An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Revision:
73:4e8ce0b18915
Parent:
72:884207c0aab0
Child:
74:822a92bc11d2
--- a/main.cpp	Wed Jan 04 20:14:12 2017 +0000
+++ b/main.cpp	Sat Jan 21 19:48:30 2017 +0000
@@ -163,6 +163,12 @@
 //        connection to the host (or so it appears to the device), but data 
 //        transmissions are failing.
 //
+//    medium blue flash = TV ON delay timer running.  This means that the
+//        power to the secondary PSU has just been turned on, and the TV ON
+//        timer is waiting for the configured delay time before pulsing the
+//        TV power button relay.  This is only shown if the TV ON feature is
+//        enabled.
+//
 //    long yellow/green = everything's working, but the plunger hasn't
 //        been calibrated.  Follow the calibration procedure described in
 //        the project documentation.  This flash mode won't appear if there's
@@ -297,56 +303,57 @@
 // they're so stingy, but it appears from empirical testing that we can 
 // create a static array up to about 9K before things get crashy.
 
+// Dynamic memory pool.  We'll reserve space for all dynamic 
+// allocations by creating a simple C array of bytes.  The size
+// of this array is the maximum number of bytes we can allocate
+// with malloc or operator 'new'.
+//
+// The maximum safe size for this array is, in essence, the
+// amount of physical KL25Z RAM left over after accounting for
+// static data throughout the rest of the program, the run-time
+// stack, and any other space reserved for compiler or MCU
+// overhead.  Unfortunately, it's not straightforward to
+// determine this analytically.  The big complication is that
+// the minimum stack size isn't easily predictable, as the stack
+// grows according to what the program does.  In addition, the
+// mbed platform tools don't give us detailed data on the
+// compiler/linker memory map.  All we get is a generic total
+// RAM requirement, which doesn't necessarily account for all
+// overhead (e.g., gaps inserted to get proper alignment for
+// particular memory blocks).  
+//
+// A very rough estimate: the total RAM size reported by the 
+// linker is about 3.5K (currently - that can obviously change 
+// as the project evolves) out of 16K total.  Assuming about a 
+// 3K stack, that leaves in the ballpark of 10K.  Empirically,
+// that seems pretty close.  In testing, we start to see some
+// instability at 10K, while 9K seems safe.  To be conservative,
+// we'll reduce this to 8K.
+//
+// Our measured total usage in the base configuration (22 GPIO
+// output ports, TSL1410R plunger sensor) is about 4000 bytes.
+// A pretty fully decked-out configuration (121 output ports,
+// with 8 TLC5940 chips and 3 74HC595 chips, plus the TSL1412R
+// sensor with the higher pixel count, and all expansion board
+// features enabled) comes to about 6700 bytes.  That leaves
+// us with about 1.5K free out of our 8K, so we still have a 
+// little more headroom for future expansion.
+//
+// For comparison, the standard mbed malloc() runs out of
+// memory at about 6K.  That's what led to this custom malloc:
+// we can just fit the base configuration into that 4K, but
+// it's not enough space for more complex setups.  There's
+// still a little room for squeezing out unnecessary space
+// from the mbed library code, but at this point I'd prefer
+// to treat that as a last resort, since it would mean having
+// to fork private copies of the libraries.
+static const size_t XMALLOC_POOL_SIZE = 8*1024;
+static char xmalloc_pool[XMALLOC_POOL_SIZE];
+static char *xmalloc_nxt = xmalloc_pool;
+static size_t xmalloc_rem = XMALLOC_POOL_SIZE;
+    
 void *xmalloc(size_t siz)
 {
-    // Dynamic memory pool.  We'll reserve space for all dynamic 
-    // allocations by creating a simple C array of bytes.  The size
-    // of this array is the maximum number of bytes we can allocate
-    // with malloc or operator 'new'.
-    //
-    // The maximum safe size for this array is, in essence, the
-    // amount of physical KL25Z RAM left over after accounting for
-    // static data throughout the rest of the program, the run-time
-    // stack, and any other space reserved for compiler or MCU
-    // overhead.  Unfortunately, it's not straightforward to
-    // determine this analytically.  The big complication is that
-    // the minimum stack size isn't easily predictable, as the stack
-    // grows according to what the program does.  In addition, the
-    // mbed platform tools don't give us detailed data on the
-    // compiler/linker memory map.  All we get is a generic total
-    // RAM requirement, which doesn't necessarily account for all
-    // overhead (e.g., gaps inserted to get proper alignment for
-    // particular memory blocks).  
-    //
-    // A very rough estimate: the total RAM size reported by the 
-    // linker is about 3.5K (currently - that can obviously change 
-    // as the project evolves) out of 16K total.  Assuming about a 
-    // 3K stack, that leaves in the ballpark of 10K.  Empirically,
-    // that seems pretty close.  In testing, we start to see some
-    // instability at 10K, while 9K seems safe.  To be conservative,
-    // we'll reduce this to 8K.
-    //
-    // Our measured total usage in the base configuration (22 GPIO
-    // output ports, TSL1410R plunger sensor) is about 4000 bytes.
-    // A pretty fully decked-out configuration (121 output ports,
-    // with 8 TLC5940 chips and 3 74HC595 chips, plus the TSL1412R
-    // sensor with the higher pixel count, and all expansion board
-    // features enabled) comes to about 6700 bytes.  That leaves
-    // us with about 1.5K free out of our 8K, so we still have a 
-    // little more headroom for future expansion.
-    //
-    // For comparison, the standard mbed malloc() runs out of
-    // memory at about 6K.  That's what led to this custom malloc:
-    // we can just fit the base configuration into that 4K, but
-    // it's not enough space for more complex setups.  There's
-    // still a little room for squeezing out unnecessary space
-    // from the mbed library code, but at this point I'd prefer
-    // to treat that as a last resort, since it would mean having
-    // to fork private copies of the libraries.
-    static char pool[8*1024];
-    static char *nxt = pool;
-    static size_t rem = sizeof(pool);
-    
     // align to a 4-byte increment
     siz = (siz + 3) & ~3;
     
