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Adding and configuring targets

Arm Mbed uses JSON as a description language for its build targets. You can find the JSON description of Mbed targets in targets/targets.json and in custom_targets.json in the root of a project directory. If you provide a source directory using the --source switch, Mbed looks for custom_targets.json in that directory instead. When you add new targets with custom_targets.json, they are added to the list of available targets.

Note: The Online Compiler does not support this functionality. You need to use Mbed CLI to take your code offline.

You are not allowed to redefine existing targets in custom_targets.json. To better understand how a target is defined, we'll use this example (taken from targets.json):

{
    "TEENSY3_1": {
        "inherits": ["Target"],
        "core": "Cortex-M4",
        "extra_labels": ["Freescale", "K20XX", "K20DX256"],
        "OUTPUT_EXT": "hex",
        "is_disk_virtual": true,
        "supported_toolchains": ["GCC_ARM", "ARM"],
        "post_binary_hook": {
            "function": "TEENSY3_1Code.binary_hook",
            "toolchains": ["ARM_STD", "ARM_MICRO", "GCC_ARM"]
        },
        "device_name": "MK20DX256xxx7",
        "detect_code": ["0230"]
    }
}

The style that we use for targets is:

  • Each property is on its own line.
  • The open brace { is on the same line as the target name, or the property name that is its key.
  • The close brace } or close brace and comma }, are on their own line.
  • Lists take up at most one line.
  • Long lines are not split.

Standard properties

This section lists all the properties the Mbed build system understands. Unless specified otherwise, all properties are optional.

inherits

The description of an Mbed target can "inherit" from one or more descriptions of other targets. When a target, called a child inherits from another target, called its parent, the child automatically copies all the properties from the parent. After the child has copied the properties of the parent, it may then overwrite, add or remove from those properties. In our example above, TEENSY3_1 inherits from Target. This is the definition of Target:

"Target": {
    "core": null,
    "default_toolchain": "ARM",
    "supported_toolchains": null,
    "extra_labels": [],
    "is_disk_virtual": false,
    "macros": [],
    "detect_code": [],
    "public": false
}

Because TEENSY3_1 inherits from Target:

  • core is a property defined both in TEENSY3_1 and Target. Because TEENSY3_1 overwrites it, the value of core for TEENSY3_1 is Cortex-M4.
  • default_toolchain is not defined in TEENSY3_1. TEENSY3_1 copies the definition of default_toolchain from Target, so the value of default_toolchain for TEENSY3_1 is ARM.

A child target may add properties that don't exist in any of its parents. For example, OUTPUT_EXT is defined in TEENSY3_1 but is not defined in Target.

It's possible, but discouraged, to inherit from more than one target. For example:

"ImaginaryTarget": {
    "inherits": ["Target", "TEENSY3_1"]
}

In this case, ImaginaryTarget inherits the properties of both Target and TEENSY3_1, so:

  • The value of ImaginaryTarget.default_toolchain is ARM from Target.
  • The value of ImaginaryTarget.OUTPUT_EXT is hex from TEENSY3_1.
  • The value of ImaginaryTarget.core is null from Target because that's the first parent of ImaginaryTarget that defines core.

Avoid using multiple inheritance for your targets. If you use multiple inheritance, keep in mind that target description is similar to the Python class inheritance mechanism prior to version 2.3. The target description inheritance checks for descriptions in this order:

  1. Look for the property in the current target.
  2. If not found, look for the property in the first target's parent, then in the parent of the parent and so on.
  3. If not found, look for the property in the rest of the target's parents, relative to the current inheritance level.

For more details about the Python method resolution order, please see this Python tutorial.

core

The name of the target's Arm core.

Possible values: "Cortex-M0", "Cortex-M0+", "Cortex-M1", "Cortex-M3", "Cortex-M4", "Cortex-M4F", "Cortex-M7", "Cortex-M7F", "Cortex-A9", "Cortex-M23", "Cortex-M23-NS", "Cortex-M33", "Cortex-M33-NS"

Note: Mbed OS supports v8-M architecture devices (Cortex-M23 and Cortex-M33) on the ARMC6 toolchain (version 6.10).

public

The public property controls which targets the Mbed build system allows users to build. You may define targets as parents for other targets. When you define such a target, its description must set the public property to false. Target, shown above, sets public to false for this reason.

If public is not defined for a target, it defaults to true.

Note: Unlike other target properties, the value of public is not inherited from a parent to its children.

macros, macros_add and macros_remove

The macros property defines a list of macros that are available when compiling code. You may define these macros with or without a value. For example, the declaration "macros": ["NO_VALUE", "VALUE=10"] will add -DNO_VALUE -DVALUE=10 to the compiler's command-line.

