An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R

/media/uploads/mjr/pinscape_no_background_small_L7Miwr6.jpg

This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on vpforums.org. Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.

Downloads

  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.

Documentation

The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at mouser.com with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an Aliexpress.com seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Committer:
mjr
Date:
Tue May 09 05:48:37 2017 +0000
Revision:
87:8d35c74403af
AEDR-8300, VL6180X, TLC59116; new plunger firing detection

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 1 // TLC59116 interface
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 2 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 3 // The TLC59116 is a 16-channel constant-current PWM controller chip with
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 4 // an I2C interface.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 5 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 6 // Up to 14 of these chips can be connected to a single bus. Each chip needs
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 7 // a unique address, configured via four pin inputs. (The I2C address is 7
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 8 // bits, but the high-order 3 bits are fixed in the hardware, leaving 4 bits
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 9 // to configure per chip. Two of the possible 16 addresses are reserved by
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 10 // the chip hardware as broadcast addresses, leaving room for 14 unique chip
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 11 // addresses per bus.)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 12 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 13 // EXTERNAL PULL-UP RESISTORS ARE REQUIRED ON SDA AND SCL. The internal
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 14 // pull-ups in the KL25Z GPIO ports will only work if the bus speed is
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 15 // limited to 100kHz. Higher speeds require external pull-ups. Because
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 16 // of the relatively high data rate required, we use the maximum 1MHz bus
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 17 // speed, requiring external pull-ups. These are typically 2.2K.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 18 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 19 // This chip is similar to the TLC5940, but has a more modern design with
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 20 // several advantages, including a standardized and much more robust data
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 21 // interface (I2C) and glitch-free startup. The only downside vs the TLC5940
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 22 // is that it's only available in an SMD package, whereas the TLC5940 is
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 23 // available in easy-to-solder DIP format. The DIP 5940 is longer being
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 24 // manufactured, but it's still easy to find old stock; when those run out,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 25 // though, and the choice is between SMD 5940 and 59116, the 59116 will be
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 26 // the clear winner.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 27 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 28
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 29 #ifndef _TLC59116_H_
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 30 #define _TLC59116_H_
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 31
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 32 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 33 #include "BitBangI2C.h"
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 34
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 35 // Which I2C class are we using? We use this to switch between
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 36 // BitBangI2C and MbedI2C for testing and debugging.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 37 #define I2C_Type BitBangI2C
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 38
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 39 // register constants
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 40 struct TLC59116R
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 41 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 42 // control register bits
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 43 static const uint8_t CTL_AIALL = 0x80; // auto-increment mode, all registers
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 44 static const uint8_t CTL_AIPWM = 0xA0; // auto-increment mode, PWM registers only
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 45 static const uint8_t CTL_AICTL = 0xC0; // auto-increment mode, control registers only
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 46 static const uint8_t CTL_AIPWMCTL = 0xE0; // auto-increment mode, PWM + control registers only
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 47
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 48 // register addresses
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 49 static const uint8_t REG_MODE1 = 0x00; // MODE1
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 50 static const uint8_t REG_MODE2 = 0x01; // MODE2
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 51 static const uint8_t REG_PWM0 = 0x02; // PWM 0
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 52 static const uint8_t REG_PWM1 = 0x03; // PWM 1
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 53 static const uint8_t REG_PWM2 = 0x04; // PWM 2
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 54 static const uint8_t REG_PWM3 = 0x05; // PWM 3
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 55 static const uint8_t REG_PWM4 = 0x06; // PWM 4
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 56 static const uint8_t REG_PWM5 = 0x07; // PWM 5
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 57 static const uint8_t REG_PWM6 = 0x08; // PWM 6
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 58 static const uint8_t REG_PWM7 = 0x09; // PWM 7
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 59 static const uint8_t REG_PWM8 = 0x0A; // PWM 8
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 60 static const uint8_t REG_PWM9 = 0x0B; // PWM 9
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 61 static const uint8_t REG_PWM10 = 0x0C; // PWM 10
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 62 static const uint8_t REG_PWM11 = 0x0D; // PWM 11
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 63 static const uint8_t REG_PWM12 = 0x0E; // PWM 12
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 64 static const uint8_t REG_PWM13 = 0x0F; // PWM 13
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 65 static const uint8_t REG_PWM14 = 0x10; // PWM 14
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 66 static const uint8_t REG_PWM15 = 0x11; // PWM 15
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 67 static const uint8_t REG_GRPPWM = 0x12; // Group PWM duty cycle
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 68 static const uint8_t REG_GRPFREQ = 0x13; // Group frequency register
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 69 static const uint8_t REG_LEDOUT0 = 0x14; // LED driver output status register 0
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 70 static const uint8_t REG_LEDOUT1 = 0x15; // LED driver output status register 1
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 71 static const uint8_t REG_LEDOUT2 = 0x16; // LED driver output status register 2
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 72 static const uint8_t REG_LEDOUT3 = 0x17; // LED driver output status register 3
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 73
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 74 // MODE1 bits
