An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Sat Apr 18 19:08:55 2020 +0000
TCD1103 DMA setup time padding to fix sporadic missed first pixel in transfer; fix TV ON so that the TV ON IR commands don't have to be grouped in the IR command first slots

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 1 // VL6180X Time of Flight sensor interface
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 2
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 3 #ifndef _VL6180X_H_
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 4 #define _VL6180X_H_
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 5
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 6 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 7 #include "BitBangI2C.h"
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 8
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 9
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 10 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODEL_ID 0x0000
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 11 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODEL_REV_MAJOR 0x0001
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 12 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODEL_REV_MINOR 0x0002
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 13 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODULE_REV_MAJOR 0x0003
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 14 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_MODULE_REV_MINOR 0x0004
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 15 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_DATE 0x0006 // NB - 16-bit value
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 16 #define VL6180X_IDENTIFICATION_TIME 0x0008 // NB - 16-bit value
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 17
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 18 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_MODE_GPIO0 0x0010
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 19 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_MODE_GPIO1 0x0011
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 20 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_HISTORY_CTRL 0x0012
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 21 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_INTERRUPT_CONFIG_GPIO 0x0014
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 22 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_INTERRUPT_CLEAR 0x0015
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 23 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_FRESH_OUT_OF_RESET 0x0016
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 24 #define VL6180X_SYSTEM_GROUPED_PARAMETER_HOLD 0x0017
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 25
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 26 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_START 0x0018
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 27 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_THRESH_HIGH 0x0019
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 28 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_THRESH_LOW 0x001A
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 29 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_INTERMEASUREMENT_PERIOD 0x001B
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 30 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_MAX_CONVERGENCE_TIME 0x001C
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 31 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_CROSSTALK_COMPENSATION_RATE 0x001E
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 32 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_CROSSTALK_VALID_HEIGHT 0x0021
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 33 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_EARLY_CONVERGENCE_ESTIMATE 0x0022
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 34 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_PART_TO_PART_RANGE_OFFSET 0x0024
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 35 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_RANGE_IGNORE_VALID_HEIGHT 0x0025
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 36 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_RANGE_IGNORE_THRESHOLD 0x0026
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 37 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_MAX_AMBIENT_LEVEL_MULT 0x002C
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 38 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_RANGE_CHECK_ENABLES 0x002D
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 39 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_VHV_RECALIBRATE 0x002E
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 40 #define VL6180X_SYSRANGE_VHV_REPEAT_RATE 0x0031
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 41
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 42 #define VL6180X_SYSALS_START 0x0038
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 43 #define VL6180X_SYSALS_THRESH_HIGH 0x003A
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 44 #define VL6180X_SYSALS_THRESH_LOW 0x003C
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 45 #define VL6180X_SYSALS_INTERMEASUREMENT_PERIOD 0x003E
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 46 #define VL6180X_SYSALS_ANALOGUE_GAIN 0x003F
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 47 #define VL6180X_SYSALS_INTEGRATION_PERIOD 0x0040
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 48
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 49 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_STATUS 0x004D
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 50 #define VL6180X_RESULT_ALS_STATUS 0x004E
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 51 #define VL6180X_RESULT_INTERRUPT_STATUS_GPIO 0x004F
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 52 #define VL6180X_RESULT_ALS_VAL 0x0050
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 53 #define VL6180X_RESULT_HISTORY_BUFFER 0x0052
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 54 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_VAL 0x0062
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 55 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RAW 0x0064
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 56 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_RATE 0x0066
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 57 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_RATE 0x0068
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 58 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_SIGNAL_COUNT 0x006C
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 59 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_SIGNAL_COUNT 0x0070
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 60 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_AMB_COUNT 0x0074
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 61 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_AMB_COUNT 0x0078
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 62 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_RETURN_CONV_TIME 0x007C
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 63 #define VL6180X_RESULT_RANGE_REFERENCE_CONV_TIME 0x0080
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 64
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 65 #define VL6180X_READOUT_AVERAGING_SAMPLE_PERIOD 0x010A
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 66 #define VL6180X_FIRMWARE_BOOTUP 0x0119
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 67 #define VL6180X_FIRMWARE_RESULT_SCALER 0x0120
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 68 #define VL6180X_I2C_SLAVE_DEVICE_ADDRESS 0x0212
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 69 #define VL6180X_INTERLEAVED_MODE_ENABLE 0x02A3
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 70
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 71 // gain settings
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 72 enum VL6180X_ALS_Gain
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 73 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 74 GAIN_20 = 0, // 20
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 75 GAIN_10, // 10.32
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 76 GAIN_5, // 5.21
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 77 GAIN_2_5, // 2.60
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 78 GAIN_1_67, // 1.72
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 79 GAIN_1_25, // 1.28
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 80 GAIN_1, // 1.01
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 81 GAIN_40, // 40
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 82 };
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 83
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 84 // identification
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 85 struct VL6180X_ID
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 86 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 87 uint8_t model; // model number
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 88 uint8_t modelRevMajor; // model revision number major...
