An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Wed Oct 21 21:53:07 2015 +0000
With expansion board 5940 "power enable" output; saving this feature, which is to be removed.

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 1 // Pinscape Controller TLC5940 interface
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 2 //
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 3 // Based on Spencer Davis's mbed TLC5940 library. Adapted for the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 4 // KL25Z, and simplified to just the functions needed for this
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 5 // application. In particular, this version doesn't include support
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 6 // for dot correction programming or status input. This version also
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 7 // uses a different approach for sending the grayscale data updates,
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 8 // sending updates during the blanking interval rather than overlapping
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 9 // them with the PWM cycle. This results in very slightly longer
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 10 // blanking intervals when updates are pending, effectively reducing
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 11 // the PWM "on" duty cycle (and thus the output brightness) by about
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 12 // 0.3%. This shouldn't be perceptible to users, so it's a small
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 13 // trade-off for the advantage gained, which is much better signal
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 14 // stability when using multiple TLC5940s daisy-chained together.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 15 // I saw a lot of instability when using the overlapped approach,
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 16 // which seems to be eliminated entirely when sending updates during
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 17 // the blanking interval.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 18
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 19
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 20 #ifndef TLC5940_H
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 21 #define TLC5940_H
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 22
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 23 // Should we do the grayscale update within the blanking interval?
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 24 // If this is set to 1, we'll send grayscale data during the blanking
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 25 // interval; if 0, we'll send grayscale during the PWM cycle.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 26 // Mode 0 is the *intended* way of using these chips, but mode 1
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 27 // produces a more stable signal in my test setup.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 28 //
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 29 // In my breadboard testing, using the standard data-during-PWM
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 30 // mode causes some amount of signal instability with multiple
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 31 // daisy-chained TLC5940's. It appears that there's some signal
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 32 // interference (maybe RF or electrical ringing in the wires) that
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 33 // can make the bit data and/or clock prone to noise that causes
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 34 // random bits to propagate down the daisy chain. This happens
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 35 // frequently enough in my breadboard setup to be visible as
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 36 // regular flicker. Careful wiring, short wire runs, and decoupling
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 37 // capacitors noticeably improve it, but I haven't been able to
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 38 // eliminate it entirely in my test setup. Using the data-during-
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 39 // blanking mode, however, *does* eliminate it entirely.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 40 //
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 41 // It clearly should be possible to eliminate the signal problems
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 42 // in a well-designed PCB layout, but for the time being, I'm
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 43 // making data-during-blanking the default, since it provides
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 44 // such a noticeable improvement in my test setup, and the cost
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 45 // is minimal. The cost is that it lengthens the blanking interval
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 46 // slightly. With four chips and the SPI clock at 28MHz, the
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 47 // full data update takes 27us; with the PWM clock at 500kHz, the
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 48 // grayscale cycle is 8192us. This means that the 27us data send
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 49 // keeps the BLANK asserted for an additional 0.3% of the cycle
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 50 // time, which in term reduces output brightness by the same amount.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 51 // This brightness reduction isn't noticeable on its own, but it
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 52 // can be seen as a flicker on data cycles if we send data on
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 53 // some blanking cycles but not on others. To eliminate the
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 54 // flicker, the code sends a data update on *every* cycle when
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 55 // using this mode to ensure that the 0.3% brightness reduction
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 56 // is uniform across time.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 57 //
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 58 // When using this code with TLC5940 chips on a PCB, I recommend
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 59 // doing a test: set this to 0, run the board, turn on all outputs
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 60 // (connected to LEDs), and observe the results. If you don't
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 61 // see any randomness or flicker in a minute or two of observation,
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 62 // you're getting a good clean signal throughout the daisy chain
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 63 // and don't need the workaround. If you do see any instability,
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 64 // set this back to 1.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 65 #define DATA_UPDATE_INSIDE_BLANKING 1
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 66
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 67 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 68 #include "FastPWM.h"
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 69 #include "SimpleDMA.h"
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 70
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 71 /**
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 72 * SPI speed used by the mbed to communicate with the TLC5940
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 73 * The TLC5940 supports up to 30Mhz. It's best to keep this as
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 74 * high as possible, since a higher SPI speed yields a faster
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 75 * grayscale data update. However, I've seen some slight
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 76 * instability in the signal in my breadboard setup using the
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 77 * full 30MHz, so I've reduced this slightly, which seems to
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 78 * yield a solid signal. The limit will vary according to how
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 79 * clean the signal path is to the chips; you can probably crank
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 80 * this up to full speed if you have a well-designed PCB, good
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 81 * decoupling capacitors near the 5940 VCC/GND pins, and short
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 82 * wires between the KL25Z and the PCB. A short, clean path to
