      // regular keyboard key
-const int BtnTypeModKey        = 3;      // keyboard modifier key (shift, ctrl, etc)
-const int BtnTypeMedia         = 4;      // media control key (volume up/down, etc)
-const int BtnTypeSpecial       = 5;      // special button (night mode switch, etc)
+const int BtnTypeKey           = 2;      // keyboard key
 
 // input button flags
 const uint8_t BtnFlagPulse     = 0x01;   // pulse mode - reports each change in the physical switch state
@@ -64,7 +61,10 @@
 {
     uint8_t pin;        // physical input GPIO pin - a USB-to-PinName mapping index
     uint8_t typ;        // key type reported to PC - a BtnTypeXxx value
-    uint8_t val;        // key value reported - meaning depends on 'typ' value
+    uint8_t val;        // key value reported - meaning depends on 'typ' value:
+                        //   none     -> no PC input reports (val is unused)
+                        //   joystick -> val is joystick button number (1..32)
+                        //   keyboard -> val is USB scan code
     uint8_t flags;      // key flags - a bitwise combination of BtnFlagXxx values
 
     void set(uint8_t pin, uint8_t typ, uint8_t val, uint8_t flags = 0)
@@ -79,7 +79,10 @@
     
 
 // maximum number of input button mappings
-const int MAX_BUTTONS = 32;
+const int MAX_EXT_BUTTONS = 32;             // buttons visible through USB interface
+const int VIRTUAL_BUTTONS = 1;              // number of internal virtual buttons
+const int ZBL_BUTTON = MAX_EXT_BUTTONS;     // index of virtual ZB Launch Ball button
+const int MAX_BUTTONS = MAX_EXT_BUTTONS + VIRTUAL_BUTTONS;  // total button slots
 
 // LedWiz output port type codes
 // These values are part of the external USB interface
@@ -88,7 +91,8 @@
 const int PortTypeGPIODig      = 2;      // GPIO port, digital out
 const int PortTypeTLC5940      = 3;      // TLC5940 port
 const int PortType74HC595      = 4;      // 74HC595 port
-const int PortTypeVirtual      = 5;      // Virtual port - visible to host software, but not connected to a physical output
+const int PortTypeVirtual      = 5;      // Virtual port - visible to host software, but not connected 
+                                         //  to a physical output
 
 // LedWiz output port flag bits
 const uint8_t PortFlagActiveLow  = 0x01; // physical output is active-low
@@ -118,6 +122,11 @@
 } __attribute__((packed));
 
 
+// Convert a physical pin name to a wire pin name
+#define PINNAME_TO_WIRE(p) \
+    uint8_t((p) == NC ? 0xFF : \
+      (((p) & 0xF000 ) >> (PORT_SHIFT - 5)) | (((p) & 0xFF) >> 2))
+
 struct Config
 {
     // set all values to factory defaults
@@ -146,9 +155,9 @@
         orientation = OrientationFront;
 
         // assume a basic setup with no expansion boards
-        expan.nMain = 0;
-        expan.nPower = 0;
-        expan.nChime = 0;
+        expan.typ = 0;
+        expan.vsn = 0;
+        memset(expan.ext, 0, sizeof(expan.ext));
 
         // assume no plunger is attached
         plunger.enabled = false;
@@ -157,34 +166,41 @@
 #if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN || TEST_CONFIG_CAB // $$$
         plunger.enabled = true;
         plunger.sensorType = PlungerType_TSL1410RS;
-        plunger.sensorPin[0] = PTE20; // SI
-        plunger.sensorPin[1] = PTE21; // SCLK
-        plunger.sensorPin[2] = PTB0;  // AO1 = PTB0 = ADC0_SE8
-        plunger.sensorPin[3] = PTE22; // AO2 (parallel mode) = PTE22 = ADC0_SE3
+        plunger.sensorPin[0] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE20); // SI
+        plunger.sensorPin[1] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE21); // SCLK
+        plunger.sensorPin[2] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB0);  // AO1 = PTB0 = ADC0_SE8
+        plunger.sensorPin[3] = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE22); // AO2 (parallel mode) = PTE22 = ADC0_SE3
 #endif
         
         // default plunger calibration button settings
-        plunger.cal.btn = PTE29;
-        plunger.cal.led = PTE23;
+        plunger.cal.btn = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE29);
+        plunger.cal.led = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE23);
         
