An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Sat Apr 18 19:08:55 2020 +0000
TCD1103 DMA setup time padding to fix sporadic missed first pixel in transfer; fix TV ON so that the TV ON IR commands don't have to be grouped in the IR command first slots

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 1 #ifndef ALTANALOGIN_H
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 2 #define ALTANALOGIN_H
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 3
mjr 48:058ace2aed1d 4 // This is a modified version of Scissors's FastAnalogIn, customized
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 5 // for the needs of the Pinscape linear image sensor interfaces. This
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 6 // class has a bunch of features to make it even faster than FastAnalogIn,
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 7 // including support for 8-bit and 12-bit resolution modes, continuous
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 8 // sampling mode, coordination with DMA to move samples into memory
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 9 // asynchronously, and client selection of the ADC timing modes.
mjr 48:058ace2aed1d 10 //
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 11 // We need all of this special ADC handling because the image sensors
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 12 // have special timing requirements that we can only meet with the
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 13 // fastest modes offered by the KL25Z ADC. The image sensors all
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 14 // operate by sending pixel data as a serial stream of analog samples,
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 15 // so the minimum time to read a frame is approximately <number of
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 16 // pixels in the frame> times <ADC sampling time per sample>. The
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 17 // sensors we currently support vary from 1280 to 1546 pixels per frame.
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 18 // With the fastest KL25Z modes, that works out to about 3ms per frame,
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 19 // which is just fast enough for our purposes. Using only the default
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 20 // modes in the mbed libraries, frame times are around 30ms, which is
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 21 // much too slow to accurately track a fast-moving plunger.
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 22 //
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 23 // This class works ONLY with the KL25Z.
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 24 //
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 25 // Important! This class can't coexist at run-time with the standard
mjr 104:6e06e0f4b476 26 // mbed library version of AnalogIn, or with the original version of
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 27 // FastAnalogIn. All of these classes program the ADC configuration
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 28 // registers with their own custom settings. These registers are a
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 29 // global resource, and the different classes all assume they have
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 30 // exclusive control, so they don't try to coordinate with anyone else
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 31 // programming the registers. A program that uses AltAnalogIn in one
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 32 // place will have to use AltAnalogIn exclusively throughout the
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 33 // program for all ADC interaction. (It *is* okay to statically link
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 34 // the different classes, as long as only one is actually used at
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 35 // run-time. The Pinscape software does this, and selects the one to
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 36 // use at run-time according to which plunger class is selected.)
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 37
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 38 /*
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 39 * Includes
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 40 */
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 41 #include "mbed.h"
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 42 #include "pinmap.h"
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 43 #include "SimpleDMA.h"
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 44
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 45 // KL25Z definitions
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 46 #if defined TARGET_KLXX
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 47
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 48 // Maximum ADC clock for KL25Z in <= 12-bit mode - 18 MHz per the data sheet
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 49 #define MAX_FADC_12BIT 18000000
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 50
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 51 // Maximum ADC clock for KL25Z in 16-bit mode - 12 MHz per the data sheet
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 52 #define MAX_FADC_16BIT 12000000
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 53
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 54 #define CHANNELS_A_SHIFT 5 // bit position in ADC channel number of A/B mux
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 55 #define ADC_CFG1_ADLSMP 0x10 // long sample time mode
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 56 #define ADC_SC1_AIEN 0x40 // interrupt enable
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 57 #define ADC_SC2_ADLSTS(mode) (mode) // long sample time select - bits 1:0 of CFG2
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 58 #define ADC_SC2_DMAEN 0x04 // DMA enable
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 59 #define ADC_SC2_ADTRG 0x40 // Hardware conversion trigger
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 60 #define ADC_SC3_CONTINUOUS 0x08 // continuous conversion mode
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 61 #define ADC_SC3_AVGE 0x04 // averaging enabled
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 62 #define ADC_SC3_AVGS_4 0x00 // 4-sample averaging
