An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Fri Apr 21 18:50:37 2017 +0000
Capture a bunch of alternative bar code decoder tests, mostly unsuccessful

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 1 // Plunger Sensor Interface
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 2 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 3 // This module defines the abstract interface to the plunger sensors.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 4 // We support several different physical sensor types, so we need a
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 5 // common interface for use in the main code.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 6 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 7 // In case it's helpful in developing code for new sensor types, I've
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 8 // measured the maximum instantaneous speed of a plunger at .175 inches
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 9 // per millisecond, or 4.46 mm/ms. (I measured that with an AEDR-8300;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 10 // see that code for more details.)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 11 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 12
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 13 #ifndef PLUNGER_H
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 14 #define PLUNGER_H
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 15
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 16 // Plunger reading with timestamp
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 17 struct PlungerReading
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 18 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 19 // Raw sensor reading, normalied to 0x0000..0xFFFF range
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 20 int pos;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 21
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 22 // Rimestamp of reading, in microseconds, relative to an arbitrary
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 23 // zero point. Note that a 32-bit int can only represent about 71.5
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 24 // minutes worth of microseconds, so this value is only meaningful
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 25 // to compute a delta from other recent readings. As long as two
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 26 // readings are within 71.5 minutes of each other, the time difference
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 27 // calculated from the timestamps using 32-bit math will be correct
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 28 // *even if a rollover occurs* between the two readings, since the
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 29 // calculation is done mod 2^32-1.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 30 uint32_t t;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 31 };
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 32
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 33 class PlungerSensor
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 34 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 35 public:
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 36 PlungerSensor(int nativeScale)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 37 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 38 // use the joystick scale as our native scale by default
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 39 this->nativeScale = nativeScale;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 40
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 41 // figure the scaling factor
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 42 scalingFactor = (65535UL*65536UL) / nativeScale;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 43
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 44 // presume no jitter filter
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 45 jfWindow = 0;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 46
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 47 // initialize the jitter filter
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 48 jfLo = jfHi = jfLast = 0;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 49 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 50
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 51 // ---------- Abstract sensor interface ----------
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 52
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 53 // Initialize the physical sensor device. This is called at startup
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 54 // to set up the device for first use.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 55 virtual void init() { }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 56
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 57 // Auto-zero the plunger. Relative sensor types, such as quadrature
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 58 // sensors, can lose sync with the absolute position over time if they
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 59 // ever miss any motion. We can automatically correct for this by
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 60 // resetting to the park position after periods of inactivity. It's
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 61 // usually safe to assume that the plunger is at the park position if it
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 62 // hasn't moved in a long time, since the spring always returns it to
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 63 // that position when it isn't being manipulated. The main loop monitors
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 64 // for motion, and calls this after a long enough time goes by without
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 65 // seeing any movement. Sensor types that are inherently absolute
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 66 // (TSL1410, potentiometers) shouldn't do anything here.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 67 virtual void autoZero() { }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 68
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 69 // Is the sensor ready to take a reading? The optical sensor requires
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 70 // a fairly long time (2.5ms) to transfer the data for each reading, but
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 71 // this is done via DMA, so we can carry on other work while the transfer
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 72 // takes place. This lets us poll the sensor to see if it's still busy
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 73 // working on the current reading's data transfer.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 74 virtual bool ready() { return true; }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 75
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 76 // Read the sensor position, if possible. Returns true on success,
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 77 // false if it wasn't possible to take a reading. On success, fills
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 78 // in 'r' with the current reading and timestamp and returns true.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 79 // Returns false if a reading couldn't be taken.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 80 //
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 81 // r.pos is set to the normalized position reading, and r.t is set to
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 82 // the timestamp of the reading.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 83 //
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 84 // The normalized position is the sensor reading, corrected for jitter,
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 85 // and adjusted to the abstract 0x0000..0xFFFF range.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 86 //
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 87 // The timestamp is the time the sensor reading was taken, relative to
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 88 // an arbitrary zero point. The arbitrary zero point makes this useful
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 89 // only for calculating the time between readings. Note that the 32-bit
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 90 // timestamp rolls over about every 71 minutes, so it should only be