         // set the default plunger calibration
         plunger.cal.setDefaults();
         
         // disable the ZB Launch Ball by default
-        plunger.zbLaunchBall.port = 0;
-        plunger.zbLaunchBall.btn = 0;
+        plunger.zbLaunchBall.port = 0;                  // 0 = disabled
+        plunger.zbLaunchBall.keytype = 2;               // keyboard key
+        plunger.zbLaunchBall.keycode = 0x28;            // Enter key (USB scan code)
+        plunger.zbLaunchBall.pushDistance = 63;         // about 1/16"
         
         // assume no TV ON switch
-        TVON.statusPin = NC;
-        TVON.latchPin = NC;
-        TVON.relayPin = NC;
-        TVON.delayTime = 7;
+        TVON.statusPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
+        TVON.latchPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
+        TVON.relayPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC);
+        TVON.delayTime = 700;   // 7 seconds
 #if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN //$$$
-        TVON.statusPin = PTD2;
-        TVON.latchPin = PTE0;
-        TVON.relayPin = PTD3;
-        TVON.delayTime = 7;
+        TVON.statusPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD2);
+        TVON.latchPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE0);
+        TVON.relayPin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD3);
+        TVON.delayTime = 700;   // 7 seconds
 #endif
+
+        // assume no night mode switch or indicator lamp
+        nightMode.btn = 0;
+        nightMode.flags = 0;
+        nightMode.port = 0;
         
         // assume no TLC5940 chips
         tlc5940.nchips = 0;
@@ -193,11 +209,11 @@
 #endif
 
         // default TLC5940 pin assignments
-        tlc5940.sin = PTC6;
-        tlc5940.sclk = PTC5;
-        tlc5940.xlat = PTC10;
-        tlc5940.blank = PTC7;
-        tlc5940.gsclk = PTA1;
+        tlc5940.sin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC6);
+        tlc5940.sclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC5);
+        tlc5940.xlat = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC10);
+        tlc5940.blank = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC7);
+        tlc5940.gsclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA1);
         
         // assume no 74HC595 chips
         hc595.nchips = 0;
@@ -206,57 +222,55 @@
 #endif
     
         // default 74HC595 pin assignments
-        hc595.sin = PTA5;
-        hc595.sclk = PTA4;
-        hc595.latch = PTA12;
-        hc595.ena = PTD4;
+        hc595.sin = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA5);
+        hc595.sclk = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA4);
+        hc595.latch = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA12);
+        hc595.ena = PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD4);
         
         // initially configure with no LedWiz output ports
         outPort[0].typ = PortTypeDisabled;
-        for (int i = 0 ; i < sizeof(specialPort)/sizeof(specialPort[0]) ; ++i)
-            specialPort[i].typ = PortTypeDisabled;
-        
+            
         // initially configure with no input buttons
         for (int i = 0 ; i < MAX_BUTTONS ; ++i)
-            button[i].pin = 0;   // 0 == index of NC in USB-to-PinName mapping
+            button[i].set(PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC), BtnTypeNone, 0);
 
 #if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN | TEST_CONFIG_CAB
         for (int i = 0 ; i < 24 ; ++i) {
             static int bp[] = {
-                21, // 1 = PTC2
-                12, // 2 = PTB3
-                11, // 3 = PTB2
-                10, // 4 = PTB1
-                54, // 5 = PTE30
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC2),  // 1
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB3),  // 2
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB2),  // 3
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB1),  // 4
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE30), // 5 
 #if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
-                30, // 6 = PTC11
-#elif TEST_CONFIG_CAG
-                51, // 6 = PTE22
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC11), // 6 
+#elif TEST_CONFIG_CAB
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE22), // 6 
 #endif
-                48, // 7 = PTE5
-                47, // 8 = PTE4
-                46, // 9 = PTE3
-                45, // 10 = PTE2
-                16, // 11 = PTB11
-                15, // 12 = PTB10
-                14, // 13 = PTB9
-                13, // 14 = PTB8
-                31, // 15 = PTC12
-                32, // 16 = PTC13
-                33, // 17 = PTC16
-                34, // 18 = PTC17
-                7,  // 19 = PTA16
-                8,  // 20 = PTA17
-                55, // 21 = PTE31
-                41, // 22 = PTD6
-                42, // 23 = PTD7
-                44  // 24 = PTE1
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE5),  // 7
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE4),  // 8
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE3),  // 9
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE2),  // 10
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB11), // 11 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB10), // 12 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB9),  // 13
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTB8),  // 14
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC12), // 15 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC13), // 16 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC16), // 17 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC17), // 18 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA16), // 19 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA17), // 20 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE31), // 21 
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD6),  // 22
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD7),  // 23
+                PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE1)   // 24
             };               
             button[i].set(bp[i], 
 #if TEST_CONFIG_EXPAN
                 BtnTypeKey, i+4);       // keyboard key A, B, C... 
 #elif TEST_CONFIG_CAB
-                BtnTypeJoystick, i);    // joystick button 0, 1, ...
+                BtnTypeJoystick, i+1);  // joystick button 0, 1, ...
 #endif
 