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 63 #define ADC_SC3_AVGS_8 0x01 // 8-sample averaging
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 64 #define ADC_SC3_AVGS_16 0x02 // 16-sample averaging
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 65 #define ADC_SC3_AVGS_32 0x03 // 32-sample averaging
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 66 #define ADC_SC3_CAL 0x80 // calibration - set to begin calibration
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 67 #define ADC_SC3_CALF 0x40 // calibration failed flag
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 68
mjr 47:df7a88cd249c 69 #define ADC_8BIT 0 // 8-bit resolution
mjr 47:df7a88cd249c 70 #define ADC_12BIT 1 // 12-bit resolution
mjr 47:df7a88cd249c 71 #define ADC_10BIT 2 // 10-bit resolution
mjr 47:df7a88cd249c 72 #define ADC_16BIT 3 // 16-bit resolution
mjr 47:df7a88cd249c 73
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 74 // SIM_SOPT7 - enable alternative conversion triggers
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 75 #define ADC0ALTTRGEN 0x80
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 76
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 77 // SIM_SOPT7 ADC0TRGSEL bits for TPMn, n = 0..2
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 78 #define ADC0TRGSEL_TPM(n) (0x08 | (n)) // select TPMn overflow
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 79
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 80
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 81 #else
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 82 #error "This target is not currently supported"
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 83 #endif
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 84
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 85 #if !defined TARGET_LPC1768 && !defined TARGET_KLXX && !defined TARGET_LPC408X && !defined TARGET_LPC11UXX && !defined TARGET_K20D5M
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 86 #error "Target not supported"
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 87 #endif
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 88
mjr 48:058ace2aed1d 89
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 90 class AltAnalogIn {
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 91
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 92 public:
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 93 /** Create an AltAnalogIn, connected to the specified pin
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 94 *
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 95 * @param pin AnalogIn pin to connect to
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 96 * @param continuous true to enable continue sampling mode
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 97 * @param long_sample_clocks long sample mode: 0 to disable, ADC clock count to enable (6, 10, 16, or 24)
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 98 * @param averaging number of averaging cycles (1, 4, 8, 16, 32)
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 99 * @param sample_bits sample size in bits (8, 10, 12, 16)
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 100 */
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 101 AltAnalogIn(PinName pin, bool continuous = false, int long_sample_clocks = 0, int averaging = 1, int sample_bits = 8);
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 102
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 103 ~AltAnalogIn( void )
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 104 {
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 105 }
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 106
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 107 // Calibrate the ADC. Per the KL25Z reference manual, this should be
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 108 // done after each CPU reset to get the best accuracy from the ADC.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 109 //
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 110 // The calibration process runs synchronously (blocking) and takes
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 111 // about 2ms. Per the reference manual guidelines, we calibrate
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 112 // using the same timing parameters configured in the constructor,
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 113 // but we use the maximum averaging rounds.
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 114 //
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 115 // The calibration depends on the timing parameters, so if multiple
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 116 // AltAnalogIn objects will be used in the same application, the
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 117 // configuration established for one object might not be ideal for
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 118 // another. The advice in the reference manual is to calibrate once
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 119 // at the settings where the highest accuracy will be needed. It's
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 120 // also possible to capture the configuration data from the ADC
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 121 // registers after a configuration and restore them later by writing
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 122 // the same values back to the registers, for relatively fast switching
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 123 // between calibration sets, but that's beyond the scope of this class.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 124 void calibrate();
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 125
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 126 // Initialize DMA. This connects the ADC port to the given DMA
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 127 // channel. This doesn't actually initiate a transfer; this just
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 128 // connects the ADC to the DMA channel for later transfers. Use
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 129 // the DMA object to set up a transfer, and use one of the trigger
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 130 // modes (e.g., start() for software triggering) to initiate a
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 131 // sample.