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 75 static const uint8_t MODE1_AI2 = 0x80; // auto-increment mode enable
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 76 static const uint8_t MODE1_AI1 = 0x40; // auto-increment bit 1
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 77 static const uint8_t MODE1_AI0 = 0x20; // auto-increment bit 0
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 78 static const uint8_t MODE1_OSCOFF = 0x10; // oscillator off
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 79 static const uint8_t MODE1_SUB1 = 0x08; // subaddress 1 enable
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 80 static const uint8_t MODE1_SUB2 = 0x04; // subaddress 2 enable
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 81 static const uint8_t MODE1_SUB3 = 0x02; // subaddress 3 enable
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 82 static const uint8_t MODE1_ALLCALL = 0x01; // all-call enable
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 83
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 84 // MODE2 bits
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 85 static const uint8_t MODE2_EFCLR = 0x80; // clear error status flag
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 86 static const uint8_t MODE2_DMBLNK = 0x20; // group blinking mode
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 87 static const uint8_t MODE2_OCH = 0x08; // outputs change on ACK (vs Stop command)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 88
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 89 // LEDOUTn states
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 90 static const uint8_t LEDOUT_OFF = 0x00; // driver is off
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 91 static const uint8_t LEDOUT_ON = 0x01; // fully on
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 92 static const uint8_t LEDOUT_PWM = 0x02; // individual PWM control via PWMn register
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 93 static const uint8_t LEDOUT_GROUP = 0x03; // PWM control + group dimming/blinking via PWMn + GRPPWM
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 94 };
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 95
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 96
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 97 // Individual unit object. We create one of these for each unit we
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 98 // find on the bus. This keeps track of the state of each output on
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 99 // a unit so that we can update outputs in batches, to reduce the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 100 // amount of time we spend in I2C communications during rapid updates.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 101 struct TLC59116Unit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 102 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 103 TLC59116Unit()
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 104 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 105 // start inactive, since we haven't been initialized yet
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 106 active = false;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 107
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 108 // set all brightness levels to 0 intially
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 109 memset(bri, 0, sizeof(bri));
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 110
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 111 // mark all outputs as dirty to force an update after initializing
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 112 dirty = 0xFFFF;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 113 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 114
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 115 // initialize
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 116 void init(int addr, I2C_Type &i2c)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 117 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 118 // set all output drivers to individual PWM control
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 119 const uint8_t all_pwm =
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 120 TLC59116R::LEDOUT_PWM
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 121 | (TLC59116R::LEDOUT_PWM << 2)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 122 | (TLC59116R::LEDOUT_PWM << 4)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 123 | (TLC59116R::LEDOUT_PWM << 6);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 124 static const uint8_t buf[] = {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 125 TLC59116R::REG_LEDOUT0 | TLC59116R::CTL_AIALL,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 126 all_pwm,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 127 all_pwm,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 128 all_pwm,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 129 all_pwm
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 130 };
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 131 int err = i2c.write(addr << 1, buf, sizeof(buf));
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 132
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 133 // turn on the oscillator
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 134 static const uint8_t buf2[] = {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 135 TLC59116R::REG_MODE1,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 136 TLC59116R::MODE1_AI2 | TLC59116R::MODE1_ALLCALL
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 137 };
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 138 err |= i2c.write(addr << 1, buf2, sizeof(buf));
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 139
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 140 // mark the unit as active if the writes succeeded
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 141 active = !err;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 142 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 143
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 144 // Set an output
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 145 void set(int idx, int val)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 146 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 147 // validate the index
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 148 if (idx >= 0 && idx <= 15)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 149 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 150 // record the new brightness
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 151 bri[idx] = val;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 152
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 153 // set the dirty bit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 154 dirty |= 1 << idx;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 155 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 156 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 157
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 158 // Get an output's current value
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 159 int get(int idx) const
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 160 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 161 return idx >= 0 && idx <= 15 ? bri[idx] : -1;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 162 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 163
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 164 // Send I2C updates
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 165 void send(int addr, I2C_Type &i2c)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 166 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 167 // Scan all outputs. I2C sends are fairly expensive, so we
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 168 // minimize the send time by using the auto-increment mode.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 169 // Optimizing this is a bit tricky. Suppose that the outputs
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 170 // are in this state, where c represents a clean output and D