         }
@@ -268,13 +282,13 @@
         button[23].flags = 0x01;  // pulse button
         
         button[22].typ = BtnTypeModKey;
-        button[22].val = 0x02;  // left shift
+        button[22].val = 0xE1;  // left shift
         
-        button[21].typ = BtnTypeMedia;
-        button[21].val = 0x02;  // vol down
+        button[21].typ = BtnTypeKey;
+        button[21].val = 0x81;  // vol down
         
-        button[20].typ = BtnTypeMedia;
-        button[20].val = 0x01;  // vol up
+        button[20].typ = BtnTypeKey;
+        button[20].val = 0x80;  // vol up
         
 #endif
         
@@ -304,8 +318,8 @@
             for (int i = 0 ; i < 16 ; ++i)
                 outPort[n++].set(PortTypeTLC5940, i, PortFlagGamma);
             
-            // 17 = knocker
-            outPort[n++].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 27);
+            // 17 = knocker (PTC8)
+            outPort[n++].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC8));
             
             // 18-49 = power board outputs 1-32 (TLC ports 32-63)
             for (int i = 0 ; i < 32 ; ++i)
@@ -326,39 +340,39 @@
 
 #if TEST_CONFIG_CAB
 #if TEST_KEEP_PRINTF
-        outPort[ 0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 0);     // port 1  = PTA1 -> NC to keep debug printf
-        outPort[ 1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 0);     // port 2  = PTA2 -> NC to keep debug printf
+        outPort[ 0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC));       // port 1  = NC to keep debug printf (PTA1 is UART)
+        outPort[ 1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(NC));       // port 2  = NC to keep debug printf (PTA2 is UART)
 #else
-        outPort[ 0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 1);     // port 1  = PTA1
-        outPort[ 1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 2);     // port 2  = PTA2
+        outPort[ 0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA1));     // port 1  = PTA1
+        outPort[ 1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA2));     // port 2  = PTA2
 #endif
-        outPort[ 2].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 39);    // port 3  = PTD4
-        outPort[ 3].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 5);     // port 4  = PTA12
-        outPort[ 4].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 3);     // port 5  = PTA4
-        outPort[ 5].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 4);     // port 6  = PTA5
-        outPort[ 6].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 6);     // port 7  = PTA13
-        outPort[ 7].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 40);    // port 8  = PTD5
-        outPort[ 8].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 35);    // port 9  = PTD0
-        outPort[ 9].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 38);    // port 10 = PTD3
-        outPort[10].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 37);    // port 11 = PTD2
-        outPort[11].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 27);    // port 12 = PCT8
-        outPort[12].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 28);    // port 13 = PCT9
-        outPort[13].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 26);    // port 14 = PTC7
-        outPort[14].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 19);    // port 15 = PTC0
-        outPort[15].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 22);    // port 16 = PTC3
-        outPort[16].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 23);    // port 17 = PTC4
-        outPort[17].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 24);    // port 18 = PTC5
-        outPort[18].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 25);    // port 19 = PTC6
-        outPort[19].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 29);    // port 20 = PTC10
-        outPort[20].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 30);    // port 21 = PTC11
-        outPort[21].set(PortTypeGPIODig, 43);    // port 22 = PTE0
+        outPort[ 2].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD4));     // port 3  = PTD4
+        outPort[ 3].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA12));    // port 4  = PTA12
+        outPort[ 4].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA4));     // port 5  = PTA4
+        outPort[ 5].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA5));     // port 6  = PTA5
+        outPort[ 6].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTA13));    // port 7  = PTA13
+        outPort[ 7].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD5));     // port 8  = PTD5
+        outPort[ 8].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD0));     // port 9  = PTD0
+        outPort[ 9].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD3));     // port 10 = PTD3
+        outPort[10].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTD2));     // port 11 = PTD2
+        outPort[11].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC8));     // port 12 = PTC8
+        outPort[12].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC9));     // port 13 = PTC9
+        outPort[13].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC7));     // port 14 = PTC7
+        outPort[14].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC0));     // port 15 = PTC0
+        outPort[15].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC3));     // port 16 = PTC3
+        outPort[16].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC4));     // port 17 = PTC4
+        outPort[17].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC5));     // port 18 = PTC5
+        outPort[18].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC6));     // port 19 = PTC6
+        outPort[19].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC10));    // port 20 = PTC10
+        outPort[20].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTC11));    // port 21 = PTC11
+        outPort[21].set(PortTypeGPIODig, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(PTE0));     // port 22 = PTE0
 #endif
 
