An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Revision:
34:6b981a2afab7
Parent:
33:d832bcab089e
Child:
35:e959ffba78fd
--- a/config.h	Wed Oct 21 21:53:07 2015 +0000
+++ b/config.h	Thu Dec 03 07:34:57 2015 +0000
@@ -425,9 +425,10 @@
 
 // Number of TLC5940 chips you're using.  For a full LedWiz-compatible
 // setup, you need two of these chips, for 32 outputs.  The software
-// will handle up to 8.  The expansion board uses 4 of these chips; if
-// you're not using the expansion board, we assume you're not using
-// any of them.
+// will handle up to 8.  
+// If you're using the expansion board, the main KL25Z interface board
+// has 2 chips and the MOSFET board has 2 more, for a total of 4.  If
+// you add extra daisy-chained MOSFET boards, add 2 more per board.
 #ifdef EXPANSION_BOARD
 # define TLC5940_NCHIPS  4
 #else
@@ -440,25 +441,41 @@
 // outputs, respectively, which effectively limits them to the default
 // selections, and that the GSCLK pin must be PWM-capable.  These defaults
 // all match the expansion board wiring.
-#define TLC5940_SIN    PTC6    // Must connect to SPI0 MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
-#define TLC5940_SCLK   PTC5    // Must connect to SPI0 SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1; however, PTD1 isn't
-                               //   recommended because it's hard-wired to the on-board blue LED
-#define TLC5940_XLAT   PTC10   // Any GPIO pin can be used
-#define TLC5940_BLANK  PTC7    // Any GPIO pin can be used
-#define TLC5940_GSCLK  PTA1    // Must be a PWM-capable pin
+#define TLC5940_SIN    PTC6    // Serial data - Must connect to SPI0 MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
+#define TLC5940_SCLK   PTC5    // Serial clock - Must connect to SPI0 SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1,
+                               //  but don't use PTD1 because it's hard-wired to the on-board 
+                               //  blue LED
+#define TLC5940_XLAT   PTC10   // XLAT (latch) signal - Any GPIO pin can be used
+#define TLC5940_BLANK  PTC7    // BLANK signal - Any GPIO pin can be used
+#define TLC5940_GSCLK  PTA1    // Grayscale clock - Must be a PWM-capable pin
+
 
-// TLC5940 output power enable pin.  This is a GPIO pin that controls
-// a high-side transistor switch that controls power to the optos and
-// LEDs connected to the TLC5940 outputs.  This is a precaution against
-// powering the chip's output pins before Vcc is powered.  Vcc comes
-// from the KL25Z, so when our program is running, we know for certain
-// that Vcc is up.  This means that we can simply enable this pin any
-// time after entering our main().  Un-comment this line if using this
-// circuit.
-// #define TLC5940_PWRENA PTC11   // Any GPIO pin can be used
-#ifdef EXPANSION_BOARD
-# define TLC5940_PWRENA PTC11
-#endif
+// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
+//
+// 74HC595 digital output setup - "Chime Board" module
+//
+// The 74HC595 is an 8-output serial-to-parallel shift register IC.  This lets
+// us add extra digital outputs (on/off only, not PWM), 8 at a time, similar
+// to the way the TLC5940 lets us add extra PWM outputs.  The 74HC595 requires
+// four control signals, so one chip gives us 8 outputs using only 4 GPIOs.
+// The chips can be daisy-chained, so by adding multiple chips, we can add 
+// any number of new outputs, still using only 4 GPIO pins for the whole chain.
+//
+// The TLC5940 is more useful for general-purpose outputs because of its PWM
+// capabilities, but digital-only outputs are better for some special cases.
+//
+// The Expansion Board "Chime" module uses these chips to add timer-protected
+// outputs.  The timer triggers are edge-sensitive, so we want simple on/off
+// signals to control them; a PWM signal wouldn't work properly because it's
+// constantly switching on and off even when nominally 100% on.
+//
+
+#define HC595_NCHIPS   0       // Number of chips == number of Chime boards connected
+#define HC595_SIN      PTA5    // Serial data - use any GPIO pin
+#define HC595_SCLK     PTA4    // Serial clock - use any GPIO pin
+#define HC595_LATCH    PTA12   // Latch signal - use any GPIO pin
+#define HC595_ENA      PTD4    // Enable signal - use any GPIO pin
+
 
