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Public Member Functions
LoRaWANInterface Class Reference
Inheritance diagram for LoRaWANInterface:
LoRaWANBase

Public Member Functions

 LoRaWANInterface (LoRaRadio &radio)
 Constructs a LoRaWANInterface using the LoRaWANStack instance underneath. More...
 
 LoRaWANInterface (LoRaRadio &radio, LoRaPHY &phy)
 Constructs a LoRaWANInterface using the user provided PHY object. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t initialize (events::EventQueue *queue)
 Initialize the LoRa stack. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t connect ()
 Connect OTAA or ABP using the Mbed OS config system. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t connect (const lorawan_connect_t &connect)
 Connect OTAA or ABP with parameters. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t disconnect ()
 Disconnect the current session. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t add_link_check_request ()
 Validate the connectivity with the network. More...
 
virtual void remove_link_check_request ()
 Removes link check request sticky MAC command. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t set_datarate (uint8_t data_rate)
 Sets up a particular data rate. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t enable_adaptive_datarate ()
 Enables adaptive data rate (ADR) More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t disable_adaptive_datarate ()
 Disables adaptive data rate. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t set_confirmed_msg_retries (uint8_t count)
 Sets up the retry counter for confirmed messages. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t set_channel_plan (const lorawan_channelplan_t &channel_plan)
 Sets the channel plan. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t get_channel_plan (lorawan_channelplan_t &channel_plan)
 Gets the channel plans from the LoRa stack. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t remove_channel_plan ()
 Removes an active channel plan. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t remove_channel (uint8_t index)
 Removes a single channel. More...
 
virtual int16_t send (uint8_t port, const uint8_t *data, uint16_t length, int flags)
 Send message to gateway. More...
 
virtual int16_t receive (uint8_t port, uint8_t *data, uint16_t length, int flags)
 Receives a message from the Network Server on a specific port. More...
 
virtual int16_t receive (uint8_t *data, uint16_t length, uint8_t &port, int &flags)
 Receives a message from the Network Server on any port. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t add_app_callbacks (lorawan_app_callbacks_t *callbacks)
 Add application callbacks to the stack. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t set_device_class (const device_class_t device_class)
 Change device class. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t get_tx_metadata (lorawan_tx_metadata &metadata)
 Get hold of TX meta-data. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t get_rx_metadata (lorawan_rx_metadata &metadata)
 Get hold of RX meta-data. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t get_backoff_metadata (int &backoff)
 Get hold of backoff time. More...
 
virtual lorawan_status_t cancel_sending (void)
 Cancel outgoing transmission. More...
 

Detailed Description

Definition at line 29 of file LoRaWANInterface.h.

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

Constructs a LoRaWANInterface using the LoRaWANStack instance underneath.

Currently, LoRaWANStack is a singleton and you should only construct a single instance of LoRaWANInterface.

LoRaWANInterface will construct PHY based on "lora.phy" setting in mbed_app.json.

Parameters
radioA reference to radio object
LoRaWANInterface ( LoRaRadio radio,
LoRaPHY phy 
)

Constructs a LoRaWANInterface using the user provided PHY object.

Parameters
radioA reference to radio object
phyA reference to PHY object

Member Function Documentation

virtual lorawan_status_t add_app_callbacks ( lorawan_app_callbacks_t callbacks)
virtual

Add application callbacks to the stack.

An example of using this API with a latch onto 'lorawan_events' could be:

LoRaWANInterface lorawan(radio); lorawan_app_callbacks_t cbs; static void my_event_handler();

int main() { lorawan.initialize(); cbs.lorawan_events = mbed::callback(my_event_handler); lorawan.add_app_callbacks(&cbs); lorawan.connect(); }

static void my_event_handler(lorawan_event_t event) { switch(event) { case CONNECTED: //do something break; case DISCONNECTED: //do something break; case TX_DONE: //do something break; default: break; } }

Parameters
callbacksA pointer to the structure containing application callbacks.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if events callback is not set

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t add_link_check_request ( )
virtual

Validate the connectivity with the network.