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 132 void initDMA(SimpleDMA *dma);
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 133
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 134 // Enable interrupts. This doesn't actually set up a handler; the
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 135 // caller is responsible for that. This merely sets the ADC registers
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 136 // so that the ADC generates an ADC0_IRQ interrupt request each time
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 137 // the sample completes.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 138 //
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 139 // Note that the interrupt handler must read from ADC0->R[0] before
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 140 // returning, which has the side effect of clearning the COCO (conversion
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 141 // complete) flag in the ADC registers. When interrupts are enabled,
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 142 // the ADC asserts the ADC0_IRQ interrupt continuously as long as the
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 143 // COCO flag is set, so if the ISR doesn't explicitly clear COCO before
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 144 // it returns, another ADC0_IRQ interrupt will immediate occur as soon
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 145 // as the ISR returns, so we'll be stuck in an infinite loop of calling
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 146 // the ISR over and over.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 147 void enableInterrupts();
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 148
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 149 // Start a sample. This sets the ADC multiplexer to read from
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 150 // this input and activates the sampler.
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 151 inline void start()
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 152 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 153 // select my channel
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 154 selectChannel();
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 155
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 156 // set our SC1 bits - this initiates the sample
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 157 ADC0->SC1[1] = sc1;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 158 ADC0->SC1[0] = sc1;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 159 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 160
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 161 // Set the ADC to trigger on a TPM channel, and start sampling on
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 162 // the trigger. This can be used to start ADC samples in sync with a
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 163 // clock signal we're generating via a TPM. The ADC is triggered each
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 164 // time the TPM counter overflows, which makes it trigger at the start
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 165 // of each PWM period on the unit.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 166 void setTriggerTPM(int tpmUnitNumber);
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 167
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 168 // stop sampling
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 169 void stop()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 170 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 171 // set the channel bits to binary 11111 to disable sampling
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 172 ADC0->SC1[0] = 0x1F;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 173 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 174
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 175 // Resume sampling after a pause.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 176 inline void resume()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 177 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 178 // restore our SC1 bits
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 179 ADC0->SC1[1] = sc1;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 180 ADC0->SC1[0] = sc1;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 181 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 182
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 183 // Wait for the current sample to complete.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 184 //
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 185 // IMPORTANT! DO NOT use this if DMA is enabled on the ADC. It'll
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 186 // always gets stuck in an infinite loop, because the CPU will never
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 187 // be able to observe the COCO bit being set when DMA is enabled. The
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 188 // reason is that the DMA controller always reads its configured source
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 189 // address when triggered. The DMA source address for the ADC is the
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 190 // ADC result register ADC0->R[0], and reading that register by any
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 191 // means clears COCO. And the DMA controller ALWAYS gets to it first,
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 192 // so the CPU will never see COCO set when DMA is enabled. It doesn't
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 193 // matter whether or not a DMA transfer is actually running, either -
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 194 // it's enough to merely enable DMA on the ADC.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 195 inline void wait()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 196 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 197 while (!isReady()) ;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 198 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 199
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 200 // Is the sample ready?
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 201 //
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 202 // NOTE: As with wait(), the CPU will NEVER observe the COCO bit being
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 203 // set if DMA is enabled on the ADC. This will always return false if
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 204 // DMA is enabled. (Not our choice - it's a hardware feature.)