 #endif // CONFIG_H - end of include-once section (code below this point can be multiply included)
 
@@ -488,14 +505,15 @@
 // "NC" entries below to the reallocated pin name.  The limit is 32
 // buttons total.
 //
-// (If you're using TLC5940 chips to control outputs, ALL of the
-// LedWiz mapped ports can be reassigned as keys, except, of course,
-// those taken over for the 5940 interface.)
+// (If you're using TLC5940 chips to control outputs, many of the
+// GPIO pins that are mapped to LedWiz outputs in the default
+// mapping can be reassigned as keys, since the TLC5940 outputs
+// take over for the GPIO pins.  The exceptions are the pins that
+// are reassigned to control the TLC5940 chips.)
 //
 // Note: PTD1 (pin J2-12) should NOT be assigned as a button input,
 // as this pin is physically connected on the KL25Z to the on-board
-// indicator LED's blue segment.  This precludes any other use of
-// the pin.
+// indicator LED's blue segment.
 PinName buttonMap[] = {
     PTC2,      // J10 pin 10, joystick button 1
     PTB3,      // J10 pin 8,  joystick button 2
@@ -503,7 +521,11 @@
     PTB1,      // J10 pin 4,  joystick button 4
     
     PTE30,     // J10 pin 11, joystick button 5
+#ifdef EXPANSION_BOARD
+    PTC11,     // J1 pin 15,  joystick button 6
+#else
     PTE22,     // J10 pin 5,  joystick button 6
+#endif
     
     PTE5,      // J9 pin 15,  joystick button 7
     PTE4,      // J9 pin 13,  joystick button 8
@@ -635,7 +657,7 @@
 //
 // Note: Don't assign PTD1 (pin J2-12) as an LedWiz output.  That pin
 // is hard-wired on the KL25Z to the on-board indicator LED's blue segment,  
-// which pretty much precludes any other use of the pin.
+// which pretty precludes other uses of the pin.
 //
 // ACTIVE-LOW PORTS:  By default, when a logical port is turned on in
 // the software, we set the physical GPIO voltage to "high" (3.3V), and
@@ -648,21 +670,33 @@
 // affected port.
 //
 // TLC5940 PORTS:  To assign an LedWiz output port number to a particular
-// output on a TLC5940, set tlcPortNum to the non-zero port number,
-// starting at 1 for the first output on the first chip, 16 for the
-// last output on the first chip, 17 for the first output on the second
-// chip, and so on.  TLC ports are inherently PWM-capable only, so it's 
-// not necessary to set the PORT_IS_PWM flag for those.
+// output on a TLC5940, set the port type to TLC_PORT and set the 'pin'
+// value to the index of the output port in the daisy chain.  The first
+// chip in the daisy chain has ports 1-16, the second has ports 17-32, 
+// and so on.
+//
+// 74HC595 PORTS:  To assign an LedWiz output port to a 74HC595 port,
+// set the port type to HC595_PORT and set 'pin' to the index of the port
+// in the daisy chain.  The first chip has ports 1-8, the second has 
+// 9-16, etc.
 //
 
-// ledWizPortMap 'flags' bits - combine these with '|'
-const int PORT_IS_PWM     = 0x0001;  // this port is PWM-capable
-const int PORT_ACTIVE_LOW = 0x0002;  // use LOW voltage (0V) when port is ON
+// ledWizPortMap 'typ' values
+enum LWPortType {
+    NO_PORT    = -1,  // Not connected
+    DIG_GPIO   = 0,   // DigitalOut I/O pin (not PWM capable)
+    PWM_GPIO   = 1,   // AnalogOut I/O pin (PWM capable)
+    TLC_PORT   = 2,   // TLC5940 output port
+    HC595_PORT = 3    // 74HC595 output port
+};
+
+// flags - combine with '|'
+const int PORT_ACTIVE_LOW = 0x0001;  // use LOW voltage (0V) when port is ON
 
 struct {
-    PinName pin;        // the GPIO pin assigned to this output; NC if not connected or a TLC5940 port
+    int pin;            // Pin name/index - PinName for GPIO, pin index for TLC5940 or 74HC595
+    LWPortType typ;     // type of pin
     int flags;          // flags - a combination of PORT_xxx flag bits (see above)
-    int tlcPortNum;     // for TLC5940 ports, the TLC output number (1 to number of chips*16); otherwise 0
 } ledWizPortMap[] = {
     
 #if TLC5940_NCHIPS == 0
@@ -683,39 +717,39 @@
     // We commented each PWM pin with its hardware channel number to help you keep
     // track of available channels if you do need to rearrange any of these pins.
 