Application may use this API to submit a request to the stack for validation of its connectivity to a Network Server. Under the hood, this API schedules a Link Check Request command (LinkCheckReq) for the network server and once the response, i.e., LinkCheckAns MAC command is received from the Network Server, user provided method is called.

One way to use this API may be the validation of connectivity after a long deep sleep. Mbed LoRaWANStack follows the MAC commands with data frame payload, so the application needs to send something, and the Network Server may respond during the RX slots.

This API is usable only when the application sets the 'link_check_resp' callback. See add_lora_app_callbacks API. If the above mentioned callback is not set, a LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID error is thrown.

The first parameter to callback function is the demodulation margin, and the second parameter is the number of gateways that successfully received the last request.

A 'Link Check Request' MAC command remains set for every subsequent transmission, until/unless the application explicitly turns it off using the remove_link_check_request() API.

Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on successfully queuing a request, or a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if link_check_resp callback method is not set.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t cancel_sending ( void  )
virtual

Cancel outgoing transmission.

This API is used to cancel any outstanding transmission in the TX pipe. If an event for transmission is not already queued at the end of backoff timer, the system can cancel the outstanding outgoing packet. Otherwise, the system is busy sending and can't be held back. The system will not try to resend if the outgoing message was a CONFIRMED message even if the ack is not received.

Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK if the sending is canceled, otherwise other negative error code if request failed: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_BUSY if the send cannot be canceled LORAWAN_STATUS_NO_OP if the operation cannot be completed (nothing to cancel)

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t connect ( )
virtual

Connect OTAA or ABP using the Mbed OS config system.

Connect by Over The Air Activation or Activation By Personalization. You need to configure the connection properly using the Mbed OS configuration system.

When connecting through OTAA, the return code for success (LORAWAN_STATUS_CONNECT_IN_PROGRESS) is negative. However, this is not a real error. It tells you that the connection is in progress, and an event will notify you of the completion. By default, after the Join Accept message is received, base stations may provide the node with a CF-List that replaces all user-configured channels except the Join/Default channels. A CF-List can configure a maximum of five channels other than the default channels.

To configure more channels, we recommend that you use the set_channel_plan() API after the connection. By default, the PHY layers configure only the mandatory Join channels. The retransmission back-off restrictions on these channels are severe, and you may experience long delays or even failures in the confirmed traffic. If you add more channels, the aggregated duty cycle becomes much more relaxed as compared to the Join (default) channels only.

NOTES ON RECONNECTION: Currently, the Mbed OS LoRaWAN implementation does not support non-volatile memory storage. Therefore, the state and frame counters cannot be restored after a power cycle. However, if you use the disconnect() API to shut down the LoRaWAN protocol, the state and frame counters are saved. Connecting again restores the previous session. According to the LoRaWAN 1.0.2 specification, the frame counters are always reset to 0 for OTAA, and a new Join request lets the network server know that the counters need a reset. The same is said about the ABP, but there is no way to convey this information to the network server. For a network server, an ABP device is always connected. That's why storing the frame counters is important for ABP. That's why we restore frame counters from session information after a disconnection.

Returns
Common: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if connection parameters are invalid.

For ABP: If everything goes well, LORAWAN_STATUS_OK is returned for first call followed by a 'CONNECTED' event. Otherwise a negative error code is returned: Any subsequent call will return LORAWAN_STATUS_ALREADY_CONNECTED and no event follows.

For OTAA: When a JoinRequest is sent, LORAWAN_STATUS_CONNECT_IN_PROGRESS is returned for the first call. Any subsequent call will return either LORAWAN_STATUS_BUSY (if the previous request for connection is still underway) or LORAWAN_STATUS_ALREADY_CONNECTED (if a network was already joined successfully). A 'CONNECTED' event is sent to the application when the JoinAccept is received.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t connect ( const lorawan_connect_t connect)
virtual

Connect OTAA or ABP with parameters.

All connection parameters are chosen by you and provided in the data structure passed down.