@@ -360,7 +367,7 @@
     // context to handle failed allocations as fatal errors centrally.  We
     // can't recover from these automatically, so we have to resort to user
     // intervention, which we signal with the diagnostic LED flashes.
-    if (siz > rem)
+    if (siz > xmalloc_rem)
     {
         // halt with the diagnostic display (by looping forever)
         for (;;)
@@ -373,15 +380,17 @@
     }
 
     // get the next free location from the pool to return   
-    char *ret = nxt;
+    char *ret = xmalloc_nxt;
     
     // advance the pool pointer and decrement the remaining size counter
-    nxt += siz;
-    rem -= siz;
+    xmalloc_nxt += siz;
+    xmalloc_rem -= siz;
     
     // return the allocated block
     return ret;
-}
+};
+
+// our malloc() replacement
 
 // Overload operator new to call our custom malloc.  This ensures that
 // all 'new' allocations throughout the program (including library code)
@@ -542,15 +551,38 @@
 //
 DigitalOut *ledR, *ledG, *ledB;
 
+// Power on timer state for diagnostics.  We flash the blue LED when
+// nothing else is going on.  State 0-1 = off, 2-3 = on
+uint8_t powerTimerDiagState = 0;
+
 // Show the indicated pattern on the diagnostic LEDs.  0 is off, 1 is
 // on, and -1 is no change (leaves the current setting intact).
+static uint8_t diagLEDState = 0;
 void diagLED(int r, int g, int b)
 {
+    // remember the new state
+    diagLEDState = r | (g << 1) | (b << 2);
+    
+    // if turning everything off, use the power timer state instead, 
+    // applying it to the blue LED
+    if (diagLEDState == 0)
+        b = (powerTimerDiagState >= 2);
+        
+    // set the new state
     if (ledR != 0 && r != -1) ledR->write(!r);
     if (ledG != 0 && g != -1) ledG->write(!g);
     if (ledB != 0 && b != -1) ledB->write(!b);
 }
 
+// update the LEDs with the current state
+void diagLED(void)
+{
+    diagLED(
+        diagLEDState & 0x01,
+        (diagLEDState >> 1) & 0x01,
+        (diagLEDState >> 1) & 0x02);
+}
+
 // check an output port assignment to see if it conflicts with
 // an on-board LED segment
 struct LedSeg 
@@ -1053,13 +1085,56 @@
 static int numOutputs;
 static LwOut **lwPin;
 
-
-// Number of LedWiz emulation outputs.  This is the number of ports
-// accessible through the standard (non-extended) LedWiz protocol
-// messages.  The protocol has a fixed set of 32 outputs, but we
-// might have fewer actual outputs.  This is therefore set to the
-// lower of 32 or the actual number of outputs.
-static int numLwOutputs;
+// LedWiz output states.
+//
+// The LedWiz protocol has two separate control axes for each output.
+// One axis is its on/off state; the other is its "profile" state, which
+// is either a fixed brightness or a blinking pattern for the light.
+// The two axes are independent.
+//
+// Even though the original LedWiz protocol can only access 32 ports, we
+// maintain LedWiz state for every port, even if we have more than 32.  Our
+// extended protocol allows the client to select a bank of 32 outputs to
+// address via original protocol commands (SBA/PBA), which allows for one
+// Pinscape unit with more than 32 ports to be exposed on the client as
+// multiple virtual LedWiz units through a modified LEDWIZ.DLL interface
+// library.
+
+// Current LedWiz virtual unit: 0 = ports 1-32, 1 = ports 33-64, etc.
+// SBA and PBA messages address the block of ports set by this unit.
+uint8_t ledWizBank = 0;
+
+// on/off state for each LedWiz output
+static uint8_t *wizOn;
+
+// LedWiz "Profile State" (the LedWiz brightness level or blink mode)
+// for each LedWiz output.  If the output was last updated through an 
+// LedWiz protocol message, it will have one of these values:
+//
+//   0-48 = fixed brightness 0% to 100%
+//   49  = fixed brightness 100% (equivalent to 48)
+//   129 = ramp up / ramp down
+//   130 = flash on / off
+//   131 = on / ramp down
+//   132 = ramp up / on
+//
+// (Note that value 49 isn't documented in the LedWiz spec, but real
+// LedWiz units treat it as equivalent to 48, and some PC software uses
+// it, so we need to accept it for compatibility.)
+static uint8_t *wizVal;
+
+// LedWiz flash speed.  This is a value from 1 to 7 giving the pulse
+// rate for lights in blinking states.  Each bank of 32 lights has its
+// own pulse rate, so we need ceiling(number_of_physical_outputs/32)
+// entries here.  Note that we could allocate this dynamically, but
+// the maximum size is so small that it's more efficient to preallocate
+// it at the maximum size.
+static const int MAX_LW_BANKS = (MAX_OUT_PORTS+31)/32;
+static uint8_t wizSpeed[MAX_LW_BANKS];
+
+// Current LedWiz flash cycle counter.  This runs from 0 to 255
+// during each cycle. 
+static uint8_t wizFlashCounter[MAX_LW_BANKS];
 
