An I/O controller for virtual pinball machines: accelerometer nudge sensing, analog plunger input, button input encoding, LedWiz compatible output controls, and more.

Dependencies:   mbed FastIO FastPWM USBDevice

Fork of Pinscape_Controller by Mike R


This is Version 2 of the Pinscape Controller, an I/O controller for virtual pinball machines. (You can find the old version 1 software here.) Pinscape is software for the KL25Z that turns the board into a full-featured I/O controller for virtual pinball, with support for accelerometer-based nudging, a real plunger, button inputs, and feedback device control.

In case you haven't heard of the concept before, a "virtual pinball machine" is basically a video pinball simulator that's built into a real pinball machine body. A TV monitor goes in place of the pinball playfield, and a second TV goes in the backbox to serve as the "backglass" display. A third smaller monitor can serve as the "DMD" (the Dot Matrix Display used for scoring on newer machines), or you can even install a real pinball plasma DMD. A computer is hidden inside the cabinet, running pinball emulation software that displays a life-sized playfield on the main TV. The cabinet has all of the usual buttons, too, so it not only looks like the real thing, but plays like it too. That's a picture of my own machine to the right. On the outside, it's built exactly like a real arcade pinball machine, with the same overall dimensions and all of the standard pinball cabinet hardware.

A few small companies build and sell complete, finished virtual pinball machines, but I think it's more fun as a DIY project. If you have some basic wood-working skills and know your way around PCs, you can build one from scratch. The computer part is just an ordinary Windows PC, and all of the pinball emulation can be built out of free, open-source software. In that spirit, the Pinscape Controller is an open-source software/hardware project that offers a no-compromises, all-in-one control center for all of the unique input/output needs of a virtual pinball cabinet. If you've been thinking about building one of these, but you're not sure how to connect a plunger, flipper buttons, lights, nudge sensor, and whatever else you can think of, this project might be just what you're looking for.

You can find much more information about DIY Pin Cab building in general in the Virtual Cabinet Forum on Also visit my Pinscape Resources page for more about this project and other virtual pinball projects I'm working on.


  • Pinscape Release Builds: This page has download links for all of the Pinscape software. To get started, install and run the Pinscape Config Tool on your Windows computer. It will lead you through the steps for installing the Pinscape firmware on the KL25Z.
  • Config Tool Source Code. The complete C# source code for the config tool. You don't need this to run the tool, but it's available if you want to customize anything or see how it works inside.


The new Version 2 Build Guide is now complete! This new version aims to be a complete guide to building a virtual pinball machine, including not only the Pinscape elements but all of the basics, from sourcing parts to building all of the hardware.

You can also refer to the original Hardware Build Guide (PDF), but that's out of date now, since it refers to the old version 1 software, which was rather different (especially when it comes to configuration).

System Requirements

The new config tool requires a fairly up-to-date Microsoft .NET installation. If you use Windows Update to keep your system current, you should be fine. A modern version of Internet Explorer (IE) is required, even if you don't use it as your main browser, because the config tool uses some system components that Microsoft packages into the IE install set. I test with IE11, so that's known to work. IE8 doesn't work. IE9 and 10 are unknown at this point.

The Windows requirements are only for the config tool. The firmware doesn't care about anything on the Windows side, so if you can make do without the config tool, you can use almost any Windows setup.

Main Features

Plunger: The Pinscape Controller started out as a "mechanical plunger" controller: a device for attaching a real pinball plunger to the video game software so that you could launch the ball the natural way. This is still, of course, a central feature of the project. The software supports several types of sensors: a high-resolution optical sensor (which works by essentially taking pictures of the plunger as it moves); a slide potentionmeter (which determines the position via the changing electrical resistance in the pot); a quadrature sensor (which counts bars printed on a special guide rail that it moves along); and an IR distance sensor (which determines the position by sending pulses of light at the plunger and measuring the round-trip travel time). The Build Guide explains how to set up each type of sensor.

Nudging: The KL25Z (the little microcontroller that the software runs on) has a built-in accelerometer. The Pinscape software uses it to sense when you nudge the cabinet, and feeds the acceleration data to the pinball software on the PC. This turns physical nudges into virtual English on the ball. The accelerometer is quite sensitive and accurate, so we can measure the difference between little bumps and hard shoves, and everything in between. The result is natural and immersive.

Buttons: You can wire real pinball buttons to the KL25Z, and the software will translate the buttons into PC input. You have the option to map each button to a keyboard key or joystick button. You can wire up your flipper buttons, Magna Save buttons, Start button, coin slots, operator buttons, and whatever else you need.

Feedback devices: You can also attach "feedback devices" to the KL25Z. Feedback devices are things that create tactile, sound, and lighting effects in sync with the game action. The most popular PC pinball emulators know how to address a wide variety of these devices, and know how to match them to on-screen action in each virtual table. You just need an I/O controller that translates commands from the PC into electrical signals that turn the devices on and off. The Pinscape Controller can do that for you.

