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Memory optimizations

Beginning with Mbed OS 5, new features such as RTOS created an increase in flash and RAM usage. This guide explains how to visualize the memory model in Mbed OS and how to instrument and optimize program memory use for release builds using Mbed OS 5.

Note: More information about the memory usage differences between Mbed OS 2 and Mbed OS 5 is available in a blog post.

Runtime memory tracing

Running out of memory is a common problem with resource constrained systems such as the MCUs on which Arm Mbed OS runs. When faced with an out of memory error, you often need to understand how your software uses dynamic memory. The runtime memory tracer in Mbed OS 5 is the tool that shows the runtime memory allocation patterns of your software: which parts of the code allocate and free memory and how much memory they need.

Using the memory tracer

The memory tracer is not enabled by default. To enable it, you need to define the MBED_MEM_TRACING_ENABLED macro. The recommended way to define this macro is to add it to the list of macros defined in your mbed_app.json:

{
    "macros": ["MBED_MEM_TRACING_ENABLED"]
}

Tip: See the documentation of the Arm Mbed configuration system for more details about mbed_app.json.

After it is enabled, the memory tracer intercepts the calls to the standard allocation functions (malloc, realloc, calloc and free). It invokes a user supplied callback each time one of these functions is called. To let the tracer know which callback it needs to invoke, call mbed_mem_trace_set_callback(callback_function_name) as early as possible (preferably at the beginning of your main function). You can find the full documentation of the callback function in the memory tracer header file. The tracer supplies a default callback function (mbed_mem_trace_default_callback) that outputs trace data on the Mbed console (using printf). For each memory operation, the callback outputs a line that begins with #<op>:<0xresult>;<0xcaller>-:

  • op identifies the memory operation (m for malloc, r for realloc, c for calloc and f for free).
  • result (base 16) is the result returned by the memory operation. This is always 0 for free because free doesn't return anything.
  • caller (base 16) is the address in the code where the memory operation was called.

The rest of the output depends on the operation being traced:

  • For malloc: size, where size is the original argument to malloc.
  • For realloc: 0xptr;size, where ptr (base 16) and size are the original arguments to realloc.
  • For calloc: nmemb;size, where nmemb and size are the original arguments to calloc.
  • For free: 0xptr, where ptr (base 16) is the original argument to free.

Examples:

  • #m:0x20003240;0x600d-50 encodes a malloc that returned 0x20003240. It was called by the instruction at 0x600D with the size argument equal to 50.
  • #f:0x0;0x602f-0x20003240 encodes a free that was called by the instruction at 0x602f with the ptr argument equal to 0x20003240.

Find the source of the default callback here. Besides being useful in itself, it can also serve as a template for user defined callback functions.

Tip: Find the full documentation of the callback function in the memory tracer header file.

Example

A simple code example that uses the memory tracer on a K64F board:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include "mbed.h"
#include "mbed_mem_trace.h"


int main() {
    mbed_mem_trace_set_callback(mbed_mem_trace_default_callback);
    while (true) {
        void *p = malloc(50);
        wait(0.5);
        free(p);
    }
}

It outputs the following trace:

#m:0x20003080;0x182f-50
#f:0x0;0x183f-0x20003080
#m:0x20003080;0x182f-50
#f:0x0;0x183f-0x20003080
#m:0x20003080;0x182f-50
#f:0x0;0x183f-0x20003080
...

Limitations

  • The tracer doesn't handle nested calls of the memory functions. For example, if you call realloc and the implementation of realloc calls malloc internally, the call to malloc is not traced.
  • The caller argument of the callback function isn't always reliable. It doesn't work at all on some toolchains, and it might output erroneous data on others.

Runtime memory statistics

Arm Mbed OS 5 provides various runtime statistics to help characterize resource usage. This allows easy identification of potential problems, such as a stack close to overflowing. The metrics currently supported are available for the heap and the stack.

Heap statistics

Heap statistics provide exact information about the number of bytes dynamically allocated by a program. It does not take into account heap fragmentation or allocation overhead. This allows allocation size reports to remain consistent, regardless of order of allocation (fragmentation) or allocation algorithm (overhead).

