An input/output controller for virtual pinball machines, with plunger position tracking, accelerometer-based nudge sensing, button input encoding, and feedback device control.

Dependencies:   USBDevice mbed FastAnalogIn FastIO FastPWM SimpleDMA


The Pinscape Controller is a special-purpose software project that I wrote for my virtual pinball machine.

New version: V2 is now available! The information below is for version 1, which will continue to be available for people who prefer the original setup.

What exactly is a virtual pinball machine? It's basically a video-game pinball emulator built to look like a real pinball machine. (The picture at right is the one I built.) You start with a standard pinball cabinet, either built from scratch or salvaged from a real machine. Inside, you install a PC motherboard to run the software, and install TVs in place of the playfield and backglass. Several Windows pinball programs can take advantage of this setup, including the open-source project Visual Pinball, which has hundreds of tables available. Building one of these makes a great DIY project, and it's a good way to add to your skills at woodworking, computers, and electronics. Check out the Cabinet Builders' Forum on for lots of examples and advice.

This controller project is a key piece in my setup that helps integrate the video game into the pinball cabinet. It handles several input/output tasks that are unique to virtual pinball machines. First, it lets you connect a mechanical plunger to the software, so you can launch the ball like on a real machine. Second, it sends "nudge" data to the software, based on readings from an accelerometer. This lets you interact with the game physically, which makes the playing experience more realistic and immersive. Third, the software can handle button input (for wiring flipper buttons and other cabinet buttons), and fourth, it can control output devices (for tactile feedback, button lights, flashers, and other special effects).


The Hardware Build Guide (PDF) has detailed instructions on how to set up a Pinscape Controller for your own virtual pinball cabinet.

Update notes

December 2015 version: This version fully supports the new Expansion Board project, but it'll also run without it. The default configuration settings haven't changed, so existing setups should continue to work as before.

August 2015 version: Be sure to get the latest version of the Config Tool for windows if you're upgrading from an older version of the firmware. This update adds support for TSL1412R sensors (a version of the 1410 sensor with a slightly larger pixel array), and a config option to set the mounting orientation of the board in the firmware rather than in VP (for better support for FP and other pinball programs that don't have VP's flexibility for setting the rotation).

Feb/March 2015 software versions: If you have a CCD plunger that you've been using with the older versions, and the plunger stops working (or doesn't work as well) after you update to the latest version, you might need to increase the brightness of your light source slightly. Check the CCD exposure with the Windows config tool to see if it looks too dark. The new software reads the CCD much more quickly than the old versions did. This makes the "shutter speed" faster, which might require a little more light to get the same readings. The CCD is actually really tolerant of varying light levels, so you probably won't have to change anything for the update - I didn't. But if you do have any trouble, have a look at the exposure meter and try a slightly brighter light source if the exposure looks too dark.


  • Config tool for Windows (.exe and C# source): this is a Windows program that lets you view the raw pixel data from the CCD sensor, trigger plunger calibration mode, and configure some of the software options on the controller.
  • Custom VP builds: I created modified versions of Visual Pinball 9.9 and Physmod5 that you might want to use in combination with this controller. The modified versions have special handling for plunger calibration specific to the Pinscape Controller, as well as some enhancements to the nudge physics. If you're not using the plunger, you might still want it for the nudge improvements. The modified version also works with any other input controller, so you can get the enhanced nudging effects even if you're using a different plunger/nudge kit. The big change in the modified versions is a "filter" for accelerometer input that's designed to make the response to cabinet nudges more realistic. It also makes the response more subdued than in the standard VP, so it's not to everyone's taste. The downloads include both the updated executables and the source code changes, in case you want to merge the changes into your own custom version(s).

    Note! These features are now standard in the official VP 9.9.1 and VP 10 releases, so you don't need my custom builds if you're using 9.9.1 or 10 or later. I don't think there's any reason to use my 9.9 instead of the official 9.9.1, but I'm leaving it here just in case. In the official VP releases, look for the checkbox "Enable Nudge Filter" in the Keys preferences dialog. (There's no checkbox in my custom builds, though; the filter is simply always on in those.)
  • Output circuit shopping list: This is a saved shopping cart at with the parts needed for each output driver, if you want to use the LedWiz emulator feature. Note that quantities in the cart are for one output channel, so multiply everything by the number of channels you plan to use, except that you only need one of the ULN2803 transistor array chips for each eight output circuits.
  • Lemming77's potentiometer mounting bracket and shooter rod connecter: Sketchup designs for 3D-printable parts for mounting a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. These were designed for a particular slide potentiometer that used to be available from an seller but is no longer listed. You can probably use this design as a starting point for other similar devices; just check the dimensions before committing the design to plastic.


  • Plunger position sensing, using a TAOS TSL 1410R CCD linear array sensor. This sensor is a 1280 x 1 pixel array at 400 dpi, which makes it about 3" long - almost exactly the travel distance of a standard pinball plunger. The idea is that you install the sensor just above (within a few mm of) the shooter rod on the inside of the cabinet, with the CCD window facing down, aligned with and centered on the long axis of the shooter rod, and positioned so that the rest position of the tip is about 1/2" from one end of the window. As you pull back the plunger, the tip will travel down the length of the window, and the maximum retraction point will put the tip just about at the far end of the window. Put a light source below, facing the sensor - I'm using two typical 20 mA blue LEDs about 8" away (near the floor of the cabinet) with good results. The principle of operation is that the shooter rod casts a shadow on the CCD, so pixels behind the rod will register lower brightness than pixels that aren't in the shadow. We scan down the length of the sensor for the edge between darker and brighter, and this tells us how far back the rod has been pulled. We can read the CCD at about 25-30 ms intervals, so we can get rapid updates. We pass the readings reports to VP via our USB joystick reports.

    The hardware build guide includes schematics showing how to wire the CCD to the KL25Z. It's pretty straightforward - five wires between the two devices, no external components needed. Two GPIO ports are used as outputs to send signals to the device and one is used as an ADC in to read the pixel brightness inputs. The config tool has a feature that lets you display the raw pixel readings across the array, so you can test that the CCD is working and adjust the light source to get the right exposure level.