-    { PTA1,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-2,  LW port 1  (PWM capable - TPM 2.0 = channel 9)
-    { PTA2,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 2  (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
-    { PTD4,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 3  (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
-    { PTA12, PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-8,  LW port 4  (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
-    { PTA4,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-10, LW port 5  (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
-    { PTA5,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-12, LW port 6  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)
-    { PTA13, PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J2-2,  LW port 7  (PWM capable - TPM 1.1 = channel 13)
-    { PTD5,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J2-4,  LW port 8  (PWM capable - TPM 0.5 = channel 6)
-    { PTD0,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J2-6,  LW port 9  (PWM capable - TPM 0.0 = channel 1)
-    { PTD3,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J2-10, LW port 10 (PWM capable - TPM 0.3 = channel 4)
-    { PTD2,  0 },                // pin J2-8,  LW port 11
-    { PTC8,  0 },                // pin J1-14, LW port 12
-    { PTC9,  0 },                // pin J1-16, LW port 13
-    { PTC7,  0 },                // pin J1-1,  LW port 14
-    { PTC0,  0 },                // pin J1-3,  LW port 15
-    { PTC3,  0 },                // pin J1-5,  LW port 16
-    { PTC4,  0 },                // pin J1-7,  LW port 17
-    { PTC5,  0 },                // pin J1-9,  LW port 18
-    { PTC6,  0 },                // pin J1-11, LW port 19
-    { PTC10, 0 },                // pin J1-13, LW port 20
-    { PTC11, 0 },                // pin J1-15, LW port 21
-    { PTE0,  0 },                // pin J2-18, LW port 22
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 23
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 24
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 25
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 26
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 27
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 28
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 29
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 30
-    { NC,    0 },                // Not connected,  LW port 31
-    { NC,    0 }                 // Not connected,  LW port 32
-    
+    { PTA1,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-2,  LW port 1  (PWM capable - TPM 2.0 = channel 9)
+    { PTA2,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 2  (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
+    { PTD4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 3  (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
+    { PTA12, PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-8,  LW port 4  (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
+    { PTA4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-10, LW port 5  (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
+    { PTA5,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-12, LW port 6  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)
+    { PTA13, PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-2,  LW port 7  (PWM capable - TPM 1.1 = channel 13)
+    { PTD5,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-4,  LW port 8  (PWM capable - TPM 0.5 = channel 6)
+    { PTD0,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-6,  LW port 9  (PWM capable - TPM 0.0 = channel 1)
+    { PTD3,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-10, LW port 10 (PWM capable - TPM 0.3 = channel 4)
+    { PTD2,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J2-8,  LW port 11
+    { PTC8,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-14, LW port 12
+    { PTC9,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-16, LW port 13
+    { PTC7,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-1,  LW port 14
+    { PTC0,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-3,  LW port 15
+    { PTC3,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-5,  LW port 16
+    { PTC4,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-7,  LW port 17
+    { PTC5,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-9,  LW port 18
+    { PTC6,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-11, LW port 19
+    { PTC10, DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-13, LW port 20
+    { PTC11, DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-15, LW port 21
+    { PTE0,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J2-18, LW port 22
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 23
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 24
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 25
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 26
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 27
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 28
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 29
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 30
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 31
+    { NC,    NO_PORT  }       // Not connected,  LW port 32
+
 #elif defined(EXPANSION_BOARD)
 