 #if 0
         // configure the on-board RGB LED as outputs 1,2,3
-        outPort[0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 17, PortFlagActiveLow);     // PTB18 = LED1 = Red LED
-        outPort[1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 18, PortFlagActiveLow);     // PTB19 = LED2 = Green LED
-        outPort[2].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, 36, PortFlagActiveLow);     // PTD1  = LED3 = Blue LED
+        outPort[0].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(LED1), PortFlagActiveLow);     // PTB18 = LED1 = Red LED
+        outPort[1].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(LED2), PortFlagActiveLow);     // PTB19 = LED2 = Green LED
+        outPort[2].set(PortTypeGPIOPWM, PINNAME_TO_WIRE(LED3), PortFlagActiveLow);     // PTD1  = LED3 = Blue LED
         outPort[3].typ = PortTypeDisabled;
 #endif
     }        
@@ -377,7 +391,7 @@
     
     // Pinscape Controller unit number.  This is the nominal unit number,
     // from 1 to 16.  We report this in the status query; DOF uses it to
-    // distinguish multiple Pinscape units.  Note that this doesn't affect 
+    // distinguish among Pinscape units.  Note that this doesn't affect 
     // the LedWiz unit numbering, which is implied by the USB Product ID.
     uint8_t psUnitNo;
             
@@ -402,9 +416,10 @@
     // --- EXPANSION BOARDS ---
     struct
     {
-        int nMain;      // number of main interface boards (usually 1 max)
-        int nPower;     // number of MOSFET power boards
-        int nChime;     // number of chime boards
+        uint8_t typ;        // expansion board set type:
+                            //    1 -> Pinscape expansion boards
+        uint8_t vsn;        // board set interface version
+        uint8_t ext[3];     // board set type-specific extended data
         
     } expan;
     
@@ -430,21 +445,27 @@
         // Potentiometer:             AO (AnalogIn),   NC,               NC,             NC
         // AEDR8300:                  A (InterruptIn), B (InterruptIn),  NC,             NC
         // AS5304:                    A (InterruptIn), B (InterruptIn),  NC,             NC
-        PinName sensorPin[4];
+        //
+        // Note!  These are stored in uint8_t WIRE format, not PinName format.
+        uint8_t sensorPin[4];
         
-        // Pseudo LAUNCH BALL button.  
+        // ZB LAUNCH BALL button setup.
         //
         // This configures the "ZB Launch Ball" feature in DOF, based on Zeb's (of 
         // zebsboards.com) scheme for using a mechanical plunger as a Launch button.
         // Set the port to 0 to disable the feature.
         //
         // The port number is an LedWiz port number that we monitor for activation.
-        // This port isn't connected to a physical device; rather, the host turns it
-        // on to indicate that the pseudo Launch button mode is in effect.  
+        // This port isn't meant to be connected to a physical device, although it
+        // can be if desired.  It's primarily to let the host tell the controller
+        // when the ZB Launch feature is active.  The port numbering starts at 1;
+        // set this to zero to disable the feature.
         //
-        // The button number gives the button that we "press" when a launch occurs.
-        // This can be connected to the physical Launch button, or can simply be
-        // an otherwise unused button.
+        // The key type and code has the same meaning as for a button mapping.  This
+        // sets the key input sent to the PC when the plunger triggers a launch when
+        // the mode is active.  For example, set keytype=2 and keycode=0x28 to send
+        // the Enter key (which is the key almost all PC pinball software uses for
+        // plunger and Launch button input).
         //
         // The "push distance" is the distance, in 1/1000 inch units, for registering a 
         // push on the plunger as a button push.  If the player pushes the plunger 
@@ -455,9 +476,10 @@
         // Pub").
         struct
         {
-            int port;
-            int btn;
-            int pushDistance;
+            uint8_t port;
+            uint8_t keytype;
+            uint8_t keycode;
+            uint16_t pushDistance;
         