    Alternatively, you can use a slide potentiometer as the plunger sensor. This is a cheaper and somewhat simpler option that seems to work quite nicely, as you can see in Lemming77's video of this setup in action. This option is also explained more fully in the build guide.
  • Nudge sensing via the KL25Z's on-board accelerometer. Mounting the board in your cabinet makes it feel the same accelerations the cabinet experiences when you nudge it. Visual Pinball already knows how to interpret accelerometer input as nudging, so we simply feed the acceleration readings to VP via the joystick interface.
  • Cabinet button wiring. Up to 24 pushbuttons and switches can be wired to the controller for input controls (for example, flipper buttons, the Start button, the tilt bob, coin slot switches, and service door buttons). These appear to Windows as joystick buttons. VP can map joystick buttons to pinball inputs via its keyboard preferences dialog. (You can raise the 24-button limit by editing the source code, but since all of the GPIO pins are allocated, you'll have to reassign pins currently used for other functions.)
  • LedWiz emulation (limited). In addition to emulating a joystick, the device emulates the LedWiz USB interface, so controllers on the PC side such as DirectOutput Framework can recognize it and send it commands to control lights, solenoids, and other feedback devices. 22 GPIO ports are assigned by default as feedback device outputs. This feature has some limitations. The big one is that the KL25Z hardware only has 10 PWM channels, which isn't enough for a fully decked-out cabinet. You also need to build some external power driver circuitry to use this feature, because of the paltry 4mA output capacity of the KL25Z GPIO ports. The build guide includes instructions for a simple and robust output circuit, including part numbers for the exact components you need. It's not hard if you know your way around a soldering iron, but just be aware that it'll take a little work.

Warning: This is not replacement software for the VirtuaPin plunger kit. If you bought the VirtuaPin kit, please don't try to install this software. The VP kit happens to use the same microcontroller board, but the rest of its hardware is incompatible. The VP kit uses a different type of sensor for its plunger and has completely different button wiring, so the Pinscape software won't work properly with it.



File content as of revision 46:d60fc88eb7fd:

// Pinscape Controller Configuration
// To customize your private configuration, simply open this file in the 
// mbed on-line IDE, make your changes, save the file, and click the Compile
// button at the top of the window.  That will generate a customized .bin
// file that you can download onto your KL25Z board.

#ifndef CONFIG_H
#define CONFIG_H

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Expansion Board.  If you're using the expansion board, un-comment the
// line below.  This will select all of the correct defaults for the board.
// The expansion board settings are mostly automatic, so you shouldn't have
// to change much else.  However, you should still look at and adjust the
// following as needed:
//    - TV power on delay time
//    - Plunger sensor settings, if you're using a plunger

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Enable/disable joystick functions.
// This controls whether or not we send joystick reports to the PC with the 
// plunger and accelerometer readings.  By default, this is enabled.   If
// you want to use two or more physical KL25Z Pinscape controllers in your
// system (e.g., if you want to increase the number of output ports
// available by using two or more KL25Z's), you should disable the joystick
// features on the second (and third+) controller.  It's not useful to have
// more than one board reporting the accelerometer readings to the host -
// doing so will just add USB overhead.  This setting lets you turn off the
// reports for the secondary controllers, turning the secondary boards into
// output-only devices.
// Note that you can't use button inputs on a controller that has the
// joystick features disabled, because the buttons are handled via the
// joystick reports.  Wire all of your buttons to the primary KL25Z that
// has the joystick features enabled.
// To disable the joystick features, just comment out the next line (add
// two slashes at the beginning of the line).

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// USB device vendor ID and product ID.  These values identify the device 
// to the host software on the PC.  By default, we use the same settings as
// a real LedWiz so that host software will recognize us as an LedWiz.
// The standard settings *should* work without conflicts, even if you have 
// a real LedWiz.  My reference system is 64-bit Windows 7 with a real LedWiz 
// on unit #1 and a Pinscape controller on unit #8 (the default), and the 
// two coexist happily in my system.  The LedWiz is designed specifically 
// to allow multiple units in one system, using the unit number value 
// (see below) to distinguish multiple units, so there should be no conflict
// between Pinscape and any real LedWiz devices you have.
// However, even though conflicts *shouldn't* happen, I've had one report
// from a user who experienced a Windows USB driver conflict that they could
// only resolve by changing the vendor ID.  The real underlying cause is 
// still a mystery, but whatever was going on, changing the vendor ID fixed 
// it.  If you run into a similar problem, you can try the same fix as a
// last resort.  Before doing that, though, you should try changing the 
// Pinscape unit number first - it's possible that your real LedWiz is using 
// unit #8, which is our default setting.
// If you must change the vendor ID for any reason, you'll sacrifice LedWiz
// compatibility, which means that old programs like Future Pinball that use
// the LedWiz interface directly won't be able to access the LedWiz output
// controller features.  However, all is not lost.  All of the other functions
// (plunger, nudge, and key input) use the joystick interface, which will 
// work regardless of the ID values.  In addition, DOF R3 recognizes the
// "emergency fallback" ID below, so if you use that, *all* functions
// including the output controller will work in any DOF R3-enabled software,
// including Visual Pinball and PinballX.  So the only loss will be that
// old LedWiz-only software won't be able to control the outputs.
// The "emergency fallback" ID below is officially registerd with 
//, a registry for open-source USB projects, which should 
// all but guarantee that this alternative ID shouldn't conflict with 
// any other devices in your system.

// STANDARD ID SETTINGS.  These provide full, transparent LedWiz compatibility.
const uint16_t USB_VENDOR_ID = 0xFAFA;      // LedWiz vendor ID = FAFA
const uint16_t USB_PRODUCT_ID = 0x00F0;     // LedWiz start of product ID range = 00F0

// EMERGENCY FALLBACK ID SETTINGS.  These settings are not LedWiz-compatible,
// so older LedWiz-only software won't be able to access the output controller
// features.  However, DOF R3 recognizes these IDs, so DOF-aware software (Visual 
// Pinball, PinballX) will have full access to all features.
//const uint16_t USB_VENDOR_ID = 0x1209;   // DOF R3-compatible vendor ID = 1209
//const uint16_t USB_PRODUCT_ID = 0xEAEA;  // DOF R3-compatible product ID = EAEA