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 205 inline bool isReady()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 206 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 207 return (ADC0->SC1[0] & ADC_SC1_COCO_MASK) != 0;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 208 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 209
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 210
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 211 private:
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 212 uint32_t id; // unique ID
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 213 SimpleDMA *dma; // DMA controller, if used
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 214 char ADCnumber; // ADC number of our input pin
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 215 char ADCmux; // multiplexer for our input pin (0=A, 1=B)
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 216 uint32_t sc1; // SC1 register settings for this input
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 217 uint32_t sc1_aien;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 218 uint32_t sc2; // SC2 register settings for this input
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 219 uint32_t sc3; // SC3 register settings for this input
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 220
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 221 // Switch to this channel if it's not the currently selected channel.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 222 // We do this as part of start() (software triggering) or any hardware
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 223 // trigger setup.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 224 static int lastMux;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 225 static uint32_t lastId;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 226 void selectChannel()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 227 {
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 228 // update the MUX bit in the CFG2 register only if necessary
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 229 if (lastMux != ADCmux)
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 230 {
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 231 // remember the new register value
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 232 lastMux = ADCmux;
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 233
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 234 // select the multiplexer for our ADC channel
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 235 if (ADCmux)
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 236 ADC0->CFG2 |= ADC_CFG2_MUXSEL_MASK;
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 237 else
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 238 ADC0->CFG2 &= ~ADC_CFG2_MUXSEL_MASK;
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 239 }
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 240
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 241 // update the SC2 and SC3 bits only if we're changing inputs
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 242 if (id != lastId)
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 243 {
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 244 // set our ADC0 SC2 and SC3 configuration bits
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 245 ADC0->SC2 = sc2;
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 246 ADC0->SC3 = sc3;
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 247
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 248 // we're the active one now
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 249 lastId = id;
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 250 }
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 251 }
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 252
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 253 // Unselect the channel. This clears our internal flag for which
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 254 // configuration was selected last, so that we restore settings on
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 255 // the next start or trigger operation.
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 256 void unselectChannel() { lastId = 0; }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 257 };
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 258
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 259 // 8-bit sampler subclass
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 260 class AltAnalogIn_8bit : public AltAnalogIn
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 261 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 262 public:
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 263 AltAnalogIn_8bit(PinName pin, bool continuous = false, int long_sample_clocks = 0, int averaging = 1) :
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 264 AltAnalogIn(pin, continuous, long_sample_clocks, averaging, 8) { }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 265
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 266 /** Returns the raw value
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 267 *
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 268 * @param return Unsigned integer with converted value
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 269 */
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 270 inline uint16_t read_u16()
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 271 {
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 272 // wait for the hardware to signal that the sample is completed
mjr 45:c42166b2878c 273 wait();
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 274
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 275 // return the result register value
mjr 48:058ace2aed1d 276 return (uint16_t)ADC0->R[0] << 8; // convert 16-bit to 16-bit, padding with zeroes
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 277 }
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 278
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 279 /** Returns the scaled value
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 280 *
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 281 * @param return Float with scaled converted value to 0.0-1.0
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 282 */
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 283 float read(void)
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 284 {
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 285 unsigned short value = read_u16();
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 286 return value / 65535.0f;
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 287 }
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 288
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 289 /** An operator shorthand for read()
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 290 */
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 291 operator float() { return read(); }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 292 };
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 293
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 294 // 16-bit sampler subclass
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 295 class AltAnalogIn_16bit : public AltAnalogIn
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 296 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 297 public:
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 298 AltAnalogIn_16bit(PinName pin, bool continuous = false, int long_sample_clocks = 0, int averaging = 1) :
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 299 AltAnalogIn(pin, continuous, long_sample_clocks, averaging, 16) { }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 300
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 301 /** Returns the raw value
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 302 *
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 303 * @param return Unsigned integer with converted value
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 304 */
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 305 inline uint16_t read_u16()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 306 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 307 // wait for the hardware to signal that the sample is completed
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 308 wait();
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 309
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 310 // return the result register value
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 311 return (uint16_t)ADC0->R[0];
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 312 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 313
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 314 /** Returns the scaled value
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 315 *
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 316 * @param return Float with scaled converted value to 0.0-1.0
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 317 */
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 318 float read(void)
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 319 {
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 320 unsigned short value = read_u16();
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 321 return value / 65535.0f;
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 322 }
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 323
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 324 /** An operator shorthand for read()
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 325 */
mjr 100:1ff35c07217c 326 operator float() { return read(); }
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 327 };
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 328
mjr 43:7a6364d82a41 329 #endif