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 83 * KL25Z ground seems especially important.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 84 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 85 * The SPI clock must be fast enough that the data transmission
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 86 * time for a full update is comfortably less than the blanking
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 87 * cycle time. The grayscale refresh requires 192 bits per TLC5940
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 88 * in the daisy chain, and each bit takes one SPI clock to send.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 89 * Our reference setup in the Pinscape controller allows for up to
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 90 * 4 TLC5940s, so a full refresh cycle on a fully populated system
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 91 * would be 768 SPI clocks. The blanking cycle is 4096 GSCLK cycles.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 92 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 93 * t(blank) = 4096 * 1/GSCLK_SPEED
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 94 * t(refresh) = 768 * 1/SPI_SPEED
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 95 * Therefore: SPI_SPEED must be > 768/4096 * GSCLK_SPEED
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 96 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 97 * Since the SPI speed can be so high, and since we want to keep
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 98 * the GSCLK speed relatively low, the constraint above simply
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 99 * isn't a factor. E.g., at SPI=30MHz and GSCLK=500kHz,
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 100 * t(blank) is 8192us and t(refresh) is 25us.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 101 */
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 102 #define SPI_SPEED 2800000
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 103
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 104 /**
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 105 * The rate at which the GSCLK pin is pulsed. This also controls
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 106 * how often the reset function is called. The reset function call
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 107 * rate is (1/GSCLK_SPEED) * 4096. The maximum reliable rate is
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 108 * around 32Mhz. It's best to keep this rate as low as possible:
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 109 * the higher the rate, the higher the refresh() call frequency,
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 110 * so the higher the CPU load.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 111 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 112 * The lower bound is probably dependent on the application. For
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 113 * driving LEDs, the limiting factor is that lower rates will increase
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 114 * visible flicker. 200 kHz seems to be a good lower bound for LEDs.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 115 * That provides about 48 cycles per second - that's about the same as
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 116 * the 50 Hz A/C cycle rate in many countries, which was itself chosen
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 117 * so that incandescent lights don't flicker. (This rate is a function
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 118 * of human eye physiology, which has its own refresh cycle of sorts
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 119 * that runs at about 50 Hz. If you're designing an LED system for
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 120 * viewing by cats or drosophila, you might want to look into your
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 121 * target species' eye physiology, since the persistence of vision
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 122 * rate varies quite a bit from species to species.) Flicker tends to
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 123 * be more noticeable in LEDs than in incandescents, since LEDs don't
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 124 * have the thermal inertia of incandescents, so we use a slightly
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 125 * higher default here. 500 kHz = 122 full grayscale cycles per
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 126 * second = 122 reset calls per second (call every 8ms).
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 127 */
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 128 #define GSCLK_SPEED 500000
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 129
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 130 /**
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 131 * This class controls a TLC5940 PWM driver IC.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 132 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 133 * Using the TLC5940 class to control an LED:
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 134 * @code
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 135 * #include "mbed.h"
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 136 * #include "TLC5940.h"
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 137 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 138 * // Create the TLC5940 instance
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 139 * TLC5940 tlc(p7, p5, p21, p9, p10, p11, p12, 1);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 140 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 141 * int main()
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 142 * {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 143 * // Enable the first LED
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 144 * tlc.set(0, 0xfff);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 145 *
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 146 * while(1)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 147 * {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 148 * }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 149 * }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 150 * @endcode
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 151 */
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 152 class TLC5940
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 153 {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 154 public:
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 155 /**
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 156 * Set up the TLC5940
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 157 * @param SCLK - The SCK pin of the SPI bus
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 158 * @param MOSI - The MOSI pin of the SPI bus
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 159 * @param GSCLK - The GSCLK pin of the TLC5940(s)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 160 * @param BLANK - The BLANK pin of the TLC5940(s)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 161 * @param XLAT - The XLAT pin of the TLC5940(s)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 162 * @param nchips - The number of TLC5940s (if you are daisy chaining)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 163 */
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 164 TLC5940(PinName SCLK, PinName MOSI, PinName GSCLK, PinName BLANK, PinName XLAT, int nchips)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 165 : spi(MOSI, NC, SCLK),
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 166 gsclk(GSCLK),
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 167 blank(BLANK),
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 168 xlat(XLAT),
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 169 nchips(nchips)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 170 {
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 171 // set XLAT to initially off
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 172 xlat = 0;
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 173
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 174 // Assert BLANK while starting up, to keep the outputs turned off until
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 175 // everything is stable. This helps prevent spurious flashes during startup.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 176 // (That's not particularly important for lights, but it matters more for
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 177 // tactile devices. It's a bit alarming to fire a replay knocker on every
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 178 // power-on, for example.)