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// LedWiz unit number.
// Each LedWiz device has a unit number, from 1 to 16.  This lets you install
// more than one LedWiz in your system: as long as each one has a different
// unit number, the software on the PC can tell them apart and route commands 
// to the right device.
// A real LedWiz has its unit number set at the factory.  If you don't tell
// them otherwise when placing your order, they will set it to unit #1.  Most
// real LedWiz units therefore are set to unit #1.  There's no provision on
// a real LedWiz for users to change the unit number after it leaves the 
// factory.
// For our *emulated* LedWiz, we default to unit #8 if we're the primary
// Pinscape controller in the system, or unit #9 if we're set up as the
// secondary controller with the joystick functions turned off.
// The reason we start at unit #8 is that we want to avoid conflicting with
// any real LedWiz devices in your system.  Most real LedWiz devices are
// set up as unit #1, and in the rare cases where people have two of them,
// the second one is usually unit #2.  
// Note 1:  the unit number here is the *user visible* unit number that
// you use on the PC side.  It's the number you specify in your DOF
// configuration and so forth.  Internally, the USB reports subtract
// one from this number - e.g., nominal unit #1 shows up as 0 in the USB
// reports.  If you're trying to puzzle out why all of the USB reports
// are all off by one from the unit number you select here, that's why.
// Note 2:  the DOF Configtool (google it) knows about the Pinscape 
// controller.  There it's referred to as simply "KL25Z" rather than 
// Pinscape Controller, but that's what they're talking about.  The DOF 
// tool knows that it uses #8 as its default unit number, so it names the 
// .ini file for this controller xxx8.ini.  If you change the unit number 
// here, remember to rename the DOF-generated .ini file to match, by 
// changing the "8" at the end of the filename to the new number you set 
// here.
   0x08;   // joystick enabled - assume we're the primary KL25Z, so use unit #8
   0x09;   // joystick disabled - assume we're a secondary, output-only KL25Z, so use #9

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Accelerometer orientation.  The accelerometer feature lets Visual Pinball 
// (and other pinball software) sense nudges to the cabinet, and simulate 
// the effect on the ball's trajectory during play.  We report the direction
// of the accelerometer readings as well as the strength, so it's important
// for VP and the KL25Z to agree on the physical orientation of the
// accelerometer relative to the cabinet.  The accelerometer on the KL25Z
// is always mounted the same way on the board, but we still have to know
// which way you mount the board in your cabinet.  We assume as default
// orientation where the KL25Z is mounted flat on the bottom of your
// cabinet with the USB ports pointing forward, toward the coin door.  If
// it's more convenient for you to mount the board in a different direction,
// you simply need to select the matching direction here.  Comment out the
// ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_FRONT line and un-comment the line that matches
// your board's orientation.

#define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_FRONT      // USB ports pointing toward front of cabinet
// #define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_LEFT    // USB ports pointing toward left side of cab
// #define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_RIGHT   // USB ports pointing toward right side of cab
// #define ORIENTATION_PORTS_AT_REAR    // USB ports pointing toward back of cabinet

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Plunger CCD sensor.
// If you're NOT using the CCD sensor, comment out the next line (by adding
// two slashes at the start of the line).


// Physical pixel count for your sensor.  This software has been tested with
// TAOS TSL1410R (1280 pixels) and TSL1412R (1536 pixels) sensors.  It might
// work with other similar sensors as well, but you'll probably have to make
// some changes to the software interface to the sensor if you're using any
// sensor outside of the TAOS TSL14xxR series.
// If you're not using a CCD sensor, you can ignore this.
const int CCD_NPIXELS = 1280;

// Number of pixels from the CCD to sample on each high-res scan.  We don't
// sample every pixel from the sensor on each scan, because (a) we don't
// have to, and (b) we don't want to.  We don't have to sample all of the
// pixels because these sensors have much finer resolution than we need to
// get good results.  On a typical pinball cabinet setup with a 1920x1080
// HD TV display, the on-screen plunger travel distance is about 165 pixels,
// so that's all the pixels we need to sample for pixel-accurate animation.
// Even so, we still *could* sample at higher resolution, but we don't *want*
// to sample more pixels than we have to,  because reading each pixel takes 
// time.  The limiting factor for read speed is the sampling time for the ADC 
// (analog to digital  converter); it needs about 20us per sample to get an 
// accurate voltage reading.  We want to animate the on-screen plunger in 
// real time, with minimal lag, so it's important that we complete each scan 
// as quickly as possible.  The fewer pixels we sample, the faster we 
// complete each scan.
// Happily, the time needed to read the approximately 165 pixels required
// for pixel-accurate positioning on the display is short enough that we can
// complete a scan within the cycle time for USB reports.  Visual Pinball
// only polls for input at about 10ms intervals, so there's no benefit
// to going much faster than this.  The sensor timing is such that we can
// read about 165 pixels in well under 10ms.  So that's really the sweet
// spot for our scans.
// Note that we distribute the sampled pixels evenly across the full range
// of the sensor's pixels.  That is, we read every nth pixel, and skip the
// ones in between.  That means that the sample count here has to be an even
// divisor of the physical pixel count.  Empirically, reading every 8th
// pixel gives us good results on both the TSL1410R and TSL1412R, so you
// shouldn't need to change this if you're using one of those sensors.  If
// you're using a different sensor, you should be sure to adjust this so that 
// it works out to an integer result with no remainder.

// The KL25Z pins that the CCD sensor is physically attached to:
//  CCD_SI_PIN = the SI (sensor data input) pin
//  CCD_CLOCK_PIN = the sensor clock pin
//  CCD_SO_PIN = the SO (sensor data output) pin
// The SI an Clock pins are DigitalOut pins, so these can be set to just
// about any gpio pins that aren't used for something else.  The SO pin must
// be an AnalogIn capable pin - only a few of the KL25Z gpio pins qualify, 
// so check the pinout diagram to find suitable candidates if you need to 
// change this.  Note that some of the gpio pins shown in the mbed pinout
// diagrams are committed to other uses by the mbed software or by the KL25Z
// wiring itself, so if you do change these, be sure that the new pins you
// select are really available.

const PinName CCD_SI_PIN = PTE20;
const PinName CCD_CLOCK_PIN = PTE21;
const PinName CCD_SO_PIN = PTB0;

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Plunger potentiometer sensor.
// If you're using a potentiometer as the plunger sensor, un-comment the
// next line (by removing the two slashes at the start of the line), and 
// also comment out the ENABLE_CCD_SENSOR line above.