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 171 // represents a dirty output:
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 172 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 173 // cccDcDccc...
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 174 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 175 // Clearly we want to start sending at the first dirty output
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 176 // so that we don't waste time sending the three clean bytes
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 177 // ahead of it. However, do we send output[3] as one chunk
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 178 // and then send output[5] as a separate chunk, or do we send
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 179 // outputs [3],[4],[5] as a single block to take advantage of
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 180 // the auto-increment mode? Based on I2C bus timing parameters,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 181 // the answer is that it's cheaper to send this as a single
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 182 // contiguous block [3],[4],[5]. The reason is that the cost
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 183 // of starting a new block is a Stop/Start sequence plus another
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 184 // register address byte; the register address byte costs the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 185 // same as a data byte, so the extra Stop/Start of the separate
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 186 // chunk approach makes the single continguous send cheaper.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 187 // But how about this one?:
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 188 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 189 // cccDccDccc...
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 190 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 191 // This one is cheaper to send as two separate blocks. The
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 192 // break costs us a Start/Stop plus a register address byte,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 193 // but the Start/Stop is only about 25% of the cost of a data
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 194 // byte, so Start/Stop+Register Address is cheaper than sending
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 195 // the two clean data bytes sandwiched between the dirty bytes.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 196 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 197 // So: we want to look for sequences of contiguous dirty bytes
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 198 // and send those as a chunk. We furthermore will allow up to
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 199 // one clean byte in the midst of the dirty bytes.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 200 uint8_t buf[17];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 201 int n = 0;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 202 for (int i = 0, bit = 1 ; i < 16 ; ++i, bit <<= 1)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 203 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 204 // If this one is dirty, include it in the set of outputs to
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 205 // send to the chip. Also include this one if it's clean
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 206 // and the outputs on both sides are dirty - see the notes
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 207 // above about optimizing for the case where we have one clean
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 208 // output surrounded by dirty outputs.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 209 if ((dirty & bit) != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 210 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 211 // it's dirty - add it to the dirty set under construction
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 212 buf[++n] = bri[i];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 213 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 214 else if (n != 0 && n < 15 && (dirty & (bit << 1)) != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 215 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 216 // this one is clean, but the one before and the one after
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 217 // are both dirty, so keep it in the set anyway to take
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 218 // advantage of the auto-increment mode for faster sends
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 219 buf[++n] = bri[i];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 220 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 221 else
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 222 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 223 // This one is clean, and it's not surrounded by dirty
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 224 // outputs. If the set of dirty outputs so far has any
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 225 // members, send them now.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 226 if (n != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 227 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 228 // set the starting register address, including the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 229 // auto-increment flag, and write the block
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 230 buf[0] = (TLC59116R::REG_PWM0 + i - n) | TLC59116R::CTL_AIALL;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 231 i2c.write(addr << 1, buf, n + 1);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 232
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 233 // empty the set
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 234 n = 0;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 235 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 236 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 237 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 238
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 239 // if we finished the loop with dirty outputs to send, send them
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 240 if (n != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 241 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 242 // fill in the starting register address, and write the block
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 243 buf[0] = (TLC59116R::REG_PWM15 + 1 - n) | TLC59116R::CTL_AIALL;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 244 i2c.write(addr << 1, buf, n + 1);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 245 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 246
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 247 // all outputs are now clean
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 248 dirty = 0;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 249 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 250
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 251 // Is the unit active? If we have trouble writing a unit,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 252 // we can mark it inactive so that we know to stop wasting
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 253 // time writing to it, and so that we can re-initialize it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 254 // if it comes back on later bus scans.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 255 bool active;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 256
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 257 // Output states. This records the latest brightness level
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 258 // for each output as set by the client. We don't actually
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 259 // send these values to the physical unit until the client