Expansion Boards

There are two main ways to run the Pinscape Controller: standalone, or using the "expansion boards".

In the basic standalone setup, you just need the KL25Z, plus whatever buttons, sensors, and feedback devices you want to attach to it. This mode lets you take advantage of everything the software can do, but for some features, you'll have to build some ad hoc external circuitry to interface external devices with the KL25Z. The Build Guide has detailed plans for exactly what you need to build.

The other option is the Pinscape Expansion Boards. The expansion boards are a companion project, which is also totally free and open-source, that provides Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layouts that are designed specifically to work with the Pinscape software. The PCB designs are in the widely used EAGLE format, which many PCB manufacturers can turn directly into physical boards for you. The expansion boards organize all of the external connections more neatly than on the standalone KL25Z, and they add all of the interface circuitry needed for all of the advanced software functions. The big thing they bring to the table is lots of high-power outputs. The boards provide a modular system that lets you add boards to add more outputs. If you opt for the basic core setup, you'll have enough outputs for all of the toys in a really well-equipped cabinet. If your ambitions go beyond merely well-equipped and run to the ridiculously extravagant, just add an extra board or two. The modular design also means that you can add to the system over time.

Expansion Board project page

Update notes

If you have a Pinscape V1 setup already installed, you should be able to switch to the new version pretty seamlessly. There are just a couple of things to be aware of.

First, the "configuration" procedure is completely different in the new version. Way better and way easier, but it's not what you're used to from V1. In V1, you had to edit the project source code and compile your own custom version of the program. No more! With V2, you simply install the standard, pre-compiled .bin file, and select options using the Pinscape Config Tool on Windows.

Second, if you're using the TSL1410R optical sensor for your plunger, there's a chance you'll need to boost your light source's brightness a little bit. The "shutter speed" is faster in this version, which means that it doesn't spend as much time collecting light per frame as before. The software actually does "auto exposure" adaptation on every frame, so the increased shutter speed really shouldn't bother it, but it does require a certain minimum level of contrast, which requires a certain minimal level of lighting. Check the plunger viewer in the setup tool if you have any problems; if the image looks totally dark, try increasing the light level to see if that helps.

New Features

V2 has numerous new features. Here are some of the highlights...

Dynamic configuration: as explained above, configuration is now handled through the Config Tool on Windows. It's no longer necessary to edit the source code or compile your own modified binary.

Improved plunger sensing: the software now reads the TSL1410R optical sensor about 15x faster than it did before. This allows reading the sensor at full resolution (400dpi), about 400 times per second. The faster frame rate makes a big difference in how accurately we can read the plunger position during the fast motion of a release, which allows for more precise position sensing and faster response. The differences aren't dramatic, since the sensing was already pretty good even with the slower V1 scan rate, but you might notice a little better precision in tricky skill shots.

Keyboard keys: button inputs can now be mapped to keyboard keys. The joystick button option is still available as well, of course. Keyboard keys have the advantage of being closer to universal for PC pinball software: some pinball software can be set up to take joystick input, but nearly all PC pinball emulators can take keyboard input, and nearly all of them use the same key mappings.

Local shift button: one physical button can be designed as the local shift button. This works like a Shift button on a keyboard, but with cabinet buttons. It allows each physical button on the cabinet to have two PC keys assigned, one normal and one shifted. Hold down the local shift button, then press another key, and the other key's shifted key mapping is sent to the PC. The shift button can have a regular key mapping of its own as well, so it can do double duty. The shift feature lets you access more functions without cluttering your cabinet with extra buttons. It's especially nice for less frequently used functions like adjusting the volume or activating night mode.

Night mode: the output controller has a new "night mode" option, which lets you turn off all of your noisy devices with a single button, switch, or PC command. You can designate individual ports as noisy or not. Night mode only disables the noisemakers, so you still get the benefit of your flashers, button lights, and other quiet devices. This lets you play late into the night without disturbing your housemates or neighbors.

Gamma correction: you can designate individual output ports for gamma correction. This adjusts the intensity level of an output to make it match the way the human eye perceives brightness, so that fades and color mixes look more natural in lighting devices. You can apply this to individual ports, so that it only affects ports that actually have lights of some kind attached.

IR Remote Control: the controller software can transmit and/or receive IR remote control commands if you attach appropriate parts (an IR LED to send, an IR sensor chip to receive). This can be used to turn on your TV(s) when the system powers on, if they don't turn on automatically, and for any other functions you can think of requiring IR send/receive capabilities. You can assign IR commands to cabinet buttons, so that pressing a button on your cabinet sends a remote control command from the attached IR LED, and you can have the controller generate virtual key presses on your PC in response to received IR commands. If you have the IR sensor attached, the system can use it to learn commands from your existing remotes.

