An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Revision:
98:4df3c0f7e707
Parent:
96:68d5621ff49f
Child:
99:8139b0c274f4
--- a/main.cpp	Wed Feb 07 00:01:21 2018 +0000
+++ b/main.cpp	Fri Mar 01 23:53:59 2019 +0000
@@ -869,7 +869,7 @@
     
     virtual void set(uint8_t level)
     {
-        // remebmber the new nominal level set by the client
+        // remember the new nominal level set by the client
         val = level;
         
         // update the physical output according to our current timing state
@@ -1066,8 +1066,12 @@
     // for the PWM duty cycle of the physical output.
     uint8_t params;
     
+    // Full-power time mapping.  This maps from the 4-bit (0..15) time value
+    // in the parameters to the number of microseconds.
+    static const uint32_t paramToTime_us[];
+    
     // Figure the initial full-power time in microseconds
-    inline uint32_t fullPowerTime_us() const { return ((params >> 4) + 1)*50000; }
+    inline uint32_t fullPowerTime_us() const { return paramToTime_us[params >> 4]; }
     
     // Figure the hold power PWM level (0-255) 
     inline uint8_t holdPower() const { return (params & 0x0F) * 17; }
@@ -1078,7 +1082,9 @@
     static Timer timer;
     
     // Flipper logic pending timer list.  Whenever a flipper logic output
-    // transitions from OFF to ON, tis timer
+    // transitions from OFF to ON, we add it to this list.  We scan the
+    // list in our polling routine to find ports that have reached the
+    // expiration of their initial full-power intervals.
     static LwFlipperLogicOut **pending;
     static uint8_t nPending;
 };
@@ -1087,6 +1093,271 @@
 Timer LwFlipperLogicOut::timer;
 LwFlipperLogicOut **LwFlipperLogicOut::pending;
 uint8_t LwFlipperLogicOut::nPending;
+const uint32_t LwFlipperLogicOut::paramToTime_us[] = {
+    1000, 
+    2000,
+    5000, 
+    10000, 
+    20000, 
+    40000, 
+    80000, 
+    100000, 
+    150000, 
+    200000, 
+    300000, 
+    400000, 
+    500000, 
+    600000, 
+    700000, 
+    800000
+};
+
+// Minimum On Time output.  This is a filter output that we layer on
+// a physical output to force the underlying output to stay on for a
+// minimum interval.  This can be used for devices that need to be on
+// for a certain amount of time to trigger their full effect, such as
+// slower solenoids or contactors.
+class LwMinTimeOut: public LwOut
+{
+public:
+    // Set up the output.  'param' is the configuration parameter
+    // for the mininum time span.
+    LwMinTimeOut(LwOut *o, uint8_t param)
+        : out(o), param(param)
+    {
+        // initially OFF
+        state = 0;
+    }
+    
+    virtual void set(uint8_t level)
+    {
+        // update the physical output according to our current timing state
+        switch (state)
+        {
+        case 0:
+            // We're currently off.  If the new level is non-zero, switch
+            // to state 1 (initial minimum interval) and set the requested
+            // level.  If the new level is zero, we're switching from off to
+            // off, so there's no change.
+            if (level != 0)
+            {
+                // switch to state 1 (initial minimum interval, port is
+                // logically on)
+                state = 1;
+                
+                // set the requested output level
+                out->set(level);
+
+                // add myself to the pending timer list
+                pending[nPending++] = this;
+                
+                // note the starting time
+                t0 = timer.read_us();
+            }
+            break;
+            
+        case 1:   // min ON interval, port on
+        case 2:   // min ON interval, port off
+            // We're in the initial minimum ON interval.  If the new power
+            // level is non-zero, pass it through to the physical port, since
+            // the client is allowed to change the power level during the
+            // initial ON interval - they just can't turn it off entirely.
+            // Set the state to 1 to indicate that the logical port is on.
+            //
+            // If the new level is zero, leave the underlying port at its 
+            // current power level, since we're not allowed to turn it off
+            // during this period.  Set the state to 2 to indicate that the
+            // logical port is off even though the physical port has to stay
+            // on for the remainder of the interval.
+            if (level != 0)
+            {
+                // client is leaving the port on - pass through the new 
+                // power level and set state 1 (logically on)
+                out->set(level);
+                state = 1;
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                // Client is turning off the port - leave the underlying port 
+                // on at its current level and set state 2 (logically off).
+                // When the minimum ON time expires, the polling routine will
+                // see that we're logically off and will pass that through to
+                // the underlying physical port.  Until then, though, we have
+                // to leave the physical port on to satisfy the minimum ON
+                // time requirement.
+                state = 2;
+            }
+            break;
+            
+        case 3: 
+            // We're out of the minimum ON interval, so we can set any new
+            // level, including fully off.  Pass the new power level through
+            // to the port.
+            out->set(level);
+            
+            // if the port is now off, return to state 0 (OFF)