     // *** EXPANSION BOARD MODE ***
@@ -733,80 +767,100 @@
     // damaged, so they don't require such elaborate precautions.)
     //
     // The specific device assignments in the last column are just 
-    // recommendations - you can assign any port to any device with 
+    // recommendations.  You can assign any port to any device with 
     // compatible power needs.  The "General Purpose" ports are good to
-    // at least 5A, so you can use these for virtually anything.  The
-    // "Button light" ports are good to about 1.5A, so these are most
-    // suitable for smaller loads like lamps, flashers, LEDs, etc.  The
-    // flipper and magnasave ports will only provide 20mA, so these are
-    // only usable for small LEDs.
+    // at least 5A, so you can use these for virtually anything; put
+    // your heavy-duty devices, such as solenoids and motors, on these
+    // outputs.  You can also put lighter loads like lamps and LEDs
+    // on these if you have ports left over after connecting all of
+    // your high-power devices.  The "Flasher" and "Button light" ports 
+    // are good to about 1.5A, so they work for medium loads like lamps, 
+    // flashers, high-power LEDs, etc.  The flipper and magnasave ports 
+    // only provide 20mA; use these only for small LEDs.
+    //
+    // The TLC5940 outputs on the expansion board are hard-wired to
+    // specific output drivers - that's what determines the power
+    // limits described above.  You can rearrange the ports in the
+    // list below to change the LedWiz port numbering to any order 
+    // you prefer, but the association between a TLC5940 port number 
+    // and the output circuit type can't be changed in the software.
+    // That's a function of how the TLC5940 port is physically wired 
+    // on the board.  Likewise, the PTC8 output is hard-wired to the 
+    // knocker time limiter.
+    //   TLC ports 1-20 and 44-47 = Darlington outputs, 1.5A max
+    //   TLC ports 21-44 = MOSFET outputs (limit depends on MOSFET chosen)
+    //   TLC ports 49-64 = direct outputs, limited to 20mA
 
     // The first 32 ports are LedWiz-compatible, so they're universally
     // accessible, even to older non-DOF software.  Attach the most common
     // devices to these ports.
-    { NC,     0,    1 },         // TLC port 1,  LW output 1  - Flasher 1 R
-    { NC,     0,    2 },         // TLC port 2,  LW output 2  - Flasher 1 G
-    { NC,     0,    3 },         // TLC port 3,  LW output 3  - Flasher 1 B
-    { NC,     0,    4 },         // TLC port 4,  LW output 4  - Flasher 2 R
-    { NC,     0,    5 },         // TLC port 5,  LW output 5  - Flasher 2 G
-    { NC,     0,    6 },         // TLC port 6,  LW output 6  - Flasher 2 B
-    { NC,     0,    7 },         // TLC port 7,  LW output 7  - Flasher 3 R
-    { NC,     0,    8 },         // TLC port 8,  LW output 8  - Flasher 3 G
-    { NC,     0,    9 },         // TLC port 9,  LW output 9  - Flasher 3 B
-    { NC,     0,    10 },        // TLC port 10, LW output 10 - Flasher 4 R
-    { NC,     0,    11 },        // TLC port 11, LW output 11 - Flasher 4 G
-    { NC,     0,    12 },        // TLC port 12, LW output 12 - Flasher 4 B
-    { NC,     0,    13 },        // TLC port 13, LW output 13 - Flasher 5 R
-    { NC,     0,    14 },        // TLC port 14, LW output 14 - Flasher 5 G
-    { NC,     0,    15 },        // TLC port 15, LW output 15 - Flasher 5 B
-    { NC,     0,    16 },        // TLC port 16, LW output 16 - Strobe/Button light
-    { NC,     0,    17 },        // TLC port 17, LW output 17 - Button light 1
-    { NC,     0,    18 },        // TLC port 18, LW output 18 - Button light 2
-    { NC,     0,    19 },        // TLC port 19, LW output 19 - Button light 3
-    { NC,     0,    20 },        // TLC port 20, LW output 20 - Button light 4
-    { PTC8,   0,    0 },         // PTC8,        LW output 21 - Replay Knocker
-    { NC,     0,    21 },        // TLC port 21, LW output 22 - Contactor 1/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    22 },        // TLC port 22, LW output 23 - Contactor 2/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    23 },        // TLC port 23, LW output 24 - Contactor 3/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    24 },        // TLC port 24, LW output 25 - Contactor 4/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    25 },        // TLC port 25, LW output 26 - Contactor 5/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    26 },        // TLC port 26, LW output 27 - Contactor 6/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    27 },        // TLC port 27, LW output 28 - Contactor 7/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    28 },        // TLC port 28, LW output 29 - Contactor 8/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    29 },        // TLC port 29, LW output 30 - Contactor 9/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    30 },        // TLC port 30, LW output 31 - Contactor 10/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    31 },        // TLC port 31, LW output 32 - Shaker Motor/General purpose
+    { 1, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 1,  LW output 1  - Flasher 1 R
+    { 2, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 2,  LW output 2  - Flasher 1 G
+    { 3, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 3,  LW output 3  - Flasher 1 B
+    { 4, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 4,  LW output 4  - Flasher 2 R
+    { 5, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 5,  LW output 5  - Flasher 2 G
+    { 6, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 6,  LW output 6  - Flasher 2 B
+    { 7, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 7,  LW output 7  - Flasher 3 R
+    { 8, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 8,  LW output 8  - Flasher 3 G
+    { 9, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 9,  LW output 9  - Flasher 3 B
+    { 10, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 10, LW output 10 - Flasher 4 R
+    { 11, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 11, LW output 11 - Flasher 4 G
+    { 12, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 12, LW output 12 - Flasher 4 B
+    { 13, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 13, LW output 13 - Flasher 5 R
+    { 14, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 14, LW output 14 - Flasher 5 G
+    { 15, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 15, LW output 15 - Flasher 5 B
+    { 16, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 16, LW output 16 - Strobe/Button light
+    { 17, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 17, LW output 17 - Button light 1
+    { 18, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 18, LW output 18 - Button light 2
+    { 19, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 19, LW output 19 - Button light 3
+    { 20, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 20, LW output 20 - Button light 4
+    { PTC8, DIG_GPIO },      // PTC8,        LW output 21 - Replay Knocker
+    { 21, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 21, LW output 22 - Contactor 1/General purpose
+    { 22, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 22, LW output 23 - Contactor 2/General purpose
+    { 23, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 23, LW output 24 - Contactor 3/General purpose
+    { 24, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 24, LW output 25 - Contactor 4/General purpose
+    { 25, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 25, LW output 26 - Contactor 5/General purpose
+    { 26, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 26, LW output 27 - Contactor 6/General purpose
+    { 27, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 27, LW output 28 - Contactor 7/General purpose
+    { 28, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 28, LW output 29 - Contactor 8/General purpose
+    { 29, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 29, LW output 30 - Contactor 9/General purpose
+    { 30, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 30, LW output 31 - Contactor 10/General purpose
+    { 31, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 31, LW output 32 - Shaker Motor/General purpose
     