 // Current absolute brightness levels for all outputs.  These are
 // DOF brightness level value, from 0 for fully off to 255 for fully
@@ -1219,19 +1294,23 @@
         }
     }
     
-    // the real LedWiz protocol can access at most 32 ports, or the
-    // actual number of outputs, whichever is lower
-    numLwOutputs = (numOutputs < 32 ? numOutputs : 32);
+    // allocate the pin array
+    lwPin = new LwOut*[numOutputs];
     
-    // allocate the pin array
-    lwPin = new LwOut*[numOutputs];    
+    // Allocate the current brightness array
+    outLevel = new uint8_t[numOutputs];
     
-    // Allocate the current brightness array.  For these, allocate at
-    // least 32, so that we have enough for all LedWiz messages, but
-    // allocate the full set of actual ports if we have more than the
-    // LedWiz complement.
-    int minOuts = numOutputs < 32 ? 32 : numOutputs;
-    outLevel = new uint8_t[minOuts];
+    // allocate the LedWiz output state arrays
+    wizOn = new uint8_t[numOutputs];
+    wizVal = new uint8_t[numOutputs];
+    
+    // initialize all LedWiz outputs to off and brightness 48
+    memset(wizOn, 0, numOutputs);
+    memset(wizVal, 48, numOutputs);
+    
+    // set all LedWiz virtual unit flash speeds to 2
+    for (i = 0 ; i < countof(wizSpeed) ; ++i)
+        wizSpeed[i] = 2;
     
     // create the pin interface object for each port
     for (i = 0 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
@@ -1260,7 +1339,7 @@
 // was used in the command.  On a legacy SBA or PBA, we switch to
 // LedWiz mode; on an extended output set message, we switch to
 // extended mode.  We remember the LedWiz and extended output state
-// for each LW ports (1-32) separately.  Any time the mode changes, 
+// for each LW port (1-32) separately.  Any time the mode changes, 
 // we set ports 1-32 back to the state for the new mode.
 //
 // The reasoning here is that any given client (on the PC) will use
@@ -1274,49 +1353,6 @@
 // program switching back and forth.
 static uint8_t ledWizMode = true;
 