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 89 uint8_t modelRevMinor; // ...and minor
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 90 uint8_t moduleRevMajor; // module revision number major...
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 91 uint8_t moduleRevMinor; // ... and minior
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 92 struct
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 93 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 94 uint8_t month; // month 1..12
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 95 uint8_t day; // day of month 1..31
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 96 uint16_t year; // calendar year, 4-digit (e.g., 2016)
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 97 uint8_t phase; // manufacturing phase, 0..7
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 98 uint8_t hh; // hour, 0..23
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 99 uint8_t mm; // minute, 0..59
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 100 uint8_t ss; // second, 0..59
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 101 } manufDate; // manufacturing date and time
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 102 };
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 103
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 104 // range statistics
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 105 struct VL6180X_RangeStats
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 106 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 107 uint16_t returnRate; // return signal rate
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 108 uint16_t refReturnRate; // reference return rate
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 109 uint32_t returnCnt; // return signal count
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 110 uint32_t refReturnCnt; // reference return count
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 111 uint32_t ambCnt; // ambient count
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 112 uint32_t refAmbCnt; // reference ambient count
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 113 uint32_t convTime; // convergence time
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 114 uint32_t refConvTime; // reference convergence time
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 115 };
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 116
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 117 class VL6180X
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 118 {
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 119 public:
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 120 // Set up the interface with the given I2C pins, I2C address, and
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 121 // the GPIO0 pin (for resetting the sensor at startup).
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 122 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 123 // If 'internalPullups' is true, we'll set the I2C SDA/SCL pins to
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 124 // enable the internal pullup resistors. Set this to false if you're
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 125 // using your own external pullup resistors on the lines. External
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 126 // pullups are better if you're attaching more than one device to the
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 127 // same physical I2C bus; the internal pullups are fine if there's only
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 128 // one I2C device (in this case the VL6180X) connected to these pins.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 129 //
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 130 // Note that VL6180X's I2C address is always 0x29 at power-on. The
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 131 // address can be changed during a session, but there's no way to save
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 132 // the value persistently on the VL6180X, so it always resets to 0x29
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 133 // on the next power cycle. As a result, I see little reason to ever
mjr 90:aa4e571da8e8 134 // change it during a session.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 135 VL6180X(PinName sda, PinName scl, uint8_t addr, PinName gpio0,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 136 bool internalPullups);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 137
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 138 // destruction
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 139 ~VL6180X();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 140
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 141 // Send the required initialization sequence. Returns true on
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 142 // success, false on failure.
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 143 bool init();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 144
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 145 // set up default settings
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 146 void setDefaults();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 147
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 148 // Start a distance reading, returning immediately without waiting
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 149 // for the reading to finish. The caller can poll for the finished
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 150 // reading via distanceReady().
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 151 void startRangeReading();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 152
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 153 // Get TOF range distance in mm. Returns 0 on success, a device
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 154 // "range error code" (>0) on failure, or -1 on timeout.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 155 //
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 156 // 'tMid' is the timestamp in microseconds of the midpoint of the
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 157 // sample, relative to an arbitrary zero point. This can be used
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 158 // to construct a timeline of successive readings, such as for
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 159 // velocity calculations. 'dt' is the time the sensor took to
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 160 // collect the sample.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 161 int getRange(
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 162 uint8_t &distance, uint32_t &tMid, uint32_t &dt,
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 163 uint32_t timeout_us);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 164
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 165 // get range statistics
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 166 void getRangeStats(VL6180X_RangeStats &stats);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 167
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 168 // set continuous distance mode
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 169 void continuousDistanceMode(bool on);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 170
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 171 // is a sample ready?
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 172 bool rangeReady();
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 173
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 174 // get identification data
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 175 void getID(VL6180X_ID &id);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 176
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 177 protected:
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 178 // READOUT_AVERAGING_SAMPLE_PERIOD setting. Each unit represents
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 179 // 64.5us of added time beyond the 1.3ms fixed base period. The
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 180 // default is 48 units.
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 181 static const int averagingSamplePeriod = 48;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 182
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 183 // I2C interface to device
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 184 BitBangI2C i2c;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 185
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 186 // GPIO0 pin for hard reset
mjr 85:3c28aee81cde 187 DigitalInOut gpio0Pin;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 188
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 189 // device address
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 190 uint8_t addr;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 191
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 192 // current distance mode: 0=single shot, 1=continuous
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 193 bool distMode;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 194
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 195 // range reading is in progress
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 196 bool rangeStarted;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 197
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 198 // sample timer
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 199 Timer sampleTimer;
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 200
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 201 // time (from Timer t) of start of last range sample
mjr 87:8d35c74403af 202 uint32_t tSampleStart;
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 203
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 204 // read registers
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 205 uint8_t readReg8(uint16_t regAddr);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 206 uint16_t readReg16(uint16_t regAddr);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 207 uint32_t readReg32(uint16_t regAddr);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 208
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 209 // write registers
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 210 void writeReg8(uint16_t regAddr, uint8_t data);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 211 void writeReg16(uint16_t regAddr, uint16_t data);
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 212 };
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 213
mjr 82:4f6209cb5c33 214 #endif