When a target inherits, it's possible to alter the values of macros in the child targets without redefining macros completely using macros_add and macros_remove. A child target may use macros_add to add its own macros and macros_remove to remove macros defined by its parents.

For example:

    "TargetA": {
        "macros": ["PARENT_MACRO1", "PARENT_MACRO2"]
    },
    "TargetB": {
        "inherits": ["TargetA"],
        "macros_add": ["CHILD_MACRO1"],
        "macros_remove": ["PARENT_MACRO2"]
    }

In this configuration, the value of TargetB.macros is ["PARENT_MACRO1", "CHILD_MACRO1"].

extra_labels, extra_labels_add and extra_labels_remove

The list of labels defines how the build system looks for sources, include directories and so on. extra_labels makes the build system aware of additional directories that it must scan for such files.

When you use target inheritance, you may alter the values of extra_labels using extra_labels_add and extra_labels_remove. This is similar to the macros_add and macros_remove mechanism described in the previous section.

features, features_add and features_remove

The list of features enables software features on a platform. Like extra_labels, features makes the build system aware of additional directories it must scan for resources. Unlike extra_labels, the build system recognizes a fixed set of values in the features list. The build system recognizes the following features:

  • UVISOR.
  • BLE.
  • CLIENT.
  • IPV4.
  • LWIP.
  • COMMON_PAL.
  • STORAGE.
  • NANOSTACK.

The following features, also recognized by the build system, are all Nanostack configurations:

  • LOWPAN_BORDER_ROUTER.
  • LOWPAN_HOST.
  • LOWPAN_ROUTER.
  • NANOSTACK_FULL.
  • THREAD_BORDER_ROUTER.
  • THREAD_END_DEVICE.
  • THREAD_ROUTER.
  • ETHERNET_HOST.

The build system errors when you use features outside of this list.

When you use target inheritance, you may alter the values of features using features_add and features_remove. This is similar to the macros_add and macros_remove mechanism the previous section describes.

config and overrides

Note: The Arm Mbed configuration system customizes the compile time configuration of various Mbed components (targets, libraries and applications). Each component can define a number of configuration parameters. The values of these configuration parameters can then be overridden in various ways.

The list of configs provide a way to modify the values of macros in child targets or in a project. Each configuration has a default value, as well as an optional macro name and help text. By default, the macro name is the name of the config. For example:

"config": {
    "clock_src": {
        "help": "Clock source to use, can be XTAL or RC",
        "value": "XTAL",
    },
    "clock_freq": {
        "help": "Clock frequency in Mhz",
        "value": "16",
        "macro_name": "CLOCK_FREQUENCY_MHZ"
    }
}

This case defines the config clock_src with the default value of XTAL for the macro CLOCK_SRC, and the config clock_freq with the default value of 16 for the macro CLOCK_FREQUENCY_MHZ.

overrides allow a child target to change the value of a config. For example, if a child target uses the internal RC clock instead of the crystal, it can add an override:

"overrides": {
    "clock_src": "RC"
}

You can also modify config values for a project using the target_overrides key in the mbed_app.json file, either for specific targets or as a wildcard. For example:

"target_overrides": {
    "*": {
        "clock_src": "RC"
    },
    "NRF51_DK": {
        "clock_freq": "16"
    }
}

This section, in an mbed_app.json file, sets the clock source to RC on all targets and the clock frequency to 16Mhz on just the NRF51_DK target.

device_has

The list in device_has defines what hardware a device has.

Mbed, libraries and application source code can then select different implementations of drivers based on hardware availability; selectively compile drivers for existing hardware only; or run only the tests that apply to a particular platform. The values in device_has are available in C, C++ and assembly language as DEVICE_ prefixed macros.

supported_toolchains

The supported_toolchains property is the list of toolchains that support a target. The allowed values for supported_toolchains are ARM, uARM, ARMC6, GCC_ARM and IAR.

default_toolchain

The default_toolchain property names the toolchain that compiles code for this target in the Online Compiler. Possible values for default_toolchain are ARM or uARM.

post_binary_hook

Some targets require specific actions to generate a programmable binary image. Specify these actions using the post_binary_hook property and custom Python code. The value of post_binary_hook must be a JSON object with keys function and optionally toolchain. Within the post_binary_hook JSON object, the function key must contain a Python function that is accessible from the namespace of tools/targets/__init__.py, and the optional toolchain key must contain a list of toolchains that require processing from the post_binary_hook. When you do not specify the toolchains key for a post_binary_hook, you can assume the post_binary_hook applies to all toolchains. For the TEENSY3_1 target above, the definition of post_binary_hook looks like this:

"post_binary_hook": {
    "function": "TEENSY3_1Code.binary_hook",
    "toolchains": ["ARM_STD", "ARM_MICRO", "GCC_ARM"]
}

After the generation of an initial binary image for the TEENSY3_1, the build system calls the function binary_hook in the TEENSY3_1Code class within tools/targets/__init__.py.