-// LedWiz output states.
-//
-// The LedWiz protocol has two separate control axes for each output.
-// One axis is its on/off state; the other is its "profile" state, which
-// is either a fixed brightness or a blinking pattern for the light.
-// The two axes are independent.
-//
-// Note that the LedWiz protocol can only address 32 outputs, so the
-// wizOn and wizVal arrays have fixed sizes of 32 elements no matter
-// how many physical outputs we're using.
-
-// on/off state for each LedWiz output
-static uint8_t wizOn[32];
-
-// LedWiz "Profile State" (the LedWiz brightness level or blink mode)
-// for each LedWiz output.  If the output was last updated through an 
-// LedWiz protocol message, it will have one of these values:
-//
-//   0-48 = fixed brightness 0% to 100%
-//   49  = fixed brightness 100% (equivalent to 48)
-//   129 = ramp up / ramp down
-//   130 = flash on / off
-//   131 = on / ramp down
-//   132 = ramp up / on
-//
-// (Note that value 49 isn't documented in the LedWiz spec, but real
-// LedWiz units treat it as equivalent to 48, and some PC software uses
-// it, so we need to accept it for compatibility.)
-static uint8_t wizVal[32] = {
-    48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48,
-    48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48,
-    48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48,
-    48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48, 48
-};
-
-// LedWiz flash speed.  This is a value from 1 to 7 giving the pulse
-// rate for lights in blinking states.
-static uint8_t wizSpeed = 2;
-
-// Current LedWiz flash cycle counter.  This runs from 0 to 255
-// during each cycle.
-static uint8_t wizFlashCounter = 0;
-
 // translate an LedWiz brightness level (0-49) to a DOF brightness
 // level (0-255)
 static const uint8_t lw_to_dof[] = {
@@ -1352,7 +1388,7 @@
         // the true 100% level.  (In the documentation, level 49 is
         // simply not a valid setting.)  Even so, we treat level 48 as
         // 100% on to match the documentation.  This won't be perfectly
-        // ocmpatible with the actual LedWiz, but it makes for such a
+        // compatible with the actual LedWiz, but it makes for such a
         // small difference in brightness (if the output device is an
         // LED, say) that no one should notice.  It seems better to
         // err in this direction, because while the difference in
@@ -1375,24 +1411,26 @@
     else if (val == 129)
     {
         // 129 = ramp up / ramp down
-        return wizFlashCounter < 128 
-            ? wizFlashCounter*2 + 1
-            : (255 - wizFlashCounter)*2;
+        const int c = wizFlashCounter[idx/32];
+        return c < 128 ? c*2 + 1 : (255 - c)*2;
     }
     else if (val == 130)
     {
         // 130 = flash on / off
-        return wizFlashCounter < 128 ? 255 : 0;
+        const int c = wizFlashCounter[idx/32];
+        return c < 128 ? 255 : 0;
     }
     else if (val == 131)
     {
         // 131 = on / ramp down
-        return wizFlashCounter < 128 ? 255 : (255 - wizFlashCounter)*2;
+        const int c = wizFlashCounter[idx/32];
+        return c < 128 ? 255 : (255 - c)*2;
     }
     else if (val == 132)
     {
         // 132 = ramp up / on
-        return wizFlashCounter < 128 ? wizFlashCounter*2 : 255;
+        const int c = wizFlashCounter[idx/32];
+        return c < 128 ? c*2 : 255;
     }
     else
     {
@@ -1418,13 +1456,16 @@
 #define WIZ_PULSE_TIME_BASE  (1.0f/127.0f)
 static void wizPulse()
 {
-    // increase the counter by the speed increment, and wrap at 256
-    wizFlashCounter += wizSpeed;
-    wizFlashCounter &= 0xff;
-    
-    // if we have any flashing lights, update them
-    int ena = false;
-    for (int i = 0 ; i < numLwOutputs ; ++i)
+    // update the flash counter in each bank
+    for (int bank = 0 ; bank < countof(wizFlashCounter) ; ++bank)
+    {
+        // increase the counter by the speed increment, and wrap at 256
+        wizFlashCounter[bank] = (wizFlashCounter[bank] + wizSpeed[bank]) & 0xff;
+    }
+
+    // look for outputs set to LedWiz flash modes 
+    int flashing = false;
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
     {
         if (wizOn[i])
         {
@@ -1432,7 +1473,7 @@
             if (s >= 129 && s <= 132)
             {
                 lwPin[i]->set(wizState(i));
-                ena = true;
+                flashing = true;
             }
         }
     }    
@@ -1443,7 +1484,7 @@
     // features when the host software doesn't care about the flashing 
     // modes.  For example, DOF never uses these modes, so there's no 
     // need for them when running Visual Pinball.
-    if (ena)
+    if (flashing)
         wizPulseTimer.attach(wizPulse, WIZ_PULSE_TIME_BASE);
 }
 
@@ -1453,7 +1494,7 @@
 {
     // update each output
     int pulse = false;
-    for (int i = 0 ; i < numLwOutputs ; ++i)
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
     {
         pulse |= (wizVal[i] >= 129 && wizVal[i] <= 132);
         lwPin[i]->set(wizState(i));
@@ -1473,15 +1514,41 @@
 // setting that affects all outputs, such as engaging or canceling Night Mode.
 static void updateAllOuts()
 {
-    // uddate each LedWiz output
-    for (int i = 0 ; i < numLwOutputs ; ++i)
+    // uddate each output
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
         lwPin[i]->set(wizState(i));
         
-    // update each extended output
-    for (int i = numLwOutputs ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
-        lwPin[i]->set(outLevel[i]);
+    // flush 74HC595 changes, if necessary
+    if (hc595 != 0)
+        hc595->update();
+}
+
+//
+// Turn off all outputs and restore everything to the default LedWiz
+// state.  This sets outputs #1-32 to LedWiz profile value 48 (full
+// brightness) and switch state Off, sets all extended outputs (#33
+// and above) to zero brightness, and sets the LedWiz flash rate to 2.
+// This effectively restores the power-on conditions.
+//
+void allOutputsOff()
+{
+    // reset all LedWiz outputs to OFF/48
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
+    {
+        outLevel[i] = 0;
+        wizOn[i] = 0;
+        wizVal[i] = 48;
+        lwPin[i]->set(0);
+    }
+    
+    // restore default LedWiz flash rate
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < countof(wizSpeed) ; ++i)
+        wizSpeed[i] = 2;
         
-    // flush 74HC595 changes, if necessary
+    // set bank 0
+    ledWizBank = 0;
+    
+    // flush changes to hc595, if applicable
     if (hc595 != 0)
         hc595->update();
 }
@@ -1496,7 +1563,6 @@
 {
     ButtonState()
     {
-        di = NULL;
         physState = logState = prevLogState = 0;
         virtState = 0;
         dbState = 0;
@@ -1520,7 +1586,7 @@
     }
     
     // DigitalIn for the button, if connected to a physical input
-    TinyDigitalIn *di;
+    TinyDigitalIn di;
     