When connecting using OTAA, the return code for success (LORAWAN_STATUS_CONNECT_IN_PROGRESS) is negative. However, this is not a real error. It tells you that connection is in progress, and an event will notify you of completion. By default, after Join Accept message is received, base stations may provide the node with a CF-List that replaces all user-configured channels except the Join/Default channels. A CF-List can configure a maximum of five channels other than the default channels.

To configure more channels, we recommend that you use the set_channel_plan() API after the connection. By default, the PHY layers configure only the mandatory Join channels. The retransmission back-off restrictions on these channels are severe, and you may experience long delays or even failures in the confirmed traffic. If you add more channels, the aggregated duty cycle becomes much more relaxed as compared to the Join (default) channels only.

NOTES ON RECONNECTION: Currently, the Mbed OS LoRaWAN implementation does not support non-volatile memory storage. Therefore, the state and frame counters cannot be restored after a power cycle. However, if you use the disconnect() API to shut down the LoRaWAN protocol, the state and frame counters are saved. Connecting again restores the previous session. According to the LoRaWAN 1.0.2 specification, the frame counters are always reset to zero for OTAA, and a new Join request lets the network server know that the counters need a reset. The same is said about the ABP, but there is no way to convey this information to the network server. For a network server, an ABP device is always connected. That's why storing the frame counters is important for ABP. That's why we restore frame counters from session information after a disconnection.

Parameters
connectOptions for an end device connection to the gateway.
Returns
Common: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if connection parameters are invalid.

For ABP: If everything goes well, LORAWAN_STATUS_OK is returned for first call followed by a 'CONNECTED' event. Otherwise a negative error code is returned. Any subsequent call will return LORAWAN_STATUS_ALREADY_CONNECTED and no event follows.

For OTAA: When a JoinRequest is sent, LORAWAN_STATUS_CONNECT_IN_PROGRESS is returned for the first call. Any subsequent call will return either LORAWAN_STATUS_BUSY (if the previous request for connection is still underway) or LORAWAN_STATUS_ALREADY_CONNECTED (if a network was already joined successfully). A 'CONNECTED' event is sent to the application when the JoinAccept is received.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t disable_adaptive_datarate ( )
virtual

Disables adaptive data rate.

When adaptive data rate (ADR) is disabled, either you can set a certain data rate, or the MAC layer selects a default value.

Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize()

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t disconnect ( )
virtual

Disconnect the current session.

Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_DEVICE_OFF on success, a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(),

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t enable_adaptive_datarate ( )
virtual

Enables adaptive data rate (ADR)

The underlying LoRaPHY and LoRaMac layers handle the data rate automatically based on the radio conditions (network congestion).

Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize()

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t get_backoff_metadata ( int &  backoff)
virtual

Get hold of backoff time.

In the TX path, because of automatic duty cycling, the transmission is delayed by a certain amount of time, which is the backoff time. While the system schedules application data to be sent, the application can inquire about how much time is left in the actual transmission to happen.

The system will provide you with a backoff time only if the application data is in the TX pipe. If however, the event is already queued for the transmission, this API returns a LORAWAN_STATUS_METADATA_NOT_AVAILABLE error code.

Parameters
backoffthe inbound integer that will carry the backoff time if it is available.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK if the meta-data is available, otherwise other negative error code if request failed: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_METADATA_NOT_AVAILABLE if the meta-data is not available

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t get_channel_plan ( lorawan_channelplan_t channel_plan)
virtual

Gets the channel plans from the LoRa stack.

Once you have selected a particular PHY layer, a set of channels is automatically activated. Right after connecting, you can use this API to see the current plan. Otherwise, this API returns the channel plan that you have set using set_channel_plan().

Parameters
channel_planThe current channel plan information.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_SERVICE_UNKNOWN if custom channel plans are disabled in PHY

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t get_rx_metadata ( lorawan_rx_metadata metadata)
virtual

Get hold of RX meta-data.

Use this method to acquire any RX meta-data related to current reception. RX meta-data is only available right after the reception is completed. In other words, you can check for RX meta-data right after receiving the RX_DONE event.