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 179 blank = 1;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 180
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 181 // allocate the grayscale buffer, and set all outputs to fully off
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 182 gs = new unsigned short[nchips*16];
mjr 28:2097c6f8f2db 183 memset(gs, 0, nchips*16*sizeof(gs[0]));
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 184
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 185 // Configure SPI format and speed. Note that KL25Z ONLY supports 8-bit
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 186 // mode. The TLC5940 nominally requires 12-bit data blocks for the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 187 // grayscale levels, but SPI is ultimately just a bit-level serial format,
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 188 // so we can reformat the 12-bit blocks into 8-bit bytes to fit the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 189 // KL25Z's limits. This should work equally well on other microcontrollers
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 190 // that are more flexible. The TLC5940 appears to require polarity/phase
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 191 // format 0.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 192 spi.format(8, 0);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 193 spi.frequency(SPI_SPEED);
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 194
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 195 // Send out a full data set to the chips, to clear out any random
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 196 // startup data from the registers. Include some extra bits - there
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 197 // are some cases (such as after sending dot correct commands) where
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 198 // an extra bit per chip is required, and the initial state is
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 199 // somewhat unpredictable, so send extra just to make sure we cover
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 200 // all bases. This does no harm; extra bits just fall off the end of
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 201 // the daisy chain, and since we want all registers set to 0, we can
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 202 // send arbitrarily many extra 0's.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 203 for (int i = 0 ; i < nchips*25 ; ++i)
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 204 spi.write(0);
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 205
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 206 // do an initial XLAT to latch all of these "0" values into the
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 207 // grayscale registers
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 208 xlat = 1;
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 209 xlat = 0;
mjr 29:582472d0bc57 210
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 211 // Allocate a DMA buffer. The transfer on each cycle is 192 bits per
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 212 // chip = 24 bytes per chip.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 213 dmabuf = new char[nchips*24];
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 214
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 215 // Set up the Simple DMA interface object. We use the DMA controller to
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 216 // send grayscale data updates to the TLC5940 chips. This lets the CPU
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 217 // keep running other tasks while we send gs updates, and importantly
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 218 // allows our blanking interrupt handler return almost immediately.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 219 // The DMA transfer is from our internal DMA buffer to SPI0, which is
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 220 // the SPI controller physically connected to the TLC5940s.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 221 sdma.source(dmabuf, 1);
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 222 sdma.destination(&(SPI0->D), 0, 8);
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 223 sdma.trigger(Trigger_SPI0_TX);
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 224 sdma.attach(this, &TLC5940::dmaDone);
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 225
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 226 // Enable DMA on SPI0. SimpleDMA doesn't do this for us; we have to
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 227 // do it explicitly. This is just a matter of setting bit 5 (TXDMAE)
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 228 // in the SPI controllers Control Register 2 (C2).
