An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

--- a/main.cpp	Fri Mar 01 23:53:59 2019 +0000
+++ b/main.cpp	Sat Mar 02 21:05:43 2019 +0000
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 * substantial portions of the Software.
@@ -1066,12 +1066,9 @@
     // for the PWM duty cycle of the physical output.
     uint8_t params;
-    // Full-power time mapping.  This maps from the 4-bit (0..15) time value
-    // in the parameters to the number of microseconds.
-    static const uint32_t paramToTime_us[];
-    // Figure the initial full-power time in microseconds
-    inline uint32_t fullPowerTime_us() const { return paramToTime_us[params >> 4]; }
+    // Figure the initial full-power time in microseconds: 50ms * (1+N),
+    // where N is the high 4 bits of the parameter byte.
+    inline uint32_t fullPowerTime_us() const { return 50000*(1 + ((params >> 4) & 0x0F)); }
     // Figure the hold power PWM level (0-255) 
     inline uint8_t holdPower() const { return (params & 0x0F) * 17; }
@@ -1093,37 +1090,15 @@
 Timer LwFlipperLogicOut::timer;
 LwFlipperLogicOut **LwFlipperLogicOut::pending;
 uint8_t LwFlipperLogicOut::nPending;
-const uint32_t LwFlipperLogicOut::paramToTime_us[] = {
-    1000, 
-    2000,
-    5000, 
-    10000, 
-    20000, 
-    40000, 
-    80000, 
-    100000, 
-    150000, 
-    200000, 
-    300000, 
-    400000, 
-    500000, 
-    600000, 
-    700000, 
-    800000
-// Minimum On Time output.  This is a filter output that we layer on
-// a physical output to force the underlying output to stay on for a
-// minimum interval.  This can be used for devices that need to be on
-// for a certain amount of time to trigger their full effect, such as
-// slower solenoids or contactors.
-class LwMinTimeOut: public LwOut
+// Chime Logic.  This is a filter output that we layer on a physical
+// output to set a minimum and maximum ON time for the output. 
+class LwChimeLogicOut: public LwOut
-    // Set up the output.  'param' is the configuration parameter
-    // for the mininum time span.
-    LwMinTimeOut(LwOut *o, uint8_t param)
-        : out(o), param(param)
+    // Set up the output.  'params' encodes the minimum and maximum time.
+    LwChimeLogicOut(LwOut *o, uint8_t params)
+        : out(o), params(params)
         // initially OFF
         state = 0;
@@ -1190,13 +1165,42 @@
         case 3: 
-            // We're out of the minimum ON interval, so we can set any new
-            // level, including fully off.  Pass the new power level through
-            // to the port.
+            // We're after the minimum ON interval and before the maximum
+            // ON time limit.  We can set any new level, including fully off.  
+            // Pass the new power level through to the port.
             // if the port is now off, return to state 0 (OFF)
             if (level == 0)
+            {
+                // return to the OFF state
+                state = 0;
+                // If we have a timer pending, remove it.  A timer will be
+                // pending if we have a non-infinite maximum on time for the
+                // port.
+                for (int i = 0 ; i < nPending ; ++i)
+                {
+                    // is this us?
+                    if (pending[i] == this)
+                    {
+                        // remove myself by replacing the slot with the
+                        // last list entry
+                        pending[i] = pending[--nPending];
+                        // no need to look any further
+                        break;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+            break;
+        case 4:
+            // We're after the maximum ON time.  The physical port stays off
+            // during this interval, so we don't pass any changes through to
+            // the physical port.  When the client sets the level to 0, we
+            // turn off the logical port and reset to state 0.