Parameters
metadatathe inbound structure that will be filled if the meta-data is available.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK if the meta-data is available, otherwise other negative error code if request failed: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_METADATA_NOT_AVAILABLE if the meta-data is not available

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t get_tx_metadata ( lorawan_tx_metadata metadata)
virtual

Get hold of TX meta-data.

Use this method to acquire any TX meta-data related to previous transmission. TX meta-data is only available right after the transmission is completed. In other words, you can check for TX meta-data right after receiving the TX_DONE event.

Parameters
metadatathe inbound structure that will be filled if the meta-data is available.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK if the meta-data is available, otherwise other negative error code if request failed: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_METADATA_NOT_AVAILABLE if the meta-data is not available

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t initialize ( events::EventQueue queue)
virtual

Initialize the LoRa stack.

You must call this before using the LoRa stack.

Parameters
queueA pointer to EventQueue provided by the application.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID is NULL queue is given.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual int16_t receive ( uint8_t  port,
uint8_t *  data,
uint16_t  length,
int  flags 
)
virtual

Receives a message from the Network Server on a specific port.

Parameters
portThe application port number. Port numbers 0 and 224 are reserved, whereas port numbers from 1 to 223 (0x01 to 0xDF) are valid port numbers. Anything out of this range is illegal.
dataA pointer to buffer where the received data will be stored.
lengthThe size of data in bytes.
flagsA flag is used to determine what type of message is being sent, for example:
                 MSG_UNCONFIRMED_FLAG = 0x01
                 MSG_CONFIRMED_FLAG   = 0x02
                 MSG_MULTICAST_FLAG   = 0x04
                 MSG_PROPRIETARY_FLAG = 0x08

                 All flags can be used in conjunction with one another depending on the intended
                 use case or reception expectation.

                 For example, MSG_CONFIRMED_FLAG and MSG_UNCONFIRMED_FLAG are
                 not mutually exclusive. In other words, the user can subscribe to
                 receive both CONFIRMED AND UNCONFIRMED messages at the same time.
Returns
It could be one of these: i) 0 if there is nothing else to read. ii) Number of bytes written to user buffer. iii) A negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_NO_ACTIVE_SESSIONS if connection is not open, LORAWAN_STATUS_WOULD_BLOCK if there is nothing available to read at the moment, LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if NULL data or length is given, LORAWAN_STATUS_WOULD_BLOCK if incorrect port or flags are given,

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual int16_t receive ( uint8_t *  data,
uint16_t  length,
uint8_t &  port,
int &  flags 
)
virtual

Receives a message from the Network Server on any port.

Parameters
dataA pointer to buffer where the received data will be stored.
lengthThe size of data in bytes
portReturn the number of port from which message was received.
flagsReturn flags to determine what type of message was received. MSG_UNCONFIRMED_FLAG = 0x01 MSG_CONFIRMED_FLAG = 0x02 MSG_MULTICAST_FLAG = 0x04 MSG_PROPRIETARY_FLAG = 0x08
Returns
It could be one of these: i) 0 if there is nothing else to read. ii) Number of bytes written to user buffer. iii) A negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_NO_ACTIVE_SESSIONS if connection is not open, LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if NULL data or length is given, LORAWAN_STATUS_WOULD_BLOCK if there is nothing available to read at the moment.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t remove_channel ( uint8_t  index)
virtual

Removes a single channel.

You cannot remove default channels (the channels the base stations are listening to).

Parameters
indexThe channel index.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if invalid channel index is given, LORAWAN_STATUS_BUSY if TX currently ongoing, LORAWAN_STATUS_SERVICE_UNKNOWN if custom channel plans are disabled in PHY

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t remove_channel_plan ( )
virtual

Removes an active channel plan.

You cannot remove default channels (the channels the base stations are listening to). When a plan is abolished, only the non-default channels are removed.

Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, negative error code on failure LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_BUSY if TX currently ongoing, LORAWAN_STATUS_SERVICE_UNKNOWN if custom channel plans are disabled in PHY

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual void remove_link_check_request ( )
virtual

Removes link check request sticky MAC command.