To enable heap stats from Mbed CLI:
  1. Add the command-line flag -DMBED_HEAP_STATS_ENABLED=1, for example mbed compile -DMBED_HEAP_STATS_ENABLED=1
  2. Use the function mbed_stats_heap_get() to take a snapshot of heap stats.
To enable heap stats using mbed_app.json:
  1. Add the following to mbed_app.json:

    {
        "macros": [
            "MBED_HEAP_STATS_ENABLED=1"
        ],
        ...
    }
    
  2. Use the function mbed_stats_heap_get() to take a snapshot of heap stats.

    Note: This function is available even when the heap stats are not enabled but always returns zero for all fields.

    mbed_stats_heap_get() returns a struct containing the following:

    Variable Description
    current_size Bytes allocated currently.
    max_size Max bytes allocated at a given time.
    total_size Cumulative sum of bytes ever allocated.
    reserved_size Current number of bytes allocated for the heap.
    alloc_cnt Current number of allocations.
    alloc_fail_cnt Number of failed allocations.

Example heap statistics use cases

  • Getting worst case memory usage, max_size, to properly size MCU RAM.
  • Detecting program memory leaks by the current size allocated (current_size) or number of allocations in use (alloc_cnt).
  • Use alloc_fail_cnt to check if allocations have been failing, and if so, how many.
Example program using heap statistics
#include "mbed.h"
#include "mbed_stats.h"

int main(void)
{
    mbed_stats_heap_t heap_stats;

    printf("Starting heap stats example\r\n");

    void *allocation = malloc(1000);
    printf("Freeing 1000 bytes\r\n");

    mbed_stats_heap_get(&heap_stats);
    printf("Current heap: %lu\r\n", heap_stats.current_size);
    printf("Max heap size: %lu\r\n", heap_stats.max_size);

    free(allocation);

    mbed_stats_heap_get(&heap_stats);
    printf("Current heap after: %lu\r\n", heap_stats.current_size);
    printf("Max heap size after: %lu\r\n", heap_stats.max_size);
}
Side effects of enabling heap statistics
  • An additional 8 bytes of overhead for each memory allocation.
  • The function realloc never reuses the buffer it is resizing.
  • Memory allocation is slightly slower due to the added bookkeeping.

Stack statistics

Stack stats provide information on the allocated stack size of a thread and the worst case stack use. You can query any thread on the system for stack information.

To enable stack stats from the command-line, add the command-line flag -DMBED_STACK_STATS_ENABLED=1, for example mbed compile -DMBED_HEAP_STATS_ENABLED=1

Alternatively, to enable stack stats using mbed_app.json, add the following to mbed_app.json:

{
    "macros": [
        "MBED_STACK_STATS_ENABLED=1"
    ],
    ...
}

There are two functions you can use to access the stack stats:

  • mbed_stats_stack_get calculates combined stack informations for all threads.
  • mbed_stats_stack_get_each provides stack informations for each thread separately.

Note: These functions are available even when the stack stats are not enabled but always return zero for all fields.

Both of these functions return a struct containing the following:

Variable Description
thread_id Identifier for the thread that owns the stack or 0 if multiple threads.
max_size Maximum number of bytes used on the stack.
reserved_size Current number of bytes allocated for the stack.
stack_cnt Number of stacks stats accumulated in the structure.

Example stack statistics use cases

  • Using max_size to calibrate stack sizes for each thread.
  • Detecting which stack is close to overflowing.
Example program using stack statistics
#include "mbed.h"
#include "mbed_stats.h"

int main(void)
{
    printf("Starting stack stats example\r\n");

    int cnt = osThreadGetCount();
    mbed_stats_stack_t *stats = (mbed_stats_stack_t*) malloc(cnt * sizeof(mbed_stats_stack_t));

    cnt = mbed_stats_stack_get_each(stats, cnt);
    for (int i = 0; i < cnt; i++) {
        printf("Thread: 0x%X, Stack size: %u, Max stack: %u\r\n", stats[i].thread_id, stats[i].reserved_size, stats[i].max_size);
    }
}
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