     // Time of last pulse state transition.
     //
@@ -1640,31 +1706,21 @@
 void scanButtons()
 {
     // scan all button input pins
-    ButtonState *bs = buttonState;
-    for (int i = 0 ; i < nButtons ; ++i, ++bs)
+    ButtonState *bs = buttonState, *last = bs + nButtons;
+    for ( ; bs < last ; ++bs)
     {
-        // if this logical button is connected to a physical input, check 
-        // the GPIO pin state
-        if (bs->di != NULL)
-        {
-            // Shift the new state into the debounce history.  Note that
-            // the physical pin inputs are active low (0V/GND = ON), so invert 
-            // the reading by XOR'ing the low bit with 1.  And of course we
-            // only want the low bit (since the history is effectively a bit
-            // vector), so mask the whole thing with 0x01 as well.
-            uint8_t db = bs->dbState;
-            db <<= 1;
-            db |= (bs->di->read() & 0x01) ^ 0x01;
-            bs->dbState = db;
-            
-            // if we have all 0's or 1's in the history for the required
-            // debounce period, the key state is stable - check for a change
-            // to the last stable state
-            const uint8_t stable = 0x1F;   // 00011111b -> 5 stable readings
-            db &= stable;
-            if (db == 0 || db == stable)
-                bs->physState = db & 1;
-        }
+        // Shift the new state into the debounce history
+        uint8_t db = (bs->dbState << 1) | bs->di.read();
+        bs->dbState = db;
+        
+        // If we have all 0's or 1's in the history for the required
+        // debounce period, the key state is stable, so apply the new
+        // physical state.  Note that the pins are active low, so the
+        // new button on/off state is the inverse of the GPIO state.
+        const uint8_t stable = 0x1F;   // 00011111b -> low 5 bits = last 5 readings
+        db &= stable;
+        if (db == 0 || db == stable)
+            bs->physState = !db;
     }
 }
 
@@ -1731,7 +1787,7 @@
             bs->cfgIndex = i;
 
             // set up the GPIO input pin for this button
-            bs->di = new TinyDigitalIn(pin);
+            bs->di.assignPin(pin);
             
             // if it's a pulse mode button, set the initial pulse state to Off
             if (cfg.button[i].flags & BtnFlagPulse)
@@ -2154,6 +2210,31 @@
     }
 }
 
+// Send a button status report
+void reportButtonStatus(USBJoystick &js)
+{
+    // start with all buttons off
+    uint8_t state[(MAX_BUTTONS+7)/8];
+    memset(state, 0, sizeof(state));
+
+    // pack the button states into bytes, one bit per button
+    ButtonState *bs = buttonState;
+    for (int i = 0 ; i < nButtons ; ++i, ++bs)
+    {
+        // get the physical state
+        int b = bs->physState;
+        
+        // pack it into the appropriate bit
+        int idx = bs->cfgIndex;
+        int si = idx / 8;
+        int shift = idx & 0x07;
+        state[si] |= b << shift;
+    }
+    
+    // send the report
+    js.reportButtonStatus(MAX_BUTTONS, state);
+}
+
 // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 //
 // Customization joystick subbclass
@@ -2506,13 +2587,14 @@
          vx_ = vy_ = 0;
 
          // get the time since the last get() sample
-         float dt = tGet_.read_us()/1.0e6f;
+         int dtus = tGet_.read_us();
          tGet_.reset();
          
          // done manipulating the shared data
          __enable_irq();
          
          // adjust the readings for the integration time
+         float dt = dtus/1000000.0f;
          vx /= dt;
          vy /= dt;
          
@@ -2773,40 +2855,6 @@
 
 // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 //
-// Turn off all outputs and restore everything to the default LedWiz
-// state.  This sets outputs #1-32 to LedWiz profile value 48 (full
-// brightness) and switch state Off, sets all extended outputs (#33
-// and above) to zero brightness, and sets the LedWiz flash rate to 2.
-// This effectively restores the power-on conditions.
-//
-void allOutputsOff()
-{
-    // reset all LedWiz outputs to OFF/48
-    for (int i = 0 ; i < numLwOutputs ; ++i)
-    {
-        outLevel[i] = 0;
-        wizOn[i] = 0;
-        wizVal[i] = 48;
-        lwPin[i]->set(0);
-    }
-    
-    // reset all extended outputs (ports >32) to full off (brightness 0)
-    for (int i = numLwOutputs ; i < numOutputs ; ++i)
-    {
-        outLevel[i] = 0;
-        lwPin[i]->set(0);
-    }
-    
-    // restore default LedWiz flash rate
-    wizSpeed = 2;
-    
-    // flush changes to hc595, if applicable
-    if (hc595 != 0)
-        hc595->update();
-}
-
-// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-//
 // TV ON timer.  If this feature is enabled, we toggle a TV power switch
 // relay (connected to a GPIO pin) to turn on the cab's TV monitors shortly
 // after the system is powered.  This is useful for TVs that don't remember
@@ -2882,14 +2930,38 @@
 //   3 -> SET pulsed low, ready to check status
 //   4 -> TV timer countdown in progress
 //   5 -> TV relay on
-int psu2_state = 1;
+uint8_t psu2_state = 1;
+
+// TV relay state.  The TV relay can be controlled by the power-on
+// timer and directly from the PC (via USB commands), so keep a
+// separate state for each:
+//
+//   0x01 -> turned on by power-on timer
+//   0x02 -> turned on by USB command
+uint8_t tv_relay_state = 0x00;
+const uint8_t TV_RELAY_POWERON = 0x01;
+const uint8_t TV_RELAY_USB     = 0x02;
+
+// TV ON switch relay control
+DigitalOut *tv_relay;
 