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 91 // used for time differences between readings taken fairly close together.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 92 // In practice, the higher level code only uses this for a few consecutive
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 93 // readings to calculate (nearly) instantaneous velocities, so the time
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 94 // spans are only tens of milliseconds.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 95 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 96 // Timing requirements: for best results, readings should be taken
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 97 // in well under 5ms. The release motion of the physical plunger
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 98 // takes from 30ms to 50ms, so we need to collect samples much faster
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 99 // than that to avoid aliasing during the bounce.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 100 bool read(PlungerReading &r)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 101 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 102 // get the raw reading
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 103 if (readRaw(r))
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 104 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 105 // process it through the jitter filter
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 106 //$$$ r.pos = jitterFilter(r.pos);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 107
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 108 // adjust to the abstract scale via the scaling factor
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 109 r.pos = uint16_t(uint32_t((scalingFactor * r.pos) + 32768) >> 16);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 110
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 111 // success
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 112 return true;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 113 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 114 else
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 115 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 116 // no reading is available
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 117 return false;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 118 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 119 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 120
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 121 // Get a raw plunger reading. This gets the raw sensor reading with
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 122 // timestamp, without jitter filtering and without any scale adjustment.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 123 virtual bool readRaw(PlungerReading &r) = 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 124
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 125 // Begin calibration. The main loop calls this when the user activates
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 126 // calibration mode. Sensors that work in terms of relative positions,
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 127 // such as quadrature-based sensors, can use this to set the reference
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 128 // point for the park position internally.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 129 virtual void beginCalibration() { }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 130
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 131 // Send a sensor status report to the host, via the joystick interface.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 132 // This provides some common information for all sensor types, and also
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 133 // includes a full image snapshot of the current sensor pixels for
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 134 // imaging sensor types.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 135 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 136 // The default implementation here sends the common information
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 137 // packet, with the pixel size set to 0.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 138 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 139 // 'flags' is a combination of bit flags:
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 140 // 0x01 -> low-res scan (default is high res scan)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 141 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 142 // Low-res scan mode means that the sensor should send a scaled-down
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 143 // image, at a reduced size determined by the sensor subtype. The
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 144 // default if this flag isn't set is to send the full image, at the
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 145 // sensor's native pixel size. The low-res version is a reduced size
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 146 // image in the normal sense of scaling down a photo image, keeping the
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 147 // image intact but at reduced resolution. Note that low-res mode
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 148 // doesn't affect the ongoing sensor operation at all. It only applies
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 149 // to this single pixel report. The purpose is simply to reduce the USB
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 150 // transmission time for the image, to allow for a faster frame rate for
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 151 // displaying the sensor image in real time on the PC. For a high-res
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 152 // sensor like the TSL1410R, sending the full pixel array by USB takes
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 153 // so long that the frame rate is way below regular video rates.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 154 //
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 155 // 'exposureTime' is the amount of extra time to add to the exposure,
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 156 // in 100us (.1ms) increments. For imaging sensors, the frame we report
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 157 // is exposed for the minimum exposure time plus this added time. This
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 158 // allows the host to take readings at different exposure levels for
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 159 // calibration purposes. Non-imaging sensors ignore this.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 160 virtual void sendStatusReport(
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 161 class USBJoystick &js, uint8_t flags, uint8_t exposureTime)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 162 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 163 // read the current position
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 164 int pos = 0xFFFF;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 165 PlungerReading r;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 166 if (readRaw(r))
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 167 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 168 // success - apply the jitter filter
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 169 pos = jitterFilter(r.pos);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 170 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 171
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 172 // Send the common status information, indicating 0 pixels, standard
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 173 // sensor orientation, and zero processing time. Non-imaging sensors
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 174 // usually don't have any way to detect the orientation, so assume
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 175 // normal orientation (flag 0x01). Also assume zero analysis time,
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 176 // as most non-image sensors don't have to do anything CPU-intensive
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 177 // with the raw readings (all they usually have to do is scale the
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 178 // value to the abstract reporting range).