Any already queued request may still be completed. However, no new requests will be made.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual int16_t send ( uint8_t  port,
const uint8_t *  data,
uint16_t  length,
int  flags 
)
virtual

Send message to gateway.

Parameters
portThe application port number. Port numbers 0 and 224 are reserved, whereas port numbers from 1 to 223 (0x01 to 0xDF) are valid port numbers. Anything out of this range is illegal.
dataA pointer to the data being sent. The ownership of the buffer is not transferred. The data is copied to the internal buffers.
lengthThe size of data in bytes.
flagsA flag used to determine what type of message is being sent, for example:
                 MSG_UNCONFIRMED_FLAG = 0x01
                 MSG_CONFIRMED_FLAG   = 0x02
                 MSG_MULTICAST_FLAG   = 0x04
                 MSG_PROPRIETARY_FLAG = 0x08

                 All flags are mutually exclusive, and MSG_MULTICAST_FLAG cannot be set.
Returns
The number of bytes sent, or a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_NO_ACTIVE_SESSIONS if connection is not open, LORAWAN_STATUS_WOULD_BLOCK if another TX is ongoing, LORAWAN_STATUS_PORT_INVALID if trying to send to an invalid port (e.g. to 0) LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if NULL data pointer is given or flags are invalid.

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t set_channel_plan ( const lorawan_channelplan_t channel_plan)
virtual

Sets the channel plan.

You can provide a list of channels with appropriate parameters filled in. However, this list is not absolute. The stack applies a CF-List whenever available, which means that the network can overwrite your channel frequency settings right after Join Accept is received. You may try to set up any channel or channels after that, and if the channel requested is already active, the request is silently ignored. A negative error code is returned if there is any problem with parameters.

Please note that you can also use this API to add a single channel to the existing channel plan.

There is no reverse mechanism in the 1.0.2 specification for a node to request a particular channel. Only the network server can initiate such a request. You need to ensure that the corresponding base station supports the channel or channels being added.

If your list includes a default channel (a channel where Join Requests are received), you cannot fully configure the channel parameters. Either leave the channel settings to default, or check your corresponding PHY layer implementation. For example, LoRaPHYE868.

Parameters
channel_planThe channel plan to set.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success, a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if number of channels is exceeding the PHY limit, LORAWAN_STATUS_DATARATE_INVALID if invalid data rate is given, LORAWAN_STATUS_FREQUENCY_INVALID if invalid frequency is given, LORAWAN_STATUS_FREQ_AND_DR_INVALID if invalid data rate and freqency are given, LORAWAN_STATUS_BUSY if TX currently ongoing, LORAWAN_STATUS_SERVICE_UNKNOWN if custom channel plans are disabled in PHY

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t set_confirmed_msg_retries ( uint8_t  count)
virtual

Sets up the retry counter for confirmed messages.

Valid for confirmed messages only.

The number of trials to transmit the frame, if the LoRaMAC layer did not receive an acknowledgment. The MAC performs a data rate adaptation as in the LoRaWAN Specification V1.0.2, chapter 18.4, table on page 64.

Note that if the number of retries is set to 1 or 2, MAC does not decrease the data rate, if the LoRaMAC layer did not receive an acknowledgment.

Parameters
countThe number of retries for confirmed messages.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK or a negative error code on failure: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize() LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if count >= 255

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t set_datarate ( uint8_t  data_rate)
virtual

Sets up a particular data rate.

Parameters
data_rateThe intended data rate, for example DR_0 or DR_1. Please note that the macro DR_* can mean different things in different regions.
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK if everything goes well, otherwise a negative error code: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_PARAMETER_INVALID if ADR is enabled or invalid data rate is given

Implements LoRaWANBase.

virtual lorawan_status_t set_device_class ( const device_class_t  device_class)
virtual

Change device class.

Change current device class.

Parameters
device_classThe device class
Returns
LORAWAN_STATUS_OK on success or other negative error code if request failed: LORAWAN_STATUS_NOT_INITIALIZED if system is not initialized with initialize(), LORAWAN_STATUS_UNSUPPORTED if requested class is not supported

Implements LoRaWANBase.

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