+            if (level == 0)
+                state = 0;
+            break;
+        }
+    }
+    
+    // Class initialization
+    static void classInit(Config &cfg)
+    {
+        // Count the Minimum On Time outputs in the configuration.  We
+        // need to allocate enough pending timer list space to accommodate
+        // all of these outputs.
+        int n = 0;
+        for (int i = 0 ; i < MAX_OUT_PORTS ; ++i)
+        {
+            // if this port is active and marked as Flipper Logic, count it
+            if (cfg.outPort[i].typ != PortTypeDisabled
+                && (cfg.outPort[i].flags & PortFlagMinOnTime) != 0)
+                ++n;
+        }
+        
+        // allocate space for the pending timer list
+        pending = new LwMinTimeOut*[n];
+        
+        // there's nothing in the pending list yet
+        nPending = 0;
+        
+        // Start our shared timer.  The epoch is arbitrary, since we only
+        // use it to figure elapsed times.
+        timer.start();
+    }
+
+    // Check for ports with pending timers.  The main routine should
+    // call this on each iteration to process our state transitions.
+    static void poll()
+    {
+        // note the current time
+        uint32_t t = timer.read_us();
+        
+        // go through the timer list
+        for (int i = 0 ; i < nPending ; )
+        {
+            // get the port
+            LwMinTimeOut *port = pending[i];
+            
+            // assume we'll keep it
+            bool remove = false;
+            
+            // check if we're in the minimum ON period for the port
+            if (port->state == 1 || port->state == 2)
+            {
+                // we are - check if the minimum ON time has elapsed
+                if (uint32_t(t - port->t0) > port->minOnTime_us())
+                {
+                    // This port has completed its initial ON interval, so
+                    // it advances to the next state. 
+                    if (port->state == 1)
+                    {
+                        // The port is logically on, so advance to state 3,
+                        // "on past minimum initial time".  The underlying
+                        // port is already at its proper level, since we pass
+                        // through non-zero power settings to the underlying
+                        // port throughout the initial ON interval.
+                        port->state = 3;
+                    }
+                    else
+                    {
+                        // The port was switched off by the client during the
+                        // minimum ON period.  We haven't passed the OFF state
+                        // to the underlying port yet, because the port has to
+                        // stay on throughout the minimum ON period.  So turn
+                        // the port off now.
+                        port->out->set(0);
+                        
+                        // return to state 0 (OFF)
+                        port->state = 0;
+                    }
+                    
+                    // we're done with the timer
+                    remove = true;
+                }
+            }
+            
+            // if desired, remove the port from the timer list
+            if (remove)
+            {
+                // Remove the list entry by overwriting the slot with
+                // the last entry in the list.
+                pending[i] = pending[--nPending];
+                
+                // Note that we don't increment the loop counter, since
+                // we now need to revisit this same slot.
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                // we're keeping this item; move on to the next one
+                ++i;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+protected:
+    // underlying physical output
+    LwOut *out;
+    
+    // Timestamp on 'timer' of start of full-power interval.  We set this
+    // to the current 'timer' timestamp when entering state 1.
+    uint32_t t0;
+
+    // Current port state:
+    //
+    //  0 = off
+    //  1 = initial minimum ON interval, logical port is ON
+    //  2 = initial minimum ON interval, logical port is OFF
+    //  3 = past the minimum ON interval
+    //
+    uint8_t state;
+    
+    // Configuration parameter.  This encodes the minimum ON time.
+    uint8_t param;
+    
+    // Timer.  This is a shared timer for all of the minimum ON time ports.
+    // When we transition from OFF to ON, we note the current time on this 
+    // timer to establish the start of our minimum ON period.
+    static Timer timer;
+
+    // translaton table from timing parameter in config to minimum ON time
+    static const uint32_t paramToTime_us[];
+    
+    // Figure the minimum ON time
+    inline uint32_t minOnTime_us() const { return paramToTime_us[param & 0x0F]; }
+
+    // Pending timer list.  Whenever one of our ports transitions from OFF
+    // to ON, we add it to this list.  We scan this list in our polling
+    // routine to find ports that have reached the ends of their initial
+    // ON intervals.
+    static LwMinTimeOut **pending;
+    static uint8_t nPending;
+};
+
+// Min Time Out statics
+Timer LwMinTimeOut::timer;
+LwMinTimeOut **LwMinTimeOut::pending;
+uint8_t LwMinTimeOut::nPending;
+const uint32_t LwMinTimeOut::paramToTime_us[] = {
+    1000, 
+    2000,
+    5000, 
+    10000, 
+    20000, 
+    40000, 
+    80000, 
+    100000, 
+    150000, 
+    200000, 
+    300000, 
+    400000, 
+    500000, 
+    600000, 
+    700000, 
+    800000
+};
 