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 229 SPI0->C2 |= 0x20; // set bit 5 = 0x20 = TXDMAE in SPI0 control register 2
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 230
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 231 // Configure the GSCLK output's frequency
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 232 gsclk.period(1.0/GSCLK_SPEED);
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 233
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 234 // mark that we need an initial update
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 235 newGSData = true;
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 236 needXlat = false;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 237 }
mjr 29:582472d0bc57 238
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 239 // Start the clock running
mjr 29:582472d0bc57 240 void start()
mjr 29:582472d0bc57 241 {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 242 // Set up the first call to the reset function, which asserts BLANK to
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 243 // end the PWM cycle and handles new grayscale data output and latching.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 244 // The original version of this library uses a timer to call reset
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 245 // periodically, but that approach is somewhat problematic because the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 246 // reset function itself takes a small amount of time to run, so the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 247 // *actual* cycle is slightly longer than what we get from counting
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 248 // GS clocks. Running reset on a timer therefore causes the calls to
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 249 // slip out of phase with the actual full cycles, which causes
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 250 // premature blanking that shows up as visible flicker. To get the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 251 // reset cycle to line up exactly with a full PWM cycle, it works
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 252 // better to set up a new timer on each cycle, *after* we've finished
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 253 // with the somewhat unpredictable overhead of the interrupt handler.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 254 // This ensures that we'll get much closer to exact alignment of the
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 255 // cycle phase, and in any case the worst that happens is that some
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 256 // cycles are very slightly too long or short (due to imperfections
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 257 // in the timer clock vs the PWM clock that determines the GSCLCK
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 258 // output to the TLC5940), which is far less noticeable than a
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 259 // constantly rotating phase misalignment.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 260 reset_timer.attach(this, &TLC5940::reset, (1.0/GSCLK_SPEED)*4096.0);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 261 }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 262
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 263 ~TLC5940()
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 264 {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 265 delete [] gs;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 266 delete [] dmabuf;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 267 }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 268
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 269 /**
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 270 * Set the next chunk of grayscale data to be sent
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 271 * @param data - Array of 16 bit shorts containing 16 12 bit grayscale data chunks per TLC5940
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 272 * @note These must be in intervals of at least (1/GSCLK_SPEED) * 4096 to be sent
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 273 */
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 274 void set(int idx, unsigned short data)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 275 {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 276 // store the data, and flag the pending update for the interrupt handler to carry out
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 277 gs[idx] = data;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 278 newGSData = true;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 279 }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 280
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 281 private:
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 282 // current level for each output
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 283 unsigned short *gs;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 284
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 285 // Simple DMA interface object
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 286 SimpleDMA sdma;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 287
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 288 // DMA transfer buffer. Each time we have data to transmit to the TLC5940 chips,
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 289 // we format the data into this buffer exactly as it will go across the wire, then
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 290 // hand the buffer to the DMA controller to move through the SPI port.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 291 char *dmabuf;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 292
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 293 // SPI port - only MOSI and SCK are used
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 294 SPI spi;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 295
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 296 // use a PWM out for the grayscale clock - this provides a stable
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 297 // square wave signal without consuming CPU
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 298 FastPWM gsclk;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 299
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 300 // Digital out pins used for the TLC5940
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 301 DigitalOut blank;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 302 DigitalOut xlat;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 303
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 304 // number of daisy-chained TLC5940s we're controlling
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 305 int nchips;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 306
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 307 // Timeout to end each PWM cycle. This is a one-shot timer that we reset
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 308 // on each cycle.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 309 Timeout reset_timer;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 310
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 311 // Has new GS/DC data been loaded?
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 312 volatile bool newGSData;
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 313
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 314 // Do we need an XLAT signal on the next blanking interval?
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 315 volatile bool needXlat;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 316
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 317 // Function to reset the display and send the next chunks of data
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 318 void reset()
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 319 {
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 320 // start the blanking cycle
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 321 startBlank();
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 322
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 323 #if DATA_UPDATE_INSIDE_BLANKING
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 324 // We're configured to send the new GS data entirely within
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 325 // the blanking interval. Start the DMA transfer now, and
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 326 // return without ending the blanking interval. The DMA
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 327 // completion interrupt handler will do that when the data
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 328 // update has completed.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 329 //
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 330 // Note that we do the data update/ unconditionally in the
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 331 // send-during-blanking case, whether or not we have new GS
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 332 // data. This is because the update causes a 0.3% reduction
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 333 // in brightness because of the elongated BLANK interval.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 334 // That would be visible as a flicker on each update if we
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 335 // did updates on some cycles and not others. By doing an
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 336 // update on every cycle, we make the brightness reduction
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 337 // uniform across time, which makes it less perceptible.
