An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Sat Apr 18 19:08:55 2020 +0000
TCD1103 DMA setup time padding to fix sporadic missed first pixel in transfer; fix TV ON so that the TV ON IR commands don't have to be grouped in the IR command first slots

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 1 /* Copyright (c) 2010-2011, MIT License
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 2 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 3 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 4 * and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 5 * restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 6 * distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 7 * Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 8 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 9 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 10 * substantial portions of the Software.
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 11 *
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 17 */
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 18
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 19 #include "MMA8451Q.h"
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 20
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 21 #define REG_F_STATUS 0x00
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 22 #define REG_F_SETUP 0x09
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 23 #define REG_WHO_AM_I 0x0D
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 24 #define REG_CTRL_REG1 0x2A
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 25 #define REG_CTRL_REG2 0x2B
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 26 #define REG_CTRL_REG3 0x2c
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 27 #define REG_CTRL_REG4 0x2D
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 28 #define REG_CTRL_REG5 0x2E
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 29 #define REG_OFF_X 0x2F
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 30 #define REG_OFF_Y 0x30
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 31 #define REG_OFF_Z 0x31
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 32 #define XYZ_DATA_CFG_REG 0x0E
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 33 #define REG_OUT_X_MSB 0x01
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 34 #define REG_OUT_Y_MSB 0x03
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 35 #define REG_OUT_Z_MSB 0x05
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 36
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 37 #define UINT14_MAX 16383
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 38
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 39 #define CTL_ACTIVE 0x01
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 40 #define FS_MASK 0x03
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 41 #define FS_2G 0x00
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 42 #define FS_4G 0x01
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 43 #define FS_8G 0x02
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 44
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 45 #define F_STATUS_XDR_MASK 0x01 // F_STATUS - X sample ready
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 46 #define F_STATUS_YDR_MASK 0x02 // F_STATUS - Y sample ready
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 47 #define F_STATUS_ZDR_MASK 0x04 // F_STATUS - Z sample ready
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 48 #define F_STATUS_XYZDR_MASK 0x08 // F_STATUS - XYZ sample ready
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 49 #define F_STATUS_CNT_MASK 0x3F // F_STATUS register mask for FIFO count
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 50
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 51 #define F_MODE_MASK 0xC0 // F_SETUP register mask for FIFO mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 52 #define F_WMRK_MASK 0x3F // F_SETUP register mask for FIFO watermark
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 53
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 54 #define F_MODE_DISABLED 0x00 // FIFO disabled
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 55 #define F_MODE_CIRC 0x40 // circular FIFO
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 56 #define F_MODE_STOP 0x80 // FIFO stops when full
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 57 #define F_MODE_TRIGGER 0xC0 // FIFO triggers interrupt when watermark reached
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 58
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 59 #define HPF_OUT_MASK 0x10
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 60
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 61 #define SMODS_MASK 0x18
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 62
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 63 #define MODS_MASK 0x03
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 64 #define MODS_NORMAL 0x00 // mode 00 = normal power mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 65 #define MODS_LOW_NOISE 0x01 // mode 01 = low noise, low power
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 66 #define MODS_HI_RES 0x02 // mode 10 = high resolution
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 67 #define MODS_LOW_POWER 0x03 // mode 11 = low power
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 68
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 69 #define DR_MASK 0x38
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 70 #define DR_800_HZ 0x00
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 71 #define DR_400_HZ 0x08
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 72 #define DR_200_HZ 0x10
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 73 #define DR_100_HZ 0x18
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 74 #define DR_50_HZ 0x20
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 75 #define DR_12_HZ 0x28
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 76 #define DR_6_HZ 0x30
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 77 #define DR_1_HZ 0x38
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 78
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 79 #define F_READ_MASK 0x02 // CTRL_REG1 F_READ bit - sets data size mode:
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 80 // 1=fast read, 8-bit data; 0=14-bit data
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 81
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 82 #define CTRL_REG3_IPOL_MASK 0x02
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 83 #define CTRL_REG3_PPOD_MASK 0x01
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 84
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 85 #define INT_EN_DRDY 0x01
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 86 #define INT_CFG_DRDY 0x01
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 87
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 88
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 89 MMA8451Q::MMA8451Q(PinName sda, PinName scl, int addr) : m_i2c(sda, scl), m_addr(addr)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 90 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 91 // set the I2C to fast mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 92 m_i2c.frequency(400000);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 93
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 94 // initialize parameters
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 95 init();
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 96 }
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 97
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 98 // reset the accelerometer and set our parameters
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 99 void MMA8451Q::init()
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 100 {
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 101 // reset all registers to power-on reset values
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 102 uint8_t d0[2] = { REG_CTRL_REG2, 0x40 };
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 103 writeRegs(d0,2 );
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 104
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 105 // wait for the reset bit to clear
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 106 do {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 107 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG2, d0, 1);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 108 } while ((d0[0] & 0x40) != 0);
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 109
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 110 // go to standby mode
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 111 standby();
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 112
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 113 // turn off FIFO mode - this is required before changing the F_READ bit