         } zbLaunchBall;
            
@@ -465,13 +487,13 @@
         struct
         {
             // has the plunger been calibrated?
-            int calibrated;
+            bool calibrated;
         
             // calibration button switch pin
-            PinName btn;
+            uint8_t btn;
         
             // calibration button indicator light pin
-            PinName led;
+            uint8_t led;
             
             // Plunger calibration min, zero, and max.  These are in terms of the
             // unsigned 16-bit scale (0x0000..0xffff) that we use for the raw sensor
@@ -530,14 +552,14 @@
         // secondary power supply is turned off, and remains LOW until the LATCH
         // pin is raised high AND the secondary PSU is turned on.  Once HIGH,
         // it remains HIGH as long as the secondary PSU is on.
-        PinName statusPin;
+        uint8_t statusPin;
     
         // PSU2 power status latch (DigitalOut pin)
-        PinName latchPin;
+        uint8_t latchPin;
         
         // TV ON relay pin (DigitalOut pin).  This pin controls the TV switch 
         // relay.  Raising the pin HIGH turns the relay ON (energizes the coil).
-        PinName relayPin;
+        uint8_t relayPin;
         
         // TV ON delay time, in 1/100 second units.  This is the interval between 
         // sensing that the secondary power supply has turned on and pulsing the 
@@ -546,6 +568,15 @@
     
     } TVON;
     
+    // --- Night Mode ---
+    struct
+    {
+        uint8_t btn;        // night mode button number (1..MAX_BUTTONS, 0=disabled)
+        uint8_t flags;      // flags:
+                            //    0x01 = on/off switch (if not set, it's a momentary button)
+        uint8_t port;       // indicator output port number (1..MAX_OUT_PORTS, 0=disabled)
+    } nightMode;
+    
 
     // --- TLC5940NT PWM Controller Chip Setup ---
     struct
@@ -553,13 +584,13 @@
         // number of TLC5940NT chips connected in daisy chain
         int nchips;
         
-        // pin connections
-        PinName sin;        // Serial data - must connect to SPIO MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
-        PinName sclk;       // Serial clock - must connect to SPIO SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1
+        // pin connections (wire pin IDs)
+        uint8_t sin;        // Serial data - must connect to SPIO MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
+        uint8_t sclk;       // Serial clock - must connect to SPIO SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1
                             // (but don't use PTD1, since it's hard-wired to the on-board blue LED)
-        PinName xlat;       // XLAT (latch) signal - connect to any GPIO pin
-        PinName blank;      // BLANK signal - connect to any GPIO pin
-        PinName gsclk;      // Grayscale clock - must connect to a PWM-out capable pin
+        uint8_t xlat;       // XLAT (latch) signal - connect to any GPIO pin
+        uint8_t blank;      // BLANK signal - connect to any GPIO pin
+        uint8_t gsclk;      // Grayscale clock - must connect to a PWM-out capable pin
 
     } tlc5940; 
     
@@ -571,10 +602,10 @@
         int nchips;
         
         // pin connections
-        PinName sin;        // Serial data - use any GPIO pin
-        PinName sclk;       // Serial clock - use any GPIO pin
-        PinName latch;      // Latch - use any GPIO pin
-        PinName ena;        // Enable signal - use any GPIO pin
+        uint8_t sin;        // Serial data - use any GPIO pin
+        uint8_t sclk;       // Serial clock - use any GPIO pin
+        uint8_t latch;      // Latch - use any GPIO pin
+        uint8_t ena;        // Enable signal - use any GPIO pin
     
     } hc595;
 
@@ -584,7 +615,6 @@
 
     // --- LedWiz Output Port Setup ---
     LedWizPortCfg outPort[MAX_OUT_PORTS] __attribute__((packed));  // LedWiz & extended output ports 
-    LedWizPortCfg specialPort[1];          // special ports (Night Mode indicator, etc)
 
 };