 // PSU2 power sensing circuit connections
 DigitalIn *psu2_status_sense;
 DigitalOut *psu2_status_set;
 
-// TV ON switch relay control
-DigitalOut *tv_relay;
+// Apply the current TV relay state
+void tvRelayUpdate(uint8_t bit, bool state)
+{
+    // update the state
+    if (state)
+        tv_relay_state |= bit;
+    else
+        tv_relay_state &= ~bit;
+    
+    // set the relay GPIO to the new state
+    if (tv_relay != 0)
+        tv_relay->write(tv_relay_state != 0);
+}
 
 // Timer interrupt
 Ticker tv_ticker;
@@ -2937,6 +3009,10 @@
             tv_timer.reset();
             tv_timer.start();
             psu2_state = 4;
+            
+            // start the power timer diagnostic flashes
+            powerTimerDiagState = 2;
+            diagLED();
         }
         else
         {
@@ -2954,16 +3030,24 @@
         if (tv_timer.read() >= tv_delay_time)
         {
             // turn on the relay for one timer interval
-            tv_relay->write(1);
+            tvRelayUpdate(TV_RELAY_POWERON, true);
             psu2_state = 5;
         }
+        
+        // flash the power time diagnostic every two interrupts
+        powerTimerDiagState = (powerTimerDiagState + 1) & 0x03;
+        diagLED();
         break;
         
     case 5:
         // TV timer relay on.  We pulse this for one interval, so
         // it's now time to turn it off and return to the default state.
-        tv_relay->write(0);
+        tvRelayUpdate(TV_RELAY_POWERON, false);
         psu2_state = 1;
+        
+        // done with the diagnostic flashes
+        powerTimerDiagState = 0;
+        diagLED();
         break;
     }
 }
@@ -2984,13 +3068,56 @@
         psu2_status_sense = new DigitalIn(wirePinName(cfg.TVON.statusPin));
         psu2_status_set = new DigitalOut(wirePinName(cfg.TVON.latchPin));
         tv_relay = new DigitalOut(wirePinName(cfg.TVON.relayPin));
-        tv_delay_time = cfg.TVON.delayTime/100.0;
+        tv_delay_time = cfg.TVON.delayTime/100.0f;
     
         // Set up our time routine to run every 1/4 second.  
         tv_ticker.attach(&TVTimerInt, 0.25);
     }
 }
 
+// TV relay manual control timer.  This lets us pulse the TV relay
+// under manual control, separately from the TV ON timer.
+Ticker tv_manualTicker;
+void TVManualInt()
+{
+    tv_manualTicker.detach();
+    tvRelayUpdate(TV_RELAY_USB, false);
+}
+
+// Operate the TV ON relay.  This allows manual control of the relay
+// from the PC.  See protocol message 65 submessage 11.
+//
+// Mode:
+//    0 = turn relay off
+//    1 = turn relay on
+//    2 = pulse relay 
+void TVRelay(int mode)
+{
+    // if there's no TV relay control pin, ignore this
+    if (tv_relay == 0)
+        return;
+    
+    switch (mode)
+    {
+    case 0:
+        // relay off
+        tvRelayUpdate(TV_RELAY_USB, false);
+        break;
+        
+    case 1:
+        // relay on
+        tvRelayUpdate(TV_RELAY_USB, true);
+        break;
+        
+    case 2:
+        // Pulse the relay.  Turn it on, then set our timer for 250ms.
+        tvRelayUpdate(TV_RELAY_USB, true);
+        tv_manualTicker.attach(&TVManualInt, 0.25);
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+
 // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 //
 // In-memory configuration data structure.  This is the live version in RAM
@@ -3652,11 +3779,122 @@
 
 private:
 