// The KL25Z pin that your potentiometer is attached to.  The potentiometer
// requires wiring three connectins:
// - Wire the fixed resistance end of the potentiometer nearest the KNOB 
//   end of the plunger to the 3.3V output from the KL25Z
// - Wire the other fixed resistance end to KL25Z Ground
// -  Wire the potentiometer wiper (the variable output terminal) to the 
//    KL25Z pin identified below.  
// Note that you can change the pin selection below, but if you do, the new
// pin must be AnalogIn capable.  Only a few of the KL25Z pins qualify.  Refer
// to the KL25Z pinout diagram to find another AnalogIn pin if you need to
// change this for any reason.  Note that the default is to use the same analog 
// input that the CCD sensor would use if it were enabled, which is why you 
// have to be sure to disable the CCD support in the software if you're using 
// a potentiometer as the sensor.

const PinName POT_PIN = PTB0;

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Plunger calibration button and indicator light.
// These specify the pin names of the plunger calibration button connections.
// If you're not using these, you can set these to NC.  (You can even use the
// button but not the LED; set the LED to NC if you're only using the button.)
// If you're using the button, wire one terminal of a momentary switch or
// pushbutton to the input pin you select, and wire the other terminal to the 
// KL25Z ground.  Push and hold the button for a few seconds to enter plunger 
// calibration mode.
// If you're using the LED, you'll need to build a little transistor power
// booster circuit to power the LED, as described in the build guide.  The
// LED gives you visual confirmation that the you've triggered calibration
// mode and lets you know when the mode times out.  Note that the LED on
// board the KL25Z also changes color to indicate the same information, so
// if the KL25Z is positioned so that you can see it while you're doing the
// calibration, you don't really need a separate button LED.  But the
// separate LED is spiffy, especially if it's embedded in the pushbutton.
// Note that you can skip the pushbutton altogether and trigger calibration
// from the Windows control software.  But again, the button is spiffier.

// calibration button input 
const PinName CAL_BUTTON_PIN = PTE29;

// calibration button indicator LED
const PinName CAL_BUTTON_LED = PTE23;

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// TV Power-On Timer.  This section lets you set up a delayed relay timer
// for turning on your TV monitor(s) shortly after you turn on power to the
// system.  This requires some external circuitry, which is built in to the
// expansion board, or which you can build yourself - refer to the Build
// Guide for the circuit plan.  
// If you're using this feature, un-comment the next line, and make any
// changes to the port assignments below.  The default port assignments are
// suitable for the expansion board.  Note that the TV timer is enabled
// automatically if you're using the expansion board, since it's built in.

#if defined(ENABLE_TV_TIMER) || defined(EXPANSION_BOARD)
# define PSU2_STATUS_SENSE  PTD2    // Digital In pin to read latch status
# define PSU2_STATUS_SET    PTE0    // Digital Out pin to set latch
# define TV_RELAY_PIN       PTD3    // Digital Out pin to control TV switch relay

// Amount of time (in seconds) to wait after system power-up before 
// pulsing the TV ON switch relay.  Adjust as needed for your TV(s).
// Most monitors won't respond to any buttons for the first few seconds
// after they're plugged in, so we need to wait long enough to make sure
// the TVs are ready to receive input before pressing the button.
#define TV_DELAY_TIME    7.0


// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Pseudo "Launch Ball" button.
// Zeb of came up with a clever scheme for his plunger kit
// that lets the plunger simulate a Launch Ball button for tables where
// the original used a Launch button instead of a plunger (e.g., Medieval 
// Madness, T2, or Star Trek: The Next Generation).  The scheme uses an
// LedWiz output to tell us when such a table is loaded.  On the DOF
// Configtool site, this is called "ZB Launch Ball".  When this LedWiz
// output is ON, it tells us that the table will ignore the analog plunger
// because it doesn't have a plunger object, so the analog plunger should
// send a Launch Ball button press signal when the user releases the plunger.
// If you wish to use this feature, you need to do two things:
// First, adjust the two lines below to set the LedWiz output and joystick
// button you wish to use for this feature.  The defaults below should be
// fine for most people, but if you're using the Pinscape controller for
// your physical button wiring, you should set the launch button to match
// where you physically wired your actual Launch Ball button.  Likewise,
// change the LedWiz port if you're using the one below for some actual
// hardware output.  This is a virtual port that won't control any hardware;
// it's just for signaling the plunger that we're in "button mode".  Note
// that the numbering for the both the LedWiz port and joystick button 
// start at 1 to match the DOF Configtool and VP dialog numbering.
// Second, in the DOF Configtool, make sure you have a Pinscape controller
// in your cabinet configuration, then go to your Port Assignments and set
// the port defined below to "ZB Launch Ball".
// Third, open the Visual Pinball editor, open the Preferences | Keys
// dialog, and find the Plunger item.  Open the drop-down list under that
// item and select the button number defined below.
// To disable this feature, just set ZBLaunchBallPort to 0 here.

const int ZBLaunchBallPort = 32;
const int LaunchBallButton = 24;

// Distance necessary to push the plunger to activate the simulated 
// launch ball button, in inches.  A standard pinball plunger can be 
// pushed forward about 1/2".  However, the barrel spring is very
// stiff, and anything more than about 1/8" requires quite a bit
// of force.  Ideally the force required should be about the same as 
// for any ordinary pushbutton.
// On my cabinet, empirically, a distance around 2mm (.08") seems
// to work pretty well.  It's far enough that it doesn't trigger
// spuriously, but short enough that it responds to a reasonably
// light push.
// You might need to adjust this up or down to get the right feel.
// Alternatively, if you don't like the "push" gesture at all and
// would prefer to only make the plunger respond to a pull-and-release
// motion, simply set this to, say, 2.0 - it's impossible to push a 
// plunger forward that far, so that will effectively turn off the 
// push mode.
const float LaunchBallPushDistance = .08;