The build tools call TEENSY3_1 post_binary_hook when they build using the ARM_STD, ARM_MICRO or GCC_ARM toolchain.

As for the TEENSY3_1 code, this is how it looks in tools/targets/__init__.py:

class TEENSY3_1Code:
    @staticmethod
    def binary_hook(t_self, resources, elf, binf):
        from intelhex import IntelHex
        binh = IntelHex()
        binh.loadbin(binf, offset = 0)

        with open(binf.replace(".bin", ".hex"), "w") as f:
            binh.tofile(f, format='hex')

The post_build_hook for the TEENSY3_1 converts the output file (binf) from binary format to Intel HEX format. See the other hooks in tools/targets/__init__.py for more examples of hook code.

device_name

Use this property to pass necessary data for exporting to various third party tools and IDEs and for building applications with bootloaders.

We use the tool ArmPackManager to parse CMSIS Packs for target information. index.json stores the parsed information from the PDSC (Pack Description

The "device_name" attribute it targets.json maps from a target in Mbed OS to a device in a CMSIS Pack. To support IAR and uVision exports for your target, you must add a "device_name" field in targets.json containing this key.

http://www.keil.com/pack/Keil.Kinetis_K20_DFP.pdsc is the PDSC that contains TEENSY_31 device (MK20DX256xxx7). ArmPackManager has parsed this PDSC, and index.json stores the device information. The device information begins on line 156 of the .pdsc file:

<device Dname="MK20DX256xxx7">
  <processor Dfpu="0" Dmpu="0" Dendian="Little-endian" Dclock="72000000"/>
  <compile header="Device\Include\MK20D7.h"  define="MK20DX256xxx7"/>
  <debug      svd="SVD\MK20D7.svd"/>
  <memory     id="IROM1"                      start="0x00000000"  size="0x40000"    startup="1"   default="1"/>
  <memory     id="IROM2"                      start="0x10000000"  size="0x8000"     startup="0"   default="0"/>
  <memory     id="IRAM1"                      start="0x20000000"  size="0x8000"     init   ="0"   default="1"/>
  <memory     id="IRAM2"                      start="0x1FFF8000"  size="0x8000"     init   ="0"   default="0"/>
  <algorithm  name="Flash\MK_P256.FLM"        start="0x00000000"  size="0x40000"                  default="1"/>
  <algorithm  name="Flash\MK_D32_72MHZ.FLM"   start="0x10000000"  size="0x8000"                   default="1"/>
  <book name="Documents\K20P100M72SF1RM.pdf"         title="MK20DX256xxx7 Reference Manual"/>
  <book name="Documents\K20P100M72SF1.pdf"           title="MK20DX256xxx7 Data Sheet"/>
</device>

The device_name key in targets.json is MK20DX256xxx7 for any target that uses this particular MCU.

OUTPUT_EXT

The OUTPUT_EXT property controls the file type emitted for a target by the build system. You may set OUTPUT_EXT to bin for binary format, hex for Intel HEX format and elf for ELF format. We discourage using the elf value for OUTPUT_EXT because the build system must always emit an ELF file.

default_lib

The delault_lib property controls which library, small or standard, the GCC_ARM toolchain links. The default_lib property may take on the values std for the standard library and small for the reduced size library.

bootloader_supported

The bootloader_supported property controls whether the build system allows a bootloader or a bootloader-using application to be built for a target. The default value of bootloader_supported is false.

release_versions

The release_versions property is a list of major versions of Mbed OS that the target supports. The list within release_versions may only contain 2, indicating that the support of Mbed OS 2, and 5, indicating the support of Mbed OS 5. We build all targets that are released for Mbed OS 2 as a static library. Targets are released for Mbed OS 2 by putting a 2 in the release_version list.

supported_form_factors

The supported_form_factors property is an optional list of form factors that a development board supports. You can use this property in C, C++ and assembly language by passing a macro prefixed with TARGET_FF_ to the compiler. The accepted values for supported_form_factors are ARDUINO, which indicates compatibility with Arduino headers, and MORPHO, which indicates compatibility with ST Morpho headers.