-#if 1
+// Plunger data filtering mode:  optionally apply filtering to the raw 
+// plunger sensor readings to try to reduce noise in the signal.  This
+// is designed for the TSL1410/12 optical sensors, where essentially all
+// of the noise in the signal comes from lack of sharpness in the shadow
+// edge.  When the shadow is blurry, the edge detector has to pick a pixel,
+// even though the edge is actually a gradient spanning several pixels.
+// The edge detection algorithm decides on the exact pixel, but whatever
+// the algorithm, the choice is going to be somewhat arbitrary given that
+// there's really no one pixel that's "the edge" when the edge actually
+// covers multiple pixels.  This can make the choice of pixel sensitive to
+// small changes in exposure and pixel respose from frame to frame, which
+// means that the reported edge position can move by a pixel or two from
+// one frame to the next even when the physical plunger is perfectly still.
+// That's the noise we're talking about.
+//
+// We previously applied a mild hysteresis filter to the signal to try to
+// eliminate this noise.  The filter tracked the average over the last
+// several samples, and rejected readings that wandered within a few
+// pixels of the average.  If a certain number of readings moved away from
+// the average in the same direction, even by small amounts, the filter
+// accepted the changes, on the assumption that they represented actual
+// slow movement of the plunger.  This filter was applied after the firing
+// detection.
+//
+// I also tried a simpler filter that rejected changes that were too fast
+// to be physically possible, as well as changes that were very close to
+// the last reported position (i.e., simple hysteresis).  The "too fast"
+// filter was there to reject spurious readings where the edge detector
+// mistook a bad pixel value as an edge.  
+//
+// The new "mode 2" edge detector (see ccdSensor.h) seems to do a better
+// job of rejecting pixel-level noise by itself than the older "mode 0"
+// algorithm did, so I removed the filtering entirely.  Any filtering has
+// some downsides, so it's better to reduce noise in the underlying signal
+// as much as possible first.  It seems possible to get a very stable signal
+// now with a combination of the mode 2 edge detector and optimizing the
+// physical sensor arrangement, especially optimizing the light source to
+// cast as sharp as shadow as possible and adjusting the brightness to
+// maximize bright/dark contrast in the image.
+//
+//   0 = No filtering (current default)
+//   1 = Filter the data after firing detection using moving average
+//       hysteresis filter (old version, used in most 2016 releases)
+//   2 = Filter the data before firing detection using simple hysteresis
+//       plus spurious "too fast" motion rejection
+//
+#define PLUNGER_FILTERING_MODE  0
+
+#if PLUNGER_FILTERING_MODE == 0
     // Disable all filtering
     void applyPreFilter(PlungerReading &r) { }
     int applyPostFilter() { return z; }
-#elif 1
+#elif PLUNGER_FILTERING_MODE == 1
+    // Apply pre-processing filter.  This filter is applied to the raw
+    // value coming off the sensor, before calibration or fire-event
+    // processing.
+    void applyPreFilter(PlungerReading &r)
+    {
+    }
+    
+    // Figure the next post-processing filtered value.  This applies a
+    // hysteresis filter to the last raw z value and returns the 
+    // filtered result.
+    int applyPostFilter()
+    { 
+        if (firing <= 1)
+        {
+            // Filter limit - 5 samples.  Once we've been moving
+            // in the same direction for this many samples, we'll
+            // clear the history and start over.
+            const int filterMask = 0x1f;
+            
+            // figure the last average
+            int lastAvg = int(filterSum / filterN);
+            
+            // figure the direction of this sample relative to the average,
+            // and shift it in to our bit mask of recent direction data
+            if (z != lastAvg)
+            {
+                // shift the new direction bit into the vector
+                filterDir <<= 1;
+                if (z > lastAvg) filterDir |= 1;
+            }
+            
+            // keep only the last N readings, up to the filter limit
+            filterDir &= filterMask;
+            
+            // if we've been moving consistently in one direction (all 1's
+            // or all 0's in the direction history vector), reset the average
+            if (filterDir == 0x00 || filterDir == filterMask) 
+            {
+                // motion away from the average - reset the average
+                filterDir = 0x5555;
+                filterN = 1;
+                filterSum = (lastAvg + z)/2;
+                return int16_t(filterSum);
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                // we're directionless - return the new average, with the 
+                // new sample included
+                filterSum += z;
+                ++filterN;
+                return int16_t(filterSum / filterN);
+            }
+        }
+        else
+        {
+            // firing mode - skip the filter
+            filterN = 1;
+            filterSum = z;
+            filterDir = 0x5555;
+            return z;
+        }
+    }
+#elif PLUNGER_FILTERING_MODE == 2
     // Apply pre-processing filter.  This filter is applied to the raw
     // value coming off the sensor, before calibration or fire-event
     // processing.
@@ -3725,69 +3963,6 @@
     {
         return z;
     }
-#else
-    // Apply pre-processing filter.  This filter is applied to the raw
-    // value coming off the sensor, before calibration or fire-event
-    // processing.
-    void applyPreFilter(PlungerReading &r)
-    {
-    }
-    
-    // Figure the next post-processing filtered value.  This applies a
-    // hysteresis filter to the last raw z value and returns the 
-    // filtered result.
-    int applyPostFilter()
-    { 
-        if (firing <= 1)
-        {
-            // Filter limit - 5 samples.  Once we've been moving
-            // in the same direction for this many samples, we'll
-            // clear the history and start over.
-            const int filterMask = 0x1f;
-            
-            // figure the last average
-            int lastAvg = int(filterSum / filterN);
-            
-            // figure the direction of this sample relative to the average,
-            // and shift it in to our bit mask of recent direction data
-            if (z != lastAvg)
-            {
-                // shift the new direction bit into the vector
-                filterDir <<= 1;
-                if (z > lastAvg) filterDir |= 1;
-            }
-            
-            // keep only the last N readings, up to the filter limit
-            filterDir &= filterMask;
-            
-            // if we've been moving consistently in one direction (all 1's
-            // or all 0's in the direction history vector), reset the average
-            if (filterDir == 0x00 || filterDir == filterMask) 
-            {
-                // motion away from the average - reset the average
-                filterDir = 0x5555;
-                filterN = 1;
-                filterSum = (lastAvg + z)/2;
-                return int16_t(filterSum);
-            }
-            else
-            {
-                // we're directionless - return the new average, with the 
-                // new sample included
-                filterSum += z;
-                ++filterN;
-                return int16_t(filterSum / filterN);
-            }
-        }
-        else
-        {
-            // firing mode - skip the filter
-            filterN = 1;
-            filterSum = z;
-            filterDir = 0x5555;
-            return z;
-        }
-    }
 #endif
     