Yet more USB fixes: I've been gradually finding and fixing USB bugs in the mbed library for months now. This version has all of the fixes of the last couple of releases, of course, plus some new ones. It also has a new "last resort" feature, since there always seems to be "just one more" USB bug. The last resort is that you can tell the device to automatically reboot itself if it loses the USB connection and can't restore it within a given time limit.

More Downloads

  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or later and/or VP 10. I don't think there's any reason to use my versions instead of the latest official ones, and in fact I'd encourage you to use the official releases since they're more up to date, but I'm leaving my builds available just in case. In the official versions, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. My custom versions don't include that checkbox; they just enable the filter unconditionally.
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed to build one copy of the high-power output circuit for the LedWiz emulator feature, for use with the standalone KL25Z (that is, without the expansion boards). The quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so if you want N outputs, simply multiply the quantities by the N, with one exception: you only need one ULN2803 transistor array chip for each eight output circuits. If you're using the expansion boards, you won't need any of this, since the boards provide their own high-power outputs.
  • Cary Owens' optical sensor housing: A 3D-printable design for a housing/mounting bracket for the optical plunger sensor, designed by Cary Owens. This makes it easy to mount the sensor.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.

Copyright and License

The Pinscape firmware is copyright 2014, 2021 by Michael J Roberts. It's released under an MIT open-source license. See License.

Warning to VirtuaPin Kit Owners

This software isn't designed as a replacement for the VirtuaPin plunger kit's firmware. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, I recommend that you don't install this software. The VirtuaPin kit uses the same KL25Z microcontroller that Pinscape uses, but the rest of its hardware is different and incompatible. In particular, the Pinscape firmware doesn't include support for the IR proximity sensor used in the VirtuaPin plunger kit, so you won't be able to use your plunger device with the Pinscape firmware. In addition, the VirtuaPin setup uses a different set of GPIO pins for the button inputs from the Pinscape defaults, so if you do install the Pinscape firmware, you'll have to go into the Config Tool and reassign all of the buttons to match the VirtuaPin wiring.

Fri Mar 17 22:02:08 2017 +0000
New memory pool management; keeping old ones as #ifdefs for now for reference.

Who changed what in which revision?