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// TLC5940 PWM controller chip setup - Enhanced LedWiz emulation
// By default, the Pinscape Controller software can provide limited LedWiz
// emulation through the KL25Z's on-board GPIO ports.  This lets you hook
// up external devices, such as LED flashers or solenoids, to the KL25Z
// outputs (using external circuitry to boost power - KL25Z GPIO ports
// are limited to a meager 4mA per port).  This capability is limited by
// the number of available GPIO ports on the KL25Z, and even smaller limit
// of 10 PWM-capable GPIO ports.
// As an alternative, the controller software lets you use external PWM
// controller chips to control essentially unlimited channels with full
// PWM control on all channels.  This requires building external circuitry
// using TLC5940 chips.  Each TLC5940 chip provides 16 full PWM channels,
// and you can daisy-chain multiple TLC5940 chips together to set up 32, 
// 48, 64, or more channels.
// If you do add TLC5940 circuits to your controller hardware, use this
// section to configure the connection to the KL25Z.
// Note that when using the TLC5940, you can still also use some GPIO
// pins for outputs as normal.  See ledWizPinMap[] for 

// Number of TLC5940 chips you're using.  For a full LedWiz-compatible
// setup, you need two of these chips, for 32 outputs.  The software
// will handle up to 8.  
// If you're using the expansion board, the main KL25Z interface board
// has 2 chips and the MOSFET board has 2 more, for a total of 4.  If
// you add extra daisy-chained MOSFET boards, add 2 more per board.
# define TLC5940_NCHIPS  4
# define TLC5940_NCHIPS  0     // change this if you're using TLC5940's without the expansion board

// If you're using TLC5940s, change any of these as needed to match the
// GPIO pins that you connected to the TLC5940 control pins.  Note that
// SIN and SCLK *must* be connected to the KL25Z SPI0 MOSI and SCLK
// outputs, respectively, which effectively limits them to the default
// selections, and that the GSCLK pin must be PWM-capable.  These defaults
// all match the expansion board wiring.
#define TLC5940_SIN    PTC6    // Serial data - Must connect to SPI0 MOSI -> PTC6 or PTD2
#define TLC5940_SCLK   PTC5    // Serial clock - Must connect to SPI0 SCLK -> PTC5 or PTD1,
                               //  but don't use PTD1 because it's hard-wired to the on-board 
                               //  blue LED
#define TLC5940_XLAT   PTC10   // XLAT (latch) signal - Any GPIO pin can be used
#define TLC5940_BLANK  PTC7    // BLANK signal - Any GPIO pin can be used
#define TLC5940_GSCLK  PTA1    // Grayscale clock - Must be a PWM-capable pin

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// 74HC595 digital output setup - "Chime Board" module
// The 74HC595 is an 8-output serial-to-parallel shift register IC.  This lets
// us add extra digital outputs (on/off only, not PWM), 8 at a time, similar
// to the way the TLC5940 lets us add extra PWM outputs.  The 74HC595 requires
// four control signals, so one chip gives us 8 outputs using only 4 GPIOs.
// The chips can be daisy-chained, so by adding multiple chips, we can add 
// any number of new outputs, still using only 4 GPIO pins for the whole chain.
// The TLC5940 is more useful for general-purpose outputs because of its PWM
// capabilities, but digital-only outputs are better for some special cases.
// The Expansion Board "Chime" module uses these chips to add timer-protected
// outputs.  The timer triggers are edge-sensitive, so we want simple on/off
// signals to control them; a PWM signal wouldn't work properly because it's
// constantly switching on and off even when nominally 100% on.

#define HC595_NCHIPS   0       // Number of chips == number of Chime boards connected
#define HC595_SIN      PTA5    // Serial data - use any GPIO pin
#define HC595_SCLK     PTA4    // Serial clock - use any GPIO pin
#define HC595_LATCH    PTA12   // Latch signal - use any GPIO pin
#define HC595_ENA      PTD4    // Enable signal - use any GPIO pin

#endif // CONFIG_H - end of include-once section (code below this point can be multiply included)

#ifdef DECL_EXTERNS  // this section defines global variables, only if this macro is set

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Joystick button input pin assignments.  
// You can wire up to 32 GPIO ports to buttons (equipped with 
// momentary switches).  Connect each switch between the desired 
// GPIO port and ground (J9 pin 12 or 14).  When the button is pressed, 
// we'll tell the host PC that the corresponding joystick button is 
// pressed.  We debounce the keystrokes in software, so you can simply 
// wire directly to pushbuttons with no additional external hardware.
// Note that we assign 24 buttons by default, even though the USB
// joystick interface can handle up to 32 buttons.  VP itself only
// allows mapping of up to 24 buttons in the preferences dialog 
// (although it can recognize 32 buttons internally).  If you want 
// more buttons, you can reassign pins that are assigned by default
// as LedWiz outputs.  To reassign a pin, find the pin you wish to
// reassign in the LedWizPortMap array below, and change the pin name 
// there to NC (for Not Connected).  You can then change one of the
// "NC" entries below to the reallocated pin name.  The limit is 32
// buttons total.
// (If you're using TLC5940 chips to control outputs, many of the
// GPIO pins that are mapped to LedWiz outputs in the default
// mapping can be reassigned as keys, since the TLC5940 outputs
// take over for the GPIO pins.  The exceptions are the pins that
// are reassigned to control the TLC5940 chips.)
// Note: PTD1 (pin J2-12) should NOT be assigned as a button input,
// as this pin is physically connected on the KL25Z to the on-board
// indicator LED's blue segment.
PinName buttonMap[] = {
    PTC2,      // J10 pin 10, joystick button 1
    PTB3,      // J10 pin 8,  joystick button 2
    PTB2,      // J10 pin 6,  joystick button 3
    PTB1,      // J10 pin 4,  joystick button 4
    PTE30,     // J10 pin 11, joystick button 5
    PTC11,     // J1 pin 15,  joystick button 6
    PTE22,     // J10 pin 5,  joystick button 6
    PTE5,      // J9 pin 15,  joystick button 7
    PTE4,      // J9 pin 13,  joystick button 8
    PTE3,      // J9 pin 11,  joystick button 9
    PTE2,      // J9 pin 9,   joystick button 10
    PTB11,     // J9 pin 7,   joystick button 11
    PTB10,     // J9 pin 5,   joystick button 12
    PTB9,      // J9 pin 3,   joystick button 13
    PTB8,      // J9 pin 1,   joystick button 14
    PTC12,     // J2 pin 1,   joystick button 15
    PTC13,     // J2 pin 3,   joystick button 16
    PTC16,     // J2 pin 5,   joystick button 17
    PTC17,     // J2 pin 7,   joystick button 18
    PTA16,     // J2 pin 9,   joystick button 19
    PTA17,     // J2 pin 11,  joystick button 20
    PTE31,     // J2 pin 13,  joystick button 21
    PTD6,      // J2 pin 17,  joystick button 22
    PTD7,      // J2 pin 19,  joystick button 23
    PTE1,      // J2 pin 20,  joystick button 24