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 114 readRegs(REG_F_SETUP, d0, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 115 uint8_t d0a[2] = { REG_F_SETUP, 0 };
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 116 writeRegs(d0a, 2);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 117
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 118 // read the curent config register
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 119 uint8_t d1[1];
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 120 readRegs(XYZ_DATA_CFG_REG, d1, 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 121
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 122 // set 2g mode by default
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 123 uint8_t d2[2] = { XYZ_DATA_CFG_REG, (d1[0] & ~FS_MASK) | FS_2G };
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 124 writeRegs(d2, 2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 125
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 126 // read the ctl2 register
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 127 uint8_t d3[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 128 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG2, d3, 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 129
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 130 // set the high resolution mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 131 uint8_t d4[2] = {REG_CTRL_REG2, (d3[0] & ~MODS_MASK) | MODS_HI_RES};
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 132 writeRegs(d4, 2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 133
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 134 // set 800 Hz mode, 14-bit data (clear the F_READ bit)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 135 uint8_t d5[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 136 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG1, d5, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 137 uint8_t d6[2] = {REG_CTRL_REG1, (d5[0] & ~(DR_MASK | F_READ_MASK)) | DR_800_HZ};
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 138 writeRegs(d6, 2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 139
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 140 // set circular FIFO mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 141 uint8_t d7[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 142 readRegs(REG_F_SETUP, d7, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 143 uint8_t d8[2] = {REG_F_SETUP, (d7[0] & ~F_MODE_MASK) | F_MODE_CIRC};
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 144 writeRegs(d8, 2);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 145
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 146 // enter active mode
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 147 active();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 148 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 149
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 150 MMA8451Q::~MMA8451Q() { }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 151
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 152 bool MMA8451Q::sampleReady()
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 153 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 154 uint8_t d[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 155 readRegs(REG_F_STATUS, d, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 156 return (d[0] & F_STATUS_XYZDR_MASK) == F_STATUS_XYZDR_MASK;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 157 }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 158
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 159 int MMA8451Q::getFIFOCount()
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 160 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 161 uint8_t d[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 162 readRegs(REG_F_STATUS, d, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 163 return d[0] & F_STATUS_CNT_MASK;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 164 }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 165
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 166 void MMA8451Q::setInterruptMode(int pin)
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 167 {
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 168 // go to standby mode
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 169 standby();
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 170
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 171 // set IRQ push/pull and active high
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 172 uint8_t d1[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 173 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG3, d1, 1);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 174 uint8_t d2[2] = {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 175 REG_CTRL_REG3,
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 176 (d1[0] & ~CTRL_REG3_PPOD_MASK) | CTRL_REG3_IPOL_MASK
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 177 };
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 178 writeRegs(d2, 2);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 179
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 180 // set pin 2 or pin 1
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 181 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG5, d1, 1);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 182 uint8_t d3[2] = {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 183 REG_CTRL_REG5,
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 184 (d1[0] & ~INT_CFG_DRDY) | (pin == 1 ? INT_CFG_DRDY : 0)
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 185 };
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 186 writeRegs(d3, 2);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 187
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 188 // enable data ready interrupt
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 189 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG4, d1, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 190 uint8_t d4[2] = { REG_CTRL_REG4, d1[0] | INT_EN_DRDY };
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 191 writeRegs(d4, 2);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 192
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 193 // enter active mode
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 194 active();
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 195 }
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 196
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 197 void MMA8451Q::clearInterruptMode()
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 198 {
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 199 // go to standby mode
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 200 standby();
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 201
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 202 // clear the interrupt register
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 203 uint8_t d1[2] = { REG_CTRL_REG4, 0 };
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 204 writeRegs(d1, 2);
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 205
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 206 // enter active mode
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 207 active();
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 208 }
mjr 76:7f5912b6340e 209
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 210 void MMA8451Q::setRange(int g)
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 211 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 212 // go to standby mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 213 standby();
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 214
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 215 // read the curent config register
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 216 uint8_t d1[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 217 readRegs(XYZ_DATA_CFG_REG, d1, 1);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 218
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 219 // figure the mode flag for the desired G setting
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 220 uint8_t mode = (g == 8 ? FS_8G : g == 4 ? FS_4G : FS_2G);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 221
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 222 // set new mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 223 uint8_t d2[2] = { XYZ_DATA_CFG_REG, (d1[0] & ~FS_MASK) | mode };
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 224 writeRegs(d2, 2);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 225
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 226 // enter active mode
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 227 active();
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 228 }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 229
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 230 void MMA8451Q::standby()