     void initFilter()
@@ -4199,7 +4374,7 @@
 #define v_byte(var, ofs)    data[ofs] = cfg.var
 #define v_ui16(var, ofs)    ui16Wire(data+(ofs), cfg.var)
 #define v_pin(var, ofs)     pinNameWire(data+(ofs), cfg.var)
-#define v_byte_ro(val, ofs) data[ofs] = val
+#define v_byte_ro(val, ofs) data[ofs] = (val)
 #define v_func  configVarGet
 #include "cfgVarMsgMap.h"
 
@@ -4241,24 +4416,23 @@
         ledWizMode = true;
 
         // update all on/off states
-        for (int i = 0, bit = 1, ri = 1 ; i < numLwOutputs ; ++i, bit <<= 1)
+        for (int i = 0, bit = 1, imsg = 1, iwiz = ledWizBank*32 ; 
+             i < 32 && iwiz < numOutputs ;
+             ++i, ++iwiz, bit <<= 1)
         {
             // figure the on/off state bit for this output
             if (bit == 0x100) {
                 bit = 1;
-                ++ri;
+                ++imsg;
             }
             
             // set the on/off state
-            wizOn[i] = ((data[ri] & bit) != 0);
+            wizOn[iwiz] = ((data[imsg] & bit) != 0);
         }
         
         // set the flash speed - enforce the value range 1-7
-        wizSpeed = data[5];
-        if (wizSpeed < 1)
-            wizSpeed = 1;
-        else if (wizSpeed > 7)
-            wizSpeed = 7;
+        if (ledWizBank < countof(wizSpeed))
+            wizSpeed[ledWizBank] = (data[5] < 1 ? 1 : data[5] > 7 ? 7 : data[5]);
 
         // update the physical outputs
         updateWizOuts();
@@ -4337,7 +4511,7 @@
                 numOutputs, 
                 cfg.psUnitNo - 1,   // report 0-15 range for unit number (we store 1-16 internally)
                 cfg.plunger.cal.zero, cfg.plunger.cal.max, cfg.plunger.cal.tRelease,
-                nvm.valid());
+                nvm.valid(), xmalloc_rem);
             break;
             
         case 5:
@@ -4391,6 +4565,26 @@
             // 10 = Build ID query.
             js.reportBuildInfo(getBuildID());
             break;
+            
+        case 11:
+            // 11 = TV ON relay control.
+            //      data[2] = operation:
+            //         0 = turn relay off
+            //         1 = turn relay on
+            //         2 = pulse relay (as though the power-on timer fired)
+            TVRelay(data[2]);
+            break;
+            
+        case 12:
+            // 12 = Select virtual LedWiz unit.  This selects a bank of 32
+            // outputs for subsequent SBA and PBA messages.
+            ledWizBank = data[2];
+            break;
+            
+        case 13:
+            // 13 = Send button status report
+            reportButtonStatus(js);
+            break;
         }
     }
     else if (data[0] == 66)
@@ -4471,15 +4665,17 @@
         // flag that we received an LedWiz message
         ledWizMode = true;
 
-        // Update all output profile settings
-        for (int i = 0 ; i < 8 ; ++i)
-            wizVal[pbaIdx + i] = data[i];
+        // Update all output profile settings for the current bank
+        for (int i = 0, iwiz = ledWizBank*32 + pbaIdx ; 
+             i < 8 && iwiz < numOutputs ; 
+             ++i, ++iwiz)
+            wizVal[iwiz] = data[i];
 
         // Update the physical LED state if this is the last bank.
         // Note that hosts always send a full set of four PBA
         // messages, so there's no need to do a physical update
         // until we've received the last bank's PBA message.
-        if (pbaIdx == 24)
+        if (pbaIdx >= 24)
         {
             updateWizOuts();
             if (hc595 != 0)
@@ -4817,7 +5013,8 @@
         // figure the current status flags for joystick reports
         uint16_t statusFlags =
             (cfg.plunger.enabled ? 0x01 : 0x00)
-            | (nightMode ? 0x02 : 0x00);
+            | (nightMode ? 0x02 : 0x00)
+            | ((psu2_state & 0x07) << 2);
 
         // If it's been long enough since our last USB status report, send
         // the new report.  VP only polls for input in 10ms intervals, so
@@ -5040,6 +5237,12 @@
                     jsOKTimer.stop();
                 }
             }
+            else if (psu2_state >= 4)
+            {
+                // We're in the TV timer countdown.  Skip the normal heartbeat
+                // flashes and show the TV timer flashes instead.
+                diagLED(0, 0, 0);
+            }
             else if (cfg.plunger.enabled && !cfg.plunger.cal.calibrated)
             {
                 // connected, plunger calibration needed - flash yellow/green