+            if (level == 0)
                 state = 0;
@@ -1213,12 +1217,12 @@
             // if this port is active and marked as Flipper Logic, count it
             if (cfg.outPort[i].typ != PortTypeDisabled
-                && (cfg.outPort[i].flags & PortFlagMinOnTime) != 0)
+                && (cfg.outPort[i].flags & PortFlagChimeLogic) != 0)
         // allocate space for the pending timer list
-        pending = new LwMinTimeOut*[n];
+        pending = new LwChimeLogicOut*[n];
         // there's nothing in the pending list yet
         nPending = 0;
@@ -1239,27 +1243,36 @@
         for (int i = 0 ; i < nPending ; )
             // get the port
-            LwMinTimeOut *port = pending[i];
+            LwChimeLogicOut *port = pending[i];
             // assume we'll keep it
             bool remove = false;
-            // check if we're in the minimum ON period for the port
-            if (port->state == 1 || port->state == 2)
+            // check our state
+            switch (port->state)
-                // we are - check if the minimum ON time has elapsed
+            case 1:  // initial minimum ON time, port logically on
+            case 2:  // initial minimum ON time, port logically off
+                // check if the minimum ON time has elapsed
                 if (uint32_t(t - port->t0) > port->minOnTime_us())
                     // This port has completed its initial ON interval, so
                     // it advances to the next state. 
                     if (port->state == 1)
-                        // The port is logically on, so advance to state 3,
-                        // "on past minimum initial time".  The underlying
-                        // port is already at its proper level, since we pass
-                        // through non-zero power settings to the underlying
-                        // port throughout the initial ON interval.
+                        // The port is logically on, so advance to state 3.
+                        // The underlying port is already at its proper level, 
+                        // since we pass through non-zero power settings to the 
+                        // underlying port throughout the initial minimum time.
+                        // The timer stays active into state 3.
                         port->state = 3;
+                        // Special case: maximum on time 0 means "infinite".
+                        // There's no need for a timer in this case; we'll
+                        // just stay in state 3 until the client turns the
+                        // port off.
+                        if (port->maxOnTime_us() == 0)
+                            remove = true;
@@ -1272,11 +1285,29 @@
                         // return to state 0 (OFF)
                         port->state = 0;
+                        // we're done with the timer
+                        remove = true;
+                }
+                break;
+            case 3:  // between minimum ON time and maximum ON time
+                // check if the maximum ON time has expired
+                if (uint32_t(t - port->t0) > port->maxOnTime_us())
+                {
+                    // The maximum ON time has expired.  Turn off the physical
+                    // port.
+                    port->out->set(0);
-                    // we're done with the timer
+                    // Switch to state 4 (logically ON past maximum time)
+                    port->state = 4;
+                    // Remove the timer on this port.  This port simply stays
+                    // in state 4 until the client turns off the port.
                     remove = true;
+                break;                
             // if desired, remove the port from the timer list
@@ -1308,14 +1339,36 @@
     // Current port state:
     //  0 = off
-    //  1 = initial minimum ON interval, logical port is ON
-    //  2 = initial minimum ON interval, logical port is OFF
-    //  3 = past the minimum ON interval
+    //  1 = in initial minimum ON interval, logical port is on
+    //  2 = in initial minimum ON interval, logical port is off
+    //  3 = in interval between minimum and maximum ON times
+    //  4 = after the maximum ON interval
+    //
+    // The "logical" on/off state of the port is the state set by the 
+    // client.  The "physical" state is the state of the underlying port.
+    // The relationships between logical and physical port state, and the 
+    // effects of updates by the client, are as follows:
+    //
+    //    State | Logical | Physical | Client set on | Client set off
+    //    -----------------------------------------------------------
+    //      0   |   Off   |   Off    | phys on, -> 1 |   no effect
+    //      1   |   On    |   On     |   no effect   |     -> 2
+    //      2   |   Off   |   On     |     -> 1      |   no effect
+    //      3   |   On    |   On     |   no effect   | phys off, -> 0
+    //      4   |   On    |   On     |   no effect   | phys off, -> 0
+    //      
+    // The polling routine makes the following transitions when the current
+    // time limit expires:
+    //
+    //   1: at end of minimum ON, -> 3 (or 4 if max == infinity)
+    //   2: at end of minimum ON, port off, -> 0
+    //   3: at end of maximum ON, port off, -> 4
     uint8_t state;
-    // Configuration parameter.  This encodes the minimum ON time.
-    uint8_t param;
+    // Configuration parameters byte.  This encodes the minimum and maximum
+    // ON times.
+    uint8_t params;
     // Timer.  This is a shared timer for all of the minimum ON time ports.