     // Ports 33+ are accessible only to DOF-based software.  Older LedWiz-only
     // software on the can't access these.  Attach less common devices to these ports.
-    { NC,     0,    32 },        // TLC port 32, LW output 33 - Gear Motor/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    33 },        // TLC port 33, LW output 34 - Fan/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    34 },        // TLC port 34, LW output 35 - Beacon/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    35 },        // TLC port 35, LW output 36 - Undercab RGB R/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    36 },        // TLC port 36, LW output 37 - Undercab RGB G/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    37 },        // TLC port 37, LW output 38 - Undercab RGB B/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    38 },        // TLC port 38, LW output 39 - Bell/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    39 },        // TLC port 39, LW output 40 - Chime 1/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    40 },        // TLC port 40, LW output 41 - Chime 2/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    41 },        // TLC port 41, LW output 42 - Chime 3/General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    42 },        // TLC port 42, LW output 43 - General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    43 },        // TLC port 43, LW output 44 - General purpose
-    { NC,     0,    44 },        // TLC port 44, LW output 45 - Button light 5
-    { NC,     0,    45 },        // TLC port 45, LW output 46 - Button light 6
-    { NC,     0,    46 },        // TLC port 46, LW output 47 - Button light 7
-    { NC,     0,    47 },        // TLC port 47, LW output 48 - Button light 8
-    { NC,     0,    49 },        // TLC port 49, LW output 49 - Flipper button RGB left R
-    { NC,     0,    50 },        // TLC port 50, LW output 50 - Flipper button RGB left G
-    { NC,     0,    51 },        // TLC port 51, LW output 51 - Flipper button RGB left B
-    { NC,     0,    52 },        // TLC port 52, LW output 52 - Flipper button RGB right R
-    { NC,     0,    53 },        // TLC port 53, LW output 53 - Flipper button RGB right G
-    { NC,     0,    54 },        // TLC port 54, LW output 54 - Flipper button RGB right B
-    { NC,     0,    55 },        // TLC port 55, LW output 55 - MagnaSave button RGB left R
-    { NC,     0,    56 },        // TLC port 56, LW output 56 - MagnaSave button RGB left G
-    { NC,     0,    57 },        // TLC port 57, LW output 57 - MagnaSave button RGB left B
-    { NC,     0,    58 },        // TLC port 58, LW output 58 - MagnaSave button RGB right R
-    { NC,     0,    59 },        // TLC port 59, LW output 59 - MagnaSave button RGB right G
-    { NC,     0,    60 }         // TLC port 60, LW output 60 - MagnaSave button RGB right B
+    { 32, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 32, LW output 33 - Gear Motor/General purpose
+    { 33, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 33, LW output 34 - Fan/General purpose
+    { 34, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 34, LW output 35 - Beacon/General purpose
+    { 35, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 35, LW output 36 - Undercab RGB R/General purpose
+    { 36, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 36, LW output 37 - Undercab RGB G/General purpose
+    { 37, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 37, LW output 38 - Undercab RGB B/General purpose
+    { 38, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 38, LW output 39 - Bell/General purpose
+    { 39, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 39, LW output 40 - Chime 1/General purpose
+    { 40, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 40, LW output 41 - Chime 2/General purpose
+    { 41, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 41, LW output 42 - Chime 3/General purpose
+    { 42, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 42, LW output 43 - General purpose
+    { 43, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 43, LW output 44 - General purpose
+    { 44, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 44, LW output 45 - Button light 5
+    { 45, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 45, LW output 46 - Button light 6
+    { 46, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 46, LW output 47 - Button light 7
+    { 47, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 47, LW output 48 - Button light 8
+    { 49, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 49, LW output 49 - Flipper button RGB left R
+    { 50, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 50, LW output 50 - Flipper button RGB left G
+    { 51, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 51, LW output 51 - Flipper button RGB left B
+    { 52, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 52, LW output 52 - Flipper button RGB right R
+    { 53, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 53, LW output 53 - Flipper button RGB right G
+    { 54, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 54, LW output 54 - Flipper button RGB right B
+    { 55, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 55, LW output 55 - MagnaSave button RGB left R
+    { 56, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 56, LW output 56 - MagnaSave button RGB left G
+    { 57, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 57, LW output 57 - MagnaSave button RGB left B
+    { 58, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 58, LW output 58 - MagnaSave button RGB right R
+    { 59, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 59, LW output 59 - MagnaSave button RGB right G
+    { 60, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 60, LW output 60 - MagnaSave button RGB right B
+    { 61, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 61, LW output 61 - Extra RGB LED R
+    { 62, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 62, LW output 62 - Extra RGB LED G
+    { 63, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 63, LW output 63 - Extra RGB LED B
+    { 64, TLC_PORT }         // TLC port 64, LW output 64 - Extra single LED
     