    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 25
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 26
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 27
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 28
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 29
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 30
    NC,        // not used,   joystick button 31
    NC         // not used,   joystick button 32

// --------------------------------------------------------------------------
// LED-Wiz emulation output pin assignments
// This sets the mapping from logical LedWiz port numbers, as used
// in the software on the PC side, to physical hardware pins on the
// KL25Z and/or the TLC5940 controllers.
// The LedWiz protocol lets the PC software set a "brightness" level
// for each output.  This is used to control the intensity of LEDs
// and other lights, and can also control motor speeds.  To implement 
// the intensity level in hardware, we use PWM, or pulse width
// modulation, which switches the output on and off very rapidly
// to give the effect of a reduced voltage.  Unfortunately, the KL25Z
// hardware is limited to 10 channels of PWM control for its GPIO
// outputs, so it's impossible to implement the LedWiz's full set
// of 32 adjustable outputs using only GPIO ports.  However, you can
// create 10 adjustable ports and fill out the rest with "digital"
// GPIO pins, which are simple on/off switches.  The intensity level
// of a digital port can't be adjusted - it's either fully on or
// fully off - but this is fine for devices that don't have
// different intensity settings anyway, such as replay knockers
// and flipper solenoids.
// In the mapping list below, you can decide how to dole out the
// PWM-capable and digital-only GPIO pins.  To make it easier to
// remember which is which, the default mapping below groups all
// of the PWM-capable ports together in the first 10 logical LedWiz
// port numbers.  Unfortunately, these ports aren't *physically*
// together on the KL25Z pin headers, so this layout may be simple
// in terms of the LedWiz numbering, but it's a little jumbled
// in the physical layout.t
// "NC" in the pin name slot means "not connected".  This means
// that there's no physical output for this LedWiz port number.
// The device will still accept commands that control the port,
// but these will just be silently ignored, since there's no pin
// to turn on or off for these ports.  The reason we leave some 
// ports unconnected is that we don't have enough physical GPIO 
// pins to fill out the full LedWiz complement of 32 ports.  Many 
// pins are already taken for other purposes, such as button 
// inputs or the plunger CCD interface.
// The mapping between physical output pins on the KL25Z and the
// assigned LED-Wiz port numbers is essentially arbitrary.  You can
// customize this by changing the entries in the array below if you
// wish to rearrange the pins for any reason.  Be aware that some
// of the physical outputs are already used for other purposes
// (e.g., some of the GPIO pins on header J10 are used for the
// CCD sensor - but you can of course reassign those as well by
// changing the corresponding declarations elsewhere in this file).
// The assignments we make here have two main objectives: first,
// to group the outputs on headers J1 and J2 (to facilitate neater
// wiring by keeping the output pins together physically), and
// second, to make the physical pin layout match the LED-Wiz port
// numbering order to the extent possible.  There's one big wrench
// in the works, though, which is the limited number and discontiguous
// placement of the KL25Z PWM-capable output pins.  This prevents
// us from doing the most obvious sequential ordering of the pins,
// so we end up with the outputs arranged into several blocks.
// Hopefully this isn't too confusing; for more detailed rationale,
// read on...
// With the LED-Wiz, the host software configuration usually 
// assumes that each RGB LED is hooked up to three consecutive ports
// (for the red, green, and blue components, which need to be 
// physically wired to separate outputs to allow each color to be 
// controlled independently).  To facilitate this, we arrange the 
// PWM-enabled outputs so that they're grouped together in the 
// port numbering scheme.  Unfortunately, these outputs aren't
// together in a single group in the physical pin layout, so to
// group them logically in the LED-Wiz port numbering scheme, we
// have to break up the overall numbering scheme into several blocks.
// So our port numbering goes sequentially down each column of
// header pins, but there are several break points where we have
// to interrupt the obvious sequence to keep the PWM pins grouped
// logically.
// In the list below, "pin J1-2" refers to pin 2 on header J1 on
// the KL25Z, using the standard pin numbering in the KL25Z 
// documentation - this is the physical pin that the port controls.
// "LW port 1" means LED-Wiz port 1 - this is the LED-Wiz port
// number that you use on the PC side (in the DirectOutput config
// file, for example) to address the port.  PWM-capable ports are
// marked as such - we group the PWM-capable ports into the first
// 10 LED-Wiz port numbers.
// If you wish to reallocate a pin in the array below to some other
// use, such as a button input port, simply change the pin name in
// the entry to NC (for Not Connected).  This will disable the given
// logical LedWiz port number and free up the physical pin.
// If you wish to reallocate a pin currently assigned to the button
// input array, simply change the entry for the pin in the buttonMap[]
// array above to NC (for "not connected"), and plug the pin name into
// a slot of your choice in the array below.
// Note: Don't assign PTD1 (pin J2-12) as an LedWiz output.  That pin
// is hard-wired on the KL25Z to the on-board indicator LED's blue segment,  
// which pretty precludes other uses of the pin.
// ACTIVE-LOW PORTS:  By default, when a logical port is turned on in
// the software, we set the physical GPIO voltage to "high" (3.3V), and
// set it "low" (0V) when the logical port is off.  This is the right
// scheme for the booster circuit described in the build guide.  Some
// third-party booster circuits want the opposite voltage scheme, where
// logical "on" is represented by 0V on the port and logical "off" is
// represented by 3.3V.  If you're using an "active low" booster like
// that, set the PORT_ACTIVE_LOW flag in the array below for each 
// affected port.
// TLC5940 PORTS:  To assign an LedWiz output port number to a particular
// output on a TLC5940, set the port type to TLC_PORT and set the 'pin'
// value to the index of the output port in the daisy chain.  The first
// chip in the daisy chain has ports 1-16, the second has ports 17-32, 
// and so on.
// 74HC595 PORTS:  To assign an LedWiz output port to a 74HC595 port,
// set the port type to HC595_PORT and set 'pin' to the index of the port
// in the daisy chain.  The first chip has ports 1-8, the second has 
// 9-16, etc.