 //
 // The TLC5940 interface object.  We'll set this up with the port 
@@ -1576,6 +1847,7 @@
     int activeLow = flags & PortFlagActiveLow;
     int gamma = flags & PortFlagGamma;
     int flipperLogic = flags & PortFlagFlipperLogic;
+    int hasMinOnTime = flags & PortFlagMinOnTime;
     
     // cancel gamma on flipper logic ports
     if (flipperLogic)
@@ -1692,6 +1964,10 @@
     if (flipperLogic)
         lwp = new LwFlipperLogicOut(lwp, pc.flipperLogic);
         
+    // Layer on the Minimum On Time if desired
+    if (hasMinOnTime)
+        lwp = new LwMinTimeOut(lwp, pc.minOnTime);
+        
     // If it's a noisemaker, layer on a night mode switch
     if (noisy)
         lwp = new LwNoisyOut(lwp);
@@ -1720,8 +1996,9 @@
 // initialize the output pin array
 void initLwOut(Config &cfg)
 {
-    // Initialize the Flipper Logic outputs
+    // Initialize the Flipper Logic and Minimum On Time outputs
     LwFlipperLogicOut::classInit(cfg);
+    LwMinTimeOut::classInit(cfg);
 
     // Count the outputs.  The first disabled output determines the
     // total number of ports.
@@ -3271,7 +3548,18 @@
                     // assigned to the shifted or unshifted version of the
                     // button.
                     bool pressed;
-                    if ((cfg.nightMode.flags & 0x02) != 0)
+                    if (shiftButton.index == i)
+                    {
+                        // This button is both the Shift button AND the Night
+                        // Mode button.  This is a special case in that the
+                        // Shift status is irrelevant, because it's obviously
+                        // identical to the Night Mode status.  So it doesn't
+                        // matter whether or not the Night Mode button has the
+                        // shifted flags; the raw button state is all that
+                        // counts in this case.
+                        pressed = true;
+                    }
+                    else if ((cfg.nightMode.flags & 0x02) != 0)
                     {
                         // Shift bit is set - night mode is assigned to the
                         // shifted version of the button.  This is a Night
@@ -5737,6 +6025,7 @@
                 true,               // we support the new accelerometer settings
                 true,               // we support the "flash write ok" status bit in joystick reports
                 true,               // we support the configurable joystick report timing features
+                true,               // we use the new flipper logic timing table
                 mallocBytesFree()); // remaining memory size
             break;
             
@@ -6019,10 +6308,10 @@
     // say hello to the debug console, in case it's connected
     printf("\r\nPinscape Controller starting\r\n");
     
-    // Set the default PWM period to 1ms.  This will be used for PWM
-    // channels on PWM units whose periods aren't changed explicitly,
-    // so it'll apply to LW outputs assigned to GPIO pins.  Note that
-    // the KL25Z only allows the period to be set at the TPM unit
+    // Set the default PWM period to 0.5ms = 2 kHz.  This will be used 
+    // for PWM channels on PWM units whose periods aren't changed 
+    // explicitly, so it'll apply to LW outputs assigned to GPIO pins.
+    // The KL25Z only allows the period to be set at the TPM unit
     // level, not per channel, so all channels on a given unit will
     // necessarily use the same frequency.  We (currently) have two
     // subsystems that need specific PWM frequencies: TLC5940NT (which
@@ -6320,8 +6609,9 @@
         // update PWM outputs
         pollPwmUpdates();
         
-        // update Flipper Logic outputs
+        // update Flipper Logic and Min On Time outputs
         LwFlipperLogicOut::poll();
+        LwMinTimeOut::poll();
         
         // poll the accelerometer
         accel.poll();
@@ -6690,8 +6980,9 @@
                 // try to recover the connection
                 js.recoverConnection();
                 
-                // update Flipper Logic outputs
+                // update Flipper Logic and Min Out Time outputs
                 LwFlipperLogicOut::poll();
+                LwMinTimeOut::poll();
 
                 // send TLC5940 data if necessary
                 if (tlc5940 != 0)