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 260 // tells us to do an I2C update.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 261 uint8_t bri[16];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 262
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 263 // Dirty output mask. Whenever the client changes an output,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 264 // we record the new brightness in bri[] and set the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 265 // corresponding bit here to 1. We use these bits to determine
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 266 // which outputs to send during each I2C update.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 267 uint16_t dirty;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 268 };
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 269
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 270 // TLC59116 public interface. This provides control over a collection
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 271 // of units connected on a common I2C bus.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 272 class TLC59116
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 273 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 274 public:
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 275 // Initialize. The address given is the configurable part
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 276 // of the address, 0x0000 to 0x000F.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 277 TLC59116(PinName sda, PinName scl, PinName reset)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 278 : i2c(sda, scl, true), reset(reset)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 279 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 280 // Use the fastest I2C speed possible, since we want to be able
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 281 // to rapidly update many outputs at once. The TLC59116 can run
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 282 // I2C at up to 1MHz.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 283 i2c.frequency(1000000);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 284
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 285 // assert !RESET until we're ready to go
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 286 this->reset.write(0);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 287
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 288 // there are no units yet
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 289 memset(units, 0, sizeof(units));
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 290 nextUpdate = 0;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 291 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 292
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 293 void init()
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 294 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 295 // un-assert reset
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 296 reset.write(1);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 297 wait_us(10000);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 298
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 299 // scan the bus for new units
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 300 scanBus();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 301 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 302
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 303 // scan the bus
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 304 void scanBus()
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 305 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 306 // scan each possible address
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 307 for (int i = 0 ; i < 16 ; ++i)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 308 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 309 // Address 8 and 11 are reserved - skip them
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 310 if (i == 8 || i == 11)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 311 continue;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 312
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 313 // Try reading register REG_MODE1
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 314 int addr = I2C_BASE_ADDR | i;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 315 TLC59116Unit *u = units[i];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 316 if (readReg8(addr, TLC59116R::REG_MODE1) >= 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 317 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 318 // success - if the slot wasn't already populated, allocate
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 319 // a unit entry for it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 320 if (u == 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 321 units[i] = u = new TLC59116Unit();
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 322
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 323 // if the unit isn't already marked active, initialize it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 324 if (!u->active)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 325 u->init(addr, i2c);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 326 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 327 else
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 328 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 329 // failed - if the unit was previously active, mark it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 330 // as inactive now
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 331 if (u != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 332 u->active = false;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 333 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 334 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 335 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 336
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 337 // set an output
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 338 void set(int unit, int output, int val)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 339 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 340 if (unit >= 0 && unit <= 15)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 341 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 342 TLC59116Unit *u = units[unit];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 343 if (u != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 344 u->set(output, val);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 345 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 346 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 347
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 348 // get an output's current value
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 349 int get(int unit, int output)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 350 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 351 if (unit >= 0 && unit <= 15)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 352 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 353 TLC59116Unit *u = units[unit];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 354 if (u != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 355 return u->get(output);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 356 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 357
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 358 return -1;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 359 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 360
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 361 // Send I2C updates to the next unit. The client must call this
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 362 // periodically to send pending updates. We only update one unit on
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 363 // each call to ensure that the time per cycle is relatively constant
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 364 // (rather than scaling with the number of chips).