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 231 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 232 // read the current control register
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 233 uint8_t d1[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 234 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG1, d1, 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 235
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 236 // wait for standby mode
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 237 do {
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 238 // write it back with the Active bit cleared
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 239 uint8_t d2[2] = { REG_CTRL_REG1, d1[0] & ~CTL_ACTIVE };
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 240 writeRegs(d2, 2);
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 241
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 242 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG1, d1, 1);
mjr 5:a70c0bce770d 243 } while (d1[0] & CTL_ACTIVE);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 244 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 245
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 246 void MMA8451Q::active()
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 247 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 248 // read the current control register
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 249 uint8_t d1[1];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 250 readRegs(REG_CTRL_REG1, d1, 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 251
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 252 // write it back out with the Active bit set
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 253 uint8_t d2[2] = { REG_CTRL_REG1, d1[0] | CTL_ACTIVE };
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 254 writeRegs(d2, 2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 255 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 256
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 257 uint8_t MMA8451Q::getWhoAmI() {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 258 uint8_t who_am_i = 0;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 259 readRegs(REG_WHO_AM_I, &who_am_i, 1);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 260 return who_am_i;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 261 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 262
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 263 float MMA8451Q::getAccX() {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 264 return (float(getAccAxis(REG_OUT_X_MSB))/4096.0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 265 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 266
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 267 void MMA8451Q::getAccXY(float &x, float &y)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 268 {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 269 // read the X and Y output registers
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 270 uint8_t res[4];
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 271 readRegs(REG_OUT_X_MSB, res, 4);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 272
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 273 // translate the x value
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 274 uint16_t acc = (res[0] << 8) | (res[1]);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 275 x = int16_t(acc)/(4*4096.0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 276
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 277 // translate the y value
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 278 acc = (res[2] << 9) | (res[3]);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 279 y = int16_t(acc)/(4*4096.0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 280 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 281
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 282 void MMA8451Q::getAccXYZ(float &x, float &y, float &z)
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 283 {
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 284 // read the X, Y, and Z output registers
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 285 uint8_t res[6];
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 286 readRegs(REG_OUT_X_MSB, res, 6);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 287
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 288 // translate the x value
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 289 uint16_t acc = (res[0] << 8) | (res[1]);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 290 x = int16_t(acc)/(4*4096.0);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 291
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 292 // translate the y value
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 293 acc = (res[2] << 8) | (res[3]);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 294 y = int16_t(acc)/(4*4096.0);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 295
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 296 // translate the z value
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 297 acc = (res[4] << 8) | (res[5]);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 298 z = int16_t(acc)/(4*4096.0);
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 299 }
mjr 3:3514575d4f86 300
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 301 void MMA8451Q::getAccXYZ(int &x, int &y, int &z)
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 302 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 303 // read the X, Y, and Z output registers
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 304 uint8_t res[6];
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 305 readRegs(REG_OUT_X_MSB, res, 6);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 306
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 307 // translate the register values
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 308 x = xlat14(&res[0]);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 309 y = xlat14(&res[2]);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 310 z = xlat14(&res[4]);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 311 }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 312
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 313 float MMA8451Q::getAccY() {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 314 return (float(getAccAxis(REG_OUT_Y_MSB))/4096.0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 315 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 316
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 317 float MMA8451Q::getAccZ() {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 318 return (float(getAccAxis(REG_OUT_Z_MSB))/4096.0);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 319 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 320
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 321 void MMA8451Q::getAccAllAxis(float * res) {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 322 res[0] = getAccX();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 323 res[1] = getAccY();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 324 res[2] = getAccZ();
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 325 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 326
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 327 int16_t MMA8451Q::getAccAxis(uint8_t addr) {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 328 int16_t acc;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 329 uint8_t res[2];
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 330 readRegs(addr, res, 2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 331
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 332 acc = (res[0] << 6) | (res[1] >> 2);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 333 if (acc > UINT14_MAX/2)
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 334 acc -= UINT14_MAX;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 335
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 336 return acc;
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 337 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 338
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 339 void MMA8451Q::readRegs(int addr, uint8_t * data, int len) {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 340 char t[1] = {addr};
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 341 m_i2c.write(m_addr, t, 1, true);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 342, (char *)data, len);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 343 }
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 344
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 345 void MMA8451Q::writeRegs(uint8_t * data, int len) {
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 346 m_i2c.write(m_addr, (char *)data, len);
mjr 1:d913e0afb2ac 347 }