UserRevisionLine numberNew contents of line
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 1 // IR Command Descriptor
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 2 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 3 // This is a common representation for command codes across all of our
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 4 // supported IR protocols. A "command code" generally maps to the data
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 5 // sent for one key press on a remote control. The common format contains:
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 6 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 7 // - The protocol ID. This represents the mapping between data bits
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 8 // and the physical IR signals. Each protocol has its own rules for
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 9 // how the individual bits are represented and how the bits making up
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 10 // a single command are arranged into a "command word" unit for
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 11 // transmission.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 12 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 13 // - An integer with the unique key code. For most protocols, this is
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 14 // simply the sequence of bits sent by the remote. If the protocol has
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 15 // the notion of a "toggle bit", we pull that out into the separate toggle
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 16 // bit field (below), and set the bit position in the key code field to
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 17 // zero so that the same key always yields the same code. If the protocol
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 18 // has a published spec with a defined bit ordering (LSB first or MSB
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 19 // first), we'll use the same bit ordering to construct the key code
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 20 // value, otherwise the bit order is arbitrary. We use the canonical bit
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 21 // order when one exists to make it more likely that our codes will match
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 22 // those in published tables for commercial remotes using the protocol.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 23 // We'll also try to use the same treatment as published tables for any
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 24 // meaningless structural bits, such as start and stop bits, again so that
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 25 // our codes will more closely match published codes.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 26 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 27 // - A "toggle bit". Some protocols have the notion of a toggle bit,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 28 // which is a bit that gets flipped on each key press, but stays the
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 29 // same when the same code is sent repeatedly while the user is holding
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 30 // down a key. This lets the receiver distinguish two distinct key
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 31 // presses from one long key press, which is important for keys like
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 32 // "power toggle" and "5".
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 33 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 34 // - A "ditto bit". Some protocols use a special code to indicate an
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 35 // auto-repeat. Like the toggle bit, this serves to distinguish
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 36 // repeatedly pressing the same key from holding the key down. Ditto
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 37 // codes in most protocols that use them don't contain any data bits,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 38 // so the key code will usually be zero if the ditto bit is set.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 39 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 40 // Note that most of the published protocols have more internal structure
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 41 // than this to the bit stream. E.g., there's often an "address" field of
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 42 // some kind that specifies the type of device the code is for (TV, DVD,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 43 // etc), and a "command" field with a key code scoped to the device type.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 44 // We don't try to break down the codes into subfields like this. (With
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 45 // the exception of "toggle" bits, which get special treatment because
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 46 // they'd otherwise make each key look like it had two separate codes.)
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 47 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 48
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 49 #ifndef _IRCOMMAND_H_
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 50 #define _IRCOMMAND_H_
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 51
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 52 #include <mbed.h>
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 53 #include "IRProtocolID.h"
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 54
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 55 // Three-state logic for reporting dittos and toggle bits. "Null"
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 56 // means that the bit isn't used at all, which isn't quite the same
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 57 // as false.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 58 class bool3
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 59 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 60 public:
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 61 enum val { null3, false3, true3 } __attribute__ ((packed));
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 62
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 63 static const bool3 null;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 64
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 65 bool3() : v(null3) { }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 66 bool3(val v) : v(v) { }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 67 bool3(bool v) : v(v ? true3 : false3) { }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 68 bool3(int v) : v(v ? true3 : false3) { }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 69
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 70 operator int() { return v == true3; }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 71 operator bool() { return v == true3; }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 72
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 73 bool isNull() const { return v == null3; }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 74
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 75 private:
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 76 const val v;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 77 } __attribute__ ((packed));
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 78
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 79
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 80 struct IRCommand
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 81 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 82 IRCommand()
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 83 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 84 proId = IRPRO_NONE;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 85 code = 0;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 86 toggle = false;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 87 ditto = false;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 88 }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 89
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 90 IRCommand(uint8_t proId, uint64_t code, bool3 toggle, bool3 ditto)
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 91 {
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 92 this->proId = proId;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 93 this->code = code;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 94 this->toggle = bool(toggle);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 95 this->hasToggle = !toggle.isNull();
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 96 this->ditto = bool(ditto);
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 97 this->hasDittos = !ditto.isNull();
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 98 }
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 99
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 100 // 64-bit command code, containing the decoded bits of the command.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 101 // The bits are arranged in LSB-first or MSB-first order, relative
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 102 // to the order of IR transmission, according to the conventions of
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 103 // the protocol. This includes all bits from the transmission,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 104 // including things like error detection bits, except for meaningless
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 105 // fixed structural elements like header marks, start bits, and stop
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 106 // bits.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 107 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 108 // If there's a "toggle" bit in the code, its bit position in 'code'
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 109 // is ALWAYS set to zero, but we store the actual bit value in 'toggle'.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 110 // This ensures that clients who don't care about toggle bits will see
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 111 // code value every time for a given key press, while still preserving
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 112 // the toggle bit information for clients who can use it.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 113 //
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 114 // See the individual protocol encoder/decoder classes for the exact
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 115 // mapping between the serial bit stream and the 64-bit code value here.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 116 uint64_t code;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 117
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 118 // Protocol ID - a PRO_xxx value
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 119 uint8_t proId;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 120
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 121 // Toggle bit. Some protocols have a "toggle bit", which the sender
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 122 // flips each time a new key is pressed. This allows receivers to
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 123 // distinguish auto-repeat from separate key presses. For protocols
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 124 // that define a toggle bit, we'll store the bit here, and set the
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 125 // bit position in 'code' to zero. That way, the client always sees
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 126 // the same code for every key press, regardless of the toggle state,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 127 // but callers who want to make use of the toggle bit can still get
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 128 // at the transmitted value by inspecting this field.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 129 uint8_t toggle : 1;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 130
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 131 // Does the protocol use toggle bits? This is a fixed feature of
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 132 // the protocol, so it doesn't tell us whether the sender is
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 133 // actually using toggles properly, only that the bit exists in
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 134 // the protocol. If you want to determine if the sender is using
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 135 // toggles for learning remote purposes, ask the user to press the
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 136 // same key several times in a row, and observe if the reported
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 137 // toggle bits alternate.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 138 uint8_t hasToggle : 1;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 139
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 140 // Ditto bit. Some protocols send a distinct code to indicate auto-
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 141 // repeat when a key is held down. These protocols will send the
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 142 // normal code for the key first, then send the special "ditto" code
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 143 // repeatedly as long as the key is held down. If this bit is set,
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 144 // the command represents one of these auto-repeat messages. Ditto
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 145 // codes usually don't have any data bits, so the 'code' value will
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 146 // usually be zero if this is set.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 147 uint8_t ditto : 1;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 148
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 149 // Does the protocol have a ditto format? This only indicates if
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 150 // the protocol has a defined ditto format, not if the sender is
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 151 // actually using it. If you want to determine if the sender uses
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 152 // dittos for learning remote purposes, ask the user to hold a key
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 153 // down long enough to repeat, and observe the reported codes to
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 154 // see if the ditto bit is set after the first repeat.
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 155 uint8_t hasDittos : 1;
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 156
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 157 } __attribute__ ((packed));
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 158
mjr 77:0b96f6867312 159 #endif