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 365 void send()
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 366 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 367 // look for a dirty unit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 368 for (int i = 0, n = nextUpdate ; i < 16 ; ++i, ++n)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 369 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 370 // wrap the unit number
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 371 n &= 0x0F;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 372
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 373 // if this unit is populated and dirty, it's the one to update
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 374 TLC59116Unit *u = units[n];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 375 if (u != 0 && u->dirty != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 376 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 377 // it's dirty - update it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 378 u->send(I2C_BASE_ADDR | n, i2c);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 379
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 380 // We only update one on each call, so we're done.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 381 // Remember where to pick up again on the next update()
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 382 // call, and return.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 383 nextUpdate = n + 1;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 384 return;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 385 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 386 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 387 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 388
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 389 // Enable/disable all outputs
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 390 void enable(bool f)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 391 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 392 // visit each populated unit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 393 for (int i = 0 ; i < 16 ; ++i)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 394 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 395 // if this unit is populated, enable/disable it
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 396 TLC59116Unit *u = units[i];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 397 if (u != 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 398 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 399 // read the current MODE1 register
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 400 int m = readReg8(I2C_BASE_ADDR | i, TLC59116R::REG_MODE1);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 401 if (m >= 0)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 402 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 403 // Turn the oscillator off to disable, on to enable.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 404 // Note that the bit is kind of backwards: SETTING the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 405 // OSC bit turns the oscillator OFF.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 406 if (f)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 407 m &= ~TLC59116R::MODE1_OSCOFF; // enable - clear the OSC bit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 408 else
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 409 m |= TLC59116R::MODE1_OSCOFF; // disable - set the OSC bit
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 410
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 411 // update MODE1
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 412 writeReg8(I2C_BASE_ADDR | i, TLC59116R::REG_MODE1, m);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 413 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 414 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 415 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 416 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 417
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 418 protected:
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 419 // TLC59116 base I2C address. These chips use an address of
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 420 // the form 110xxxx, where the the low four bits are set by
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 421 // external pins on the chip. The top three bits are always
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 422 // the same, so we construct the full address by combining
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 423 // the upper three fixed bits with the four-bit unit number.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 424 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 425 // Note that addresses 1101011 (0x6B) and 1101000 (0x68) are
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 426 // reserved (for SWRSTT and ALLCALL, respectively), and can't
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 427 // be used for configured device addresses.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 428 static const uint8_t I2C_BASE_ADDR = 0x60;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 429
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 430 // Units. We populate this with active units we find in
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 431 // bus scans. Note that units 8 and 11 can't be used because
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 432 // of the reserved ALLCALL and SWRST addresses, but we allocate
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 433 // the slots anyway to keep indexing simple.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 434 TLC59116Unit *units[16];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 435
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 436 // next unit to update
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 437 int nextUpdate;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 438
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 439 // read 8-bit register; returns the value read on success, -1 on failure
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 440 int readReg8(int addr, uint16_t registerAddr)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 441 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 442 // write the request - register address + auto-inc mode
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 443 uint8_t data_write[1];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 444 data_write[0] = registerAddr | TLC59116R::CTL_AIALL;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 445 if (i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 1, true))
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 446 return -1;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 447
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 448 // read the result
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 449 uint8_t data_read[1];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 450 if (i2c.read(addr << 1, data_read, 1))
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 451 return -1;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 452
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 453 // return the result
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 454 return data_read[0];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 455 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 456
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 457 // write 8-bit register; returns true on success, false on failure
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 458 bool writeReg8(int addr, uint16_t registerAddr, uint8_t data)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 459 {
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 460 uint8_t data_write[2];
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 461 data_write[0] = registerAddr | TLC59116R::CTL_AIALL;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 462 data_write[1] = data;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 463 return !i2c.write(addr << 1, data_write, 2);
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 464 }
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 465
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 466 // I2C bus interface
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 467 I2C_Type i2c;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 468
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 469 // reset pin (active low)
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 470 DigitalOut reset;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 471 };
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 472
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 473 #endif