// ledWizPortMap 'typ' values
enum LWPortType {
    NO_PORT    = -1,  // Not connected
    DIG_GPIO   = 0,   // DigitalOut I/O pin (not PWM capable)
    PWM_GPIO   = 1,   // AnalogOut I/O pin (PWM capable)
    TLC_PORT   = 2,   // TLC5940 output port
    HC595_PORT = 3    // 74HC595 output port

// flags - combine with '|'
const int PORT_ACTIVE_LOW = 0x0001;  // use LOW voltage (0V) when port is ON

struct {
    int pin;            // Pin name/index - PinName for GPIO, pin index for TLC5940 or 74HC595
    LWPortType typ;     // type of pin
    int flags;          // flags - a combination of PORT_xxx flag bits (see above)
} ledWizPortMap[] = {
#if TLC5940_NCHIPS == 0

    // This is the basic mapping, using entirely GPIO pins, for when you're 
    // not using external TLC5940 chips.  We provide 22 physical outputs, 10 
    // of which are PWM capable.
    // Important!  Note that the "isPWM" setting isn't just something we get to
    // choose.  It's a feature of the KL25Z hardware.  Some pins are PWM capable 
    // and some aren't, and there's nothing we can do about that in the software.
    // Refer to the KL25Z manual or schematics for the possible connections.  Note 
    // that there are other PWM-capable pins besides the 10 shown below, BUT they 
    // all share TPM channels with the pins below.  For example, TPM 2.0 can be 
    // connected to PTA1, PTB2, PTB18, PTE22 - but only one at a time.  So if you 
    // want to use PTB2 as a PWM out, it means you CAN'T use PTA1 as a PWM out.
    // We commented each PWM pin with its hardware channel number to help you keep
    // track of available channels if you do need to rearrange any of these pins.

    { PTA1,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-2,  LW port 1  (PWM capable - TPM 2.0 = channel 9)
    { PTA2,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 2  (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
    { PTD4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 3  (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
    { PTA12, PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-8,  LW port 4  (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
    { PTA4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-10, LW port 5  (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
    { PTA5,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-12, LW port 6  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)
    { PTA13, PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-2,  LW port 7  (PWM capable - TPM 1.1 = channel 13)
    { PTD5,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-4,  LW port 8  (PWM capable - TPM 0.5 = channel 6)
    { PTD0,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-6,  LW port 9  (PWM capable - TPM 0.0 = channel 1)
    { PTD3,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J2-10, LW port 10 (PWM capable - TPM 0.3 = channel 4)
    { PTD2,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J2-8,  LW port 11
    { PTC8,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-14, LW port 12
    { PTC9,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-16, LW port 13
    { PTC7,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-1,  LW port 14
    { PTC0,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-3,  LW port 15
    { PTC3,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-5,  LW port 16
    { PTC4,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-7,  LW port 17
    { PTC5,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-9,  LW port 18
    { PTC6,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-11, LW port 19
    { PTC10, DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-13, LW port 20
    { PTC11, DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-15, LW port 21
    { PTE0,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J2-18, LW port 22
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 23
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 24
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 25
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 26
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 27
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 28
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 29
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 30
    { NC,    NO_PORT  },      // Not connected,  LW port 31
    { NC,    NO_PORT  }       // Not connected,  LW port 32

#elif defined(EXPANSION_BOARD)

    // This mapping is for the expansion board, which uses four TLC5940
    // chips to provide 64  outputs.  The expansion board also uses
    // one GPIO pin to provide a digital (non-PWM) output dedicated to
    // the knocker circuit.  That's on a digital pin because it's used
    // to trigger an external timer circuit that limits the amount of
    // time that the knocker coil can be continuously energized, to protect
    // it against software faults on the PC that leave the port stuck on.
    // (The knocker coil is unique among standard virtual cabinet output
    // devices in this respect - it's the only device in common use that
    // can be damaged if left on for too long.  Other devices won't be
    // damaged, so they don't require such elaborate precautions.)
    // The specific device assignments in the last column are just 
    // recommendations.  You can assign any port to any device with 
    // compatible power needs.  The "General Purpose" ports are good to
    // at least 5A, so you can use these for virtually anything; put
    // your heavy-duty devices, such as solenoids and motors, on these
    // outputs.  You can also put lighter loads like lamps and LEDs
    // on these if you have ports left over after connecting all of
    // your high-power devices.  The "Flasher" and "Button light" ports 
    // are good to about 1.5A, so they work for medium loads like lamps, 
    // flashers, high-power LEDs, etc.  The flipper and magnasave ports 
    // only provide 20mA; use these only for small LEDs.
    // The TLC5940 outputs on the expansion board are hard-wired to
    // specific output drivers - that's what determines the power
    // limits described above.  You can rearrange the ports in the
    // list below to change the LedWiz port numbering to any order 
    // you prefer, but the association between a TLC5940 port number 
    // and the output circuit type can't be changed in the software.
    // That's a function of how the TLC5940 port is physically wired 
    // on the board.  Likewise, the PTC8 output is hard-wired to the 
    // knocker time limiter.
    //   TLC ports 1-20 and 44-47 = Darlington outputs, 1.5A max
    //   TLC ports 21-44 = MOSFET outputs (limit depends on MOSFET chosen)
    //   TLC ports 49-64 = direct outputs, limited to 20mA