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 338 update();
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 339
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 340 #else // DATA_UPDATE_INSIDE_BLANKING
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 341
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 342 // end the blanking interval
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 343 endBlank();
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 344
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 345 // if we have pending grayscale data, start sending it
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 346 if (newGSData)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 347 update();
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 348
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 349 #endif // DATA_UPDATE_INSIDE_BLANKING
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 350 }
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 351
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 352 void startBlank()
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 353 {
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 354 // turn off the grayscale clock, and assert BLANK to end the grayscale cycle
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 355 gsclk.write(0);
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 356 blank = 1;
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 357 }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 358
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 359 void endBlank()
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 360 {
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 361 // if we've sent new grayscale data since the last blanking
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 362 // interval, latch it by asserting XLAT
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 363 if (needXlat)
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 364 {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 365 // latch the new data while we're still blanked
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 366 xlat = 1;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 367 xlat = 0;
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 368 needXlat = false;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 369 }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 370
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 371 // end the blanking interval and restart the grayscale clock
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 372 blank = 0;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 373 gsclk.write(.5);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 374
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 375 // set up the next blanking interrupt
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 376 reset_timer.attach(this, &TLC5940::reset, (1.0/GSCLK_SPEED)*4096.0);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 377 }
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 378
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 379 void update()
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 380 {
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 381 // Send new grayscale data to the TLC5940 chips.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 382 //
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 383 // To do this, we set up our DMA buffer with the bytes formatted exactly
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 384 // as they will go across the wire, then kick off the transfer request with
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 385 // the DMA controller. We can then return from the interrupt and continue
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 386 // with other tasks while the DMA hardware handles the transfer for us.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 387 // When the transfer is completed, the DMA controller will fire an
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 388 // interrupt, which will call our interrupt handler, which will finish
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 389 // the blanking cycle.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 390 //
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 391 // The serial format orders the outputs from last to first (output #15 on
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 392 // the last chip in the daisy-chain to output #0 on the first chip). For
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 393 // each output, we send 12 bits containing the grayscale level (0 = fully
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 394 // off, 0xFFF = fully on). Bit order is most significant bit first.
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 395 //
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 396 // The KL25Z SPI can only send in 8-bit increments, so we need to divvy up
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 397 // the 12-bit outputs into 8-bit bytes. Each pair of 12-bit outputs adds up
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 398 // to 24 bits, which divides evenly into 3 bytes, so send each pairs of
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 399 // outputs as three bytes:
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 400 //
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 401 // [ element i+1 bits ] [ element i bits ]
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 402 // 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 403 // [ first byte ] [ second byte ] [ third byte ]
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 404 for (int i = (16 * nchips) - 2, dst = 0 ; i >= 0 ; i -= 2)
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 405 {
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 406 // first byte - element i+1 bits 4-11
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 407 dmabuf[dst++] = (((gs[i+1] & 0xFF0) >> 4) & 0xff);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 408
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 409 // second byte - element i+1 bits 0-3, then element i bits 8-11
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 410 dmabuf[dst++] = ((((gs[i+1] & 0x00F) << 4) | ((gs[i] & 0xF00) >> 8)) & 0xFF);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 411
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 412 // third byte - element i bits 0-7
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 413 dmabuf[dst++] = (gs[i] & 0x0FF);
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 414 }
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 415
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 416 // Start the DMA transfer
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 417 sdma.start(nchips*24);
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 418
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 419 // we've now cleared the new GS data
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 420 newGSData = false;
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 421 }
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 422
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 423 // Interrupt handler for DMA completion. The DMA controller calls this
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 424 // when it finishes with the transfer request we set up above. When the
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 425 // transfer is done, we simply end the blanking cycle and start a new
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 426 // grayscale cycle.
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 427 void dmaDone()
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 428 {
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 429 // mark that we need to assert XLAT to latch the new
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 430 // grayscale data during the next blanking interval
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 431 needXlat = true;
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 432
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 433 #if DATA_UPDATE_INSIDE_BLANKING
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 434 // we're doing the gs update within the blanking cycle, so end
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 435 // the blanking cycle now that the transfer has completed
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 436 endBlank();
mjr 33:d832bcab089e 437 #endif
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 438 }
mjr 30:6e9902f06f48 439
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 440 };
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 441
mjr 26:cb71c4af2912 442 #endif