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 179 js.sendPlungerStatus(0, pos, 0x01, getAvgScanTime(), 0);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 180 js.sendPlungerStatus2(nativeScale, jfLo, jfHi, r.pos, 0);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 181 }
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 182
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 183 // Get the average sensor scan time in microseconds
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 184 virtual uint32_t getAvgScanTime() = 0;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 185
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 186 // Apply the jitter filter
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 187 int jitterFilter(int pos)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 188 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 189 // Check to see where the new reading is relative to the
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 190 // current window
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 191 if (pos < jfLo)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 192 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 193 // the new position is below the current window, so move
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 194 // the window down such that the new point is at the bottom
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 195 // of the window
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 196 jfLo = pos;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 197 jfHi = pos + jfWindow;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 198 jfLast = pos;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 199 return pos;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 200 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 201 else if (pos > jfHi)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 202 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 203 // the new position is above the current window, so move
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 204 // the window up such that the new point is at the top of
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 205 // the window
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 206 jfHi = pos;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 207 jfLo = pos - jfWindow;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 208 jfLast = pos;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 209 return pos;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 210 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 211 else
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 212 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 213 // the new position is inside the current window, so repeat
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 214 // the last reading
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 215 return jfLast;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 216 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 217 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 218
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 219 // Set the jitter filter window size. This is specified in native
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 220 // sensor units.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 221 void setJitterWindow(int w)
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 222 {
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 223 // set the new window size
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 224 jfWindow = w;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 225
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 226 // reset the running window
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 227 jfHi = jfLo = jfLast;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 228 }
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 229
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 230 protected:
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 231 // Native scale of the device. This is the scale used for the position
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 232 // reading in status reports. This lets us report the position in the
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 233 // same units the sensor itself uses, to avoid any rounding error
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 234 // converting to an abstract scale.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 235 //
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 236 // Image edge detection sensors use the pixel size of the image, since
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 237 // the position is determined by the pixel position of the shadow in
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 238 // the image. Quadrature sensors and other sensors that report the
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 239 // distance in terms of physical distance units should use the number
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 240 // of quanta in the approximate total plunger travel distance of 3".
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 241 // For example, the VL6180X uses millimeter quanta, so can report
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 242 // about 77 quanta over 3"; a quadrature sensor that reports at 1/300"
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 243 // intervals has about 900 quanta over 3". Absolute encoders (e.g.,
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 244 // bar code sensors) should use the bar code range.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 245 //
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 246 // Sensors that are inherently analog (e.g., potentiometers, analog
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 247 // distance sensors) can quantize on any arbitrary scale. In most cases,
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 248 // it's best to use the same 0..65535 scale used for the regular plunger
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 249 // reports.
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 250 uint16_t nativeScale;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 251
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 252 // Scaling factor to convert native readings to abstract units on the
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 253 // 0x0000..0xFFFF scale used in the higher level sensor-independent
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 254 // code. Multiply a raw sensor position reading by this value to
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 255 // get the equivalent value on the abstract scale. This is expressed
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 256 // as a fixed-point real number with a scale of 65536: calculate it as
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 257 //
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 258 // (65535U*65536U) / (nativeScale - 1);
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 259 uint32_t scalingFactor;
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 260
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 261 // Jitter filtering
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 262 int jfWindow; // window size, in native sensor units
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 263 int jfLo, jfHi; // bounds of current window
mjr 86:e30a1f60f783 264 int jfLast; // last filtered reading
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 265 };
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 266
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 267 #endif /* PLUNGER_H */