    // The first 32 ports are LedWiz-compatible, so they're universally
    // accessible, even to older non-DOF software.  Attach the most common
    // devices to these ports.
    { 1, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 1,  LW output 1  - Flasher 1 R
    { 2, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 2,  LW output 2  - Flasher 1 G
    { 3, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 3,  LW output 3  - Flasher 1 B
    { 4, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 4,  LW output 4  - Flasher 2 R
    { 5, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 5,  LW output 5  - Flasher 2 G
    { 6, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 6,  LW output 6  - Flasher 2 B
    { 7, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 7,  LW output 7  - Flasher 3 R
    { 8, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 8,  LW output 8  - Flasher 3 G
    { 9, TLC_PORT },         // TLC port 9,  LW output 9  - Flasher 3 B
    { 10, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 10, LW output 10 - Flasher 4 R
    { 11, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 11, LW output 11 - Flasher 4 G
    { 12, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 12, LW output 12 - Flasher 4 B
    { 13, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 13, LW output 13 - Flasher 5 R
    { 14, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 14, LW output 14 - Flasher 5 G
    { 15, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 15, LW output 15 - Flasher 5 B
    { 16, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 16, LW output 16 - Strobe/Button light
    { 17, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 17, LW output 17 - Button light 1
    { 18, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 18, LW output 18 - Button light 2
    { 19, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 19, LW output 19 - Button light 3
    { 20, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 20, LW output 20 - Button light 4
    { PTC8, DIG_GPIO },      // PTC8,        LW output 21 - Replay Knocker
    { 21, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 21, LW output 22 - Contactor 1/General purpose
    { 22, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 22, LW output 23 - Contactor 2/General purpose
    { 23, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 23, LW output 24 - Contactor 3/General purpose
    { 24, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 24, LW output 25 - Contactor 4/General purpose
    { 25, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 25, LW output 26 - Contactor 5/General purpose
    { 26, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 26, LW output 27 - Contactor 6/General purpose
    { 27, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 27, LW output 28 - Contactor 7/General purpose
    { 28, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 28, LW output 29 - Contactor 8/General purpose
    { 29, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 29, LW output 30 - Contactor 9/General purpose
    { 30, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 30, LW output 31 - Contactor 10/General purpose
    { 31, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 31, LW output 32 - Shaker Motor/General purpose
    // Ports 33+ are accessible only to DOF-based software.  Older LedWiz-only
    // software on the can't access these.  Attach less common devices to these ports.
    { 32, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 32, LW output 33 - Gear Motor/General purpose
    { 33, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 33, LW output 34 - Fan/General purpose
    { 34, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 34, LW output 35 - Beacon/General purpose
    { 35, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 35, LW output 36 - Undercab RGB R/General purpose
    { 36, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 36, LW output 37 - Undercab RGB G/General purpose
    { 37, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 37, LW output 38 - Undercab RGB B/General purpose
    { 38, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 38, LW output 39 - Bell/General purpose
    { 39, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 39, LW output 40 - Chime 1/General purpose
    { 40, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 40, LW output 41 - Chime 2/General purpose
    { 41, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 41, LW output 42 - Chime 3/General purpose
    { 42, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 42, LW output 43 - General purpose
    { 43, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 43, LW output 44 - General purpose
    { 44, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 44, LW output 45 - Button light 5
    { 45, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 45, LW output 46 - Button light 6
    { 46, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 46, LW output 47 - Button light 7
    { 47, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 47, LW output 48 - Button light 8
    { 49, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 49, LW output 49 - Flipper button RGB left R
    { 50, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 50, LW output 50 - Flipper button RGB left G
    { 51, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 51, LW output 51 - Flipper button RGB left B
    { 52, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 52, LW output 52 - Flipper button RGB right R
    { 53, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 53, LW output 53 - Flipper button RGB right G
    { 54, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 54, LW output 54 - Flipper button RGB right B
    { 55, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 55, LW output 55 - MagnaSave button RGB left R
    { 56, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 56, LW output 56 - MagnaSave button RGB left G
    { 57, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 57, LW output 57 - MagnaSave button RGB left B
    { 58, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 58, LW output 58 - MagnaSave button RGB right R
    { 59, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 59, LW output 59 - MagnaSave button RGB right G
    { 60, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 60, LW output 60 - MagnaSave button RGB right B
    { 61, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 61, LW output 61 - Extra RGB LED R
    { 62, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 62, LW output 62 - Extra RGB LED G
    { 63, TLC_PORT },        // TLC port 63, LW output 63 - Extra RGB LED B
    { 64, TLC_PORT }         // TLC port 64, LW output 64 - Extra single LED

    // *** TLC5940 + GPIO OUTPUTS, Without the expansion board ***
    // This is the mapping for the ehnanced mode, with one or more TLC5940 
    // chips connected.  Each TLC5940 chip provides 16 PWM channels.  We
    // can supplement the TLC5940 outputs with GPIO pins to get even more 
    // physical outputs.  
    // Because we've already declared the number of TLC5940 chips earlier
    // in this file, we don't actually have to map out all of the TLC5940
    // ports here.  The software will automatically assign all of the 
    // TLC5940 ports that aren't explicitly mentioned here to the next
    // available LedWiz port numbers after the end of this array, assigning
    // them sequentially in TLC5940 port order.
    // In contrast to the basic mode arrangement, we're putting all of the
    // NON PWM ports first in this mapping.  The logic is that all of the 
    // TLC5940 ports are PWM-capable, and they'll all at the end of the list
    // here, so by putting the PWM GPIO pins last here, we'll keep all of the
    // PWM ports grouped in the final mapping.
    // Note that the TLC5940 control wiring takes away several GPIO pins
    // that we used as output ports in the basic mode.  Further, because the
    // TLC5940 makes ports so plentiful, we're intentionally omitting several 
    // more of the pins from the basic set, to make them available for other
    // uses.  To keep things more neatly grouped, we're only assigning J1 pins
    // in this set.  This leaves the following ports from the basic mode output
    // set available for other users: PTA13, PTD0, PTD2, PTD3, PTD5, PTE0.
    { PTC8,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-14, LW port 1
    { PTC9,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-16, LW port 2
    { PTC0,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-3,  LW port 3
    { PTC3,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-5,  LW port 4
    { PTC4,  DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-7,  LW port 5
    { PTC11, DIG_GPIO },      // pin J1-15, LW port 6
    { PTA2,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-4,  LW port 7   (PWM capable - TPM 2.1 = channel 10)
    { PTD4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-6,  LW port 8   (PWM capable - TPM 0.4 = channel 5)
    { PTA12, PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-8,  LW port 9   (PWM capable - TPM 1.0 = channel 7)
    { PTA4,  PWM_GPIO },      // pin J1-10, LW port 10  (PWM capable - TPM 0.1 = channel 2)
    { PTA5,  PWM_GPIO }       // pin J1-12, LW port 11  (PWM capable - TPM 0.2 = channel 3)

    // TLC5940 ports start here!
    // First chip port 0 ->   LW port 12
    // First chip port 1 ->   LW port 13
    // ... etc, filling out all chip ports sequentially ...

#endif // TLC5940_NCHIPS

#endif // DECL_EXTERNS