Style guide

A linting script for targets.json is available as tools/targets/lint.py in Mbed OS. This script is a utility for avoiding common errors when defining targets and detecting style inconsistencies between targets. This linting script displays style errors based on a few rules outlined below.

Rules enforced

There are two sets of rules: rules that affect how you must structure target inheritance and rules that govern what each role within the inheritance hierarchy can do.

Inheritance rules

A target's inheritance must look like one of these:

MCU -> Board
MCU -> Module -> Board
Family -> MCU -> Board
Family -> MCU -> Module -> Board
Family -> Subfamily -> MCU -> Board
Family -> Subfamily -> MCU -> Module -> Board

The linting script guesses where the Boards and Modules stop and the MCUs, Families and Subfamilies begin. An MCU, Family or Subfamily must have at least one Board or Module above it in any hierarchy.

Role rules

For each of these target roles, some restrictions are in place:

  • Families, MCUs and Subfamilies may contain the following keys:
    • core.
    • extra_labels.
    • features.
    • bootloader_supported.
    • device_name.
    • post_binary_hook.
    • default_tool chain.
    • config.
    • target_overrides.
  • MCUs are required to have, and Families and Subfamilies may have:
    • release_versions.
    • supported_toolchains.
    • default_lib.
    • public.
    • device_has.
  • Modules and Boards may have the following keys:
    • supported_form_factors.
    • is_disk_virtual.
    • detect_code.
    • extra_labels.
    • public.
    • config.
    • overrides.
    • forced_reset_timeout.
  • macros are not used. That is intentional: they do not provide any benefit over config and overrides but can be very difficult to use. In practice it is very difficult to override the value of a macro with a value. config and overrides, on the other hand, are designed for this use case.
  • extra_labels may not contain any target names
  • device_has may only contain values from the following list:
    • ANALOGIN.
    • ANALOGOUT.
    • CAN.
    • ETHERNET.
    • EMAC.
    • FLASH.
    • I2C.
    • I2CSLAVE.
    • I2C_ASYNCH.
    • INTERRUPTIN.
    • LPTICKER.
    • PORTIN.
    • PORTINOUT.
    • PORTOUT.
    • PWMOUT.
    • RTC.
    • TRNG.
    • SERIAL.
    • SERIAL_ASYNCH.
    • SERIAL_FC.
    • SLEEP.
    • SPI.
    • SPI_ASYNCH.
    • SPISLAVE.
  • If release_versions contains 5, then supported_toolchains must contain all of GCC_ARM, ARM and IAR
  • MCUs, Families and SubFamilies must set public to false

Sample output

The linting script takes three subcommands: targets, all-targets and orphans.

targets and all-targets commands

The targets and all-targets commands both show errors within public inheritance hierarchies. For example:

python tools/targets/lint.py targets EFM32GG_STK3700 EFM32WG_STK3800 LPC11U24_301

Could produce this output

hierarchy: Family (EFM32) -> MCU (EFM32GG990F1024) -> Board (EFM32GG_STK3700)
target errors:
  EFM32:
  - EFM32 is not allowed in extra_labels
  EFM32GG990F1024:
  - macros found, and is not allowed
  - default_lib not found, and is required
  - device_has not found, and is required
  EFM32GG_STK3700:
  - progen found, and is not allowed
  - device_has found, and is not allowed
---
hierarchy: Family (EFM32) -> MCU (EFM32WG990F256) -> Board (EFM32WG_STK3800)
target errors:
  EFM32:
  - EFM32 is not allowed in extra_labels
  EFM32WG990F256:
  - macros found, and is not allowed
  - default_lib not found, and is required
  - device_has not found, and is required
  EFM32WG_STK3800:
  - progen found, and is not allowed
  - device_has found, and is not allowed
---
hierarchy: Family (LPCTarget) -> MCU (LPC11U24_301) -> ???
hierarchy errors:
- no boards found in hierarchy
target errors:
  LPC11U24_301:
  - release_versions not found, and is required
  - default_lib not found, and is required
  - public not found, and is required

The all-targets command is very verbose, with output that matches the format above but is too long to reproduce here.

orphans command

The orphans command shows all targets that you cannot reach from a public target.

python tools/targets/lint.py orphans

- CM4_UARM
- CM4_ARM
- CM4F_UARM
- CM4F_ARM
- LPC1800
- EFR32MG1P132F256GM48
- EFR32MG1_BRD4150
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