     // When we transition from OFF to ON, we note the current time on this 
@@ -1325,22 +1378,30 @@
     // translaton table from timing parameter in config to minimum ON time
     static const uint32_t paramToTime_us[];
-    // Figure the minimum ON time
-    inline uint32_t minOnTime_us() const { return paramToTime_us[param & 0x0F]; }
+    // Figure the minimum ON time.  The minimum ON time is given by the
+    // low-order 4 bits of the parameters byte, which serves as an index
+    // into our time table.
+    inline uint32_t minOnTime_us() const { return paramToTime_us[params & 0x0F]; }
+    // Figure the maximum ON time.  The maximum time is the high 4 bits
+    // of the parameters byte.  This is an index into our time table, but
+    // 0 has the special meaning "infinite".
+    inline uint32_t maxOnTime_us() const { return paramToTime_us[((params >> 4) & 0x0F)]; }
     // Pending timer list.  Whenever one of our ports transitions from OFF
     // to ON, we add it to this list.  We scan this list in our polling
     // routine to find ports that have reached the ends of their initial
     // ON intervals.
-    static LwMinTimeOut **pending;
+    static LwChimeLogicOut **pending;
     static uint8_t nPending;
 // Min Time Out statics
-Timer LwMinTimeOut::timer;
-LwMinTimeOut **LwMinTimeOut::pending;
-uint8_t LwMinTimeOut::nPending;
-const uint32_t LwMinTimeOut::paramToTime_us[] = {
+Timer LwChimeLogicOut::timer;
+LwChimeLogicOut **LwChimeLogicOut::pending;
+uint8_t LwChimeLogicOut::nPending;
+const uint32_t LwChimeLogicOut::paramToTime_us[] = {
+    0,          // for the max time, this means "infinite"
@@ -1349,7 +1410,6 @@
-    150000, 
@@ -1847,7 +1907,7 @@
     int activeLow = flags & PortFlagActiveLow;
     int gamma = flags & PortFlagGamma;
     int flipperLogic = flags & PortFlagFlipperLogic;
-    int hasMinOnTime = flags & PortFlagMinOnTime;
+    int chimeLogic = flags & PortFlagChimeLogic;
     // cancel gamma on flipper logic ports
     if (flipperLogic)
@@ -1964,9 +2024,11 @@
     if (flipperLogic)
         lwp = new LwFlipperLogicOut(lwp, pc.flipperLogic);
-    // Layer on the Minimum On Time if desired
-    if (hasMinOnTime)
-        lwp = new LwMinTimeOut(lwp, pc.minOnTime);
+    // Layer on Chime Logic if desired.  Note that Chime Logic and
+    // Flipper Logic are mutually exclusive, and Flipper Logic takes
+    // precedence, so ignore the Chime Logic bit if both are set.
+    if (chimeLogic && !flipperLogic)
+        lwp = new LwChimeLogicOut(lwp, pc.flipperLogic);
     // If it's a noisemaker, layer on a night mode switch
     if (noisy)
@@ -1996,9 +2058,9 @@
 // initialize the output pin array
 void initLwOut(Config &cfg)
-    // Initialize the Flipper Logic and Minimum On Time outputs
+    // Initialize the Flipper Logic and Chime Logic outputs
-    LwMinTimeOut::classInit(cfg);
+    LwChimeLogicOut::classInit(cfg);
     // Count the outputs.  The first disabled output determines the
     // total number of ports.
@@ -6025,7 +6087,7 @@
                 true,               // we support the new accelerometer settings
                 true,               // we support the "flash write ok" status bit in joystick reports
                 true,               // we support the configurable joystick report timing features
-                true,               // we use the new flipper logic timing table
+                true,               // chime logic is supported
                 mallocBytesFree()); // remaining memory size
@@ -6609,9 +6671,9 @@
         // update PWM outputs
-        // update Flipper Logic and Min On Time outputs
+        // update Flipper Logic and Chime Logic outputs
-        LwMinTimeOut::poll();
+        LwChimeLogicOut::poll();
         // poll the accelerometer
@@ -6980,9 +7042,9 @@
                 // try to recover the connection
-                // update Flipper Logic and Min Out Time outputs
+                // update Flipper Logic and Chime Logic outputs
-                LwMinTimeOut::poll();
+                LwChimeLogicOut::poll();
                 // send TLC5940 data if necessary
                 if (tlc5940 != 0)