 #else
 
@@ -838,16 +892,17 @@
     // in this set.  This leaves the following ports from the basic mode output
     // set available for other users: PTA13, PTD0, PTD2, PTD3, PTD5, PTE0.
     
-    { PTC8,  0 },                // pin J1-14, LW port 1
-    { PTC9,  0 },                // pin J1-16, LW port 2
-    { PTC0,  0 },                // pin J1-3,  LW port 3
-    { PTC3,  0 },                // pin J1-5,  LW port 4
-    { PTC4,  0 },                // pin J1-7,  LW port 5
-    { PTA2,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 6   (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
-    { PTD4,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 7   (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
-    { PTA12, PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-8,  LW port 8   (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
-    { PTA4,  PORT_IS_PWM },      // pin J1-10, LW port 9   (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
-    { PTA5,  PORT_IS_PWM }       // pin J1-12, LW port 10  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)
+    { PTC8,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-14, LW port 1
+    { PTC9,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-16, LW port 2
+    { PTC0,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-3,  LW port 3
+    { PTC3,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-5,  LW port 4
+    { PTC4,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-7,  LW port 5
+    { PTC11, DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-15, LW port 6
+    { PTA2,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 7   (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
+    { PTD4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 8   (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
+    { PTA12, PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-8,  LW port 9   (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
+    { PTA4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-10, LW port 10  (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
+    { PTA5,  PWM_GPIO }       // pin J1-12, LW port 11  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)
 
     // TLC5940 ports start here!
     // First chip port 0 ->   LW port 12