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Dir

Dir class hierarchy

With a file system, the Dir class allows you to iterate over directories on the underlying storage. Directories, also called folders, are a way to group files. Each directory has a name that forms a part of the path to any files stored in that directory. Additionally, you can use rename operations at the file system level to change a directory's name and efficiently change the path to any files in that directory. To make a new directory, use the mkdir function in the FileSystem class.

The Dir class operates as an iterator or stream similarly to the File class, except operating on file names instead of bytes or other type. Each read call returns the next file name in the directory and increments the Dir position. Similarly to a file, you can seek a Dir object to a specific position; however, this is limited to a position previously returned by a call to the Dir's tell function.

Note: Iterating through a directory may return the file names '.' and '..', which are special file names for the current directory and the parent directory. When performing operations recursively, it is acceptable to treat any file starting with the character '.' as a special or "hidden" file.

Dir class API

Public Member Functions
 Dir ()
 Create an uninitialized directory. More...
 Dir (FileSystem *fs, const char *path)
 Open a directory on a filesystem. More...
virtual ~Dir ()
 Destroy a file. More...
virtual int open (FileSystem *fs, const char *path)
 Open a directory on the filesystem. More...
virtual int close ()
 Close a directory. More...
virtual ssize_t read (struct dirent *ent)
 Read the next directory entry. More...
virtual void seek (off_t offset)
 Set the current position of the directory. More...
virtual off_t tell ()
 Get the current position of the directory. More...
virtual void rewind ()
 Rewind the current position to the beginning of the directory. More...
virtual size_t size ()
 Get the sizeof the directory. More...
virtual int closedir ()
 Closes the directory. More...
virtual struct direntreaddir ()
 Returns the directory entry at the current position, and advances the position to the next entry. More...
virtual void rewinddir ()
 Resets the position to the beginning of the directory. More...
virtual off_t telldir ()
 Returns the current position of the DirHandle. More...
virtual void seekdir (off_t location)
 Sets the position of the DirHandle. More...

File system example

/* mbed Microcontroller Library
 * Copyright (c) 2006-2013 ARM Limited
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
#include "mbed.h"
#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>

// Block devices
#include "SPIFBlockDevice.h"
#include "DataFlashBlockDevice.h"
#include "SDBlockDevice.h"
#include "HeapBlockDevice.h"

// File systems
#include "LittleFileSystem.h"
#include "FATFileSystem.h"


// Physical block device, can be any device that supports the BlockDevice API
SPIFBlockDevice bd(
        MBED_CONF_SPIF_DRIVER_SPI_MOSI,
        MBED_CONF_SPIF_DRIVER_SPI_MISO,
        MBED_CONF_SPIF_DRIVER_SPI_CLK,
        MBED_CONF_SPIF_DRIVER_SPI_CS);

// File system declaration
LittleFileSystem fs("fs");


// Set up the button to trigger an erase
InterruptIn irq(BUTTON1);
void erase() {
    printf("Initializing the block device... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    int err = bd.init();
    printf("%s\n", (err ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(-err), err);
    }

    printf("Erasing the block device... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    err = bd.erase(0, bd.size());
    printf("%s\n", (err ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(-err), err);
    }

    printf("Deinitializing the block device... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    err = bd.deinit();
    printf("%s\n", (err ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(-err), err);
    }
}


// Entry point for the example
int main() {
    printf("--- Mbed OS filesystem example ---\n");

    // Setup the erase event on button press, use the event queue
    // to avoid running in interrupt context
    irq.fall(mbed_event_queue()->event(erase));

    // Try to mount the filesystem
    printf("Mounting the filesystem... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    int err = fs.mount(&bd);
    printf("%s\n", (err ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err) {
        // Reformat if we can't mount the filesystem
        // this should only happen on the first boot
        printf("No filesystem found, formatting... ");
        fflush(stdout);
        err = fs.reformat(&bd);
        printf("%s\n", (err ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
        if (err) {
            error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(-err), err);
        }
    }

    // Open the numbers file
    printf("Opening \"/fs/numbers.txt\"... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    FILE *f = fopen("/fs/numbers.txt", "r+");
    printf("%s\n", (!f ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (!f) {
        // Create the numbers file if it doesn't exist
        printf("No file found, creating a new file... ");
        fflush(stdout);
        f = fopen("/fs/numbers.txt", "w+");
        printf("%s\n", (!f ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
        if (!f) {
            error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
        }

        for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
            printf("\rWriting numbers (%d/%d)... ", i, 10);
            fflush(stdout);
            err = fprintf(f, "    %d\n", i);
            if (err < 0) {
                printf("Fail :(\n");
                error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
            }
        }
        printf("\rWriting numbers (%d/%d)... OK\n", 10, 10);

        printf("Seeking file... ");
        fflush(stdout);
        err = fseek(f, 0, SEEK_SET);
        printf("%s\n", (err < 0 ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
        if (err < 0) {
            error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
        }
    }

    // Go through and increment the numbers
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
        printf("\rIncrementing numbers (%d/%d)... ", i, 10);
        fflush(stdout);

        // Get current stream position
        long pos = ftell(f);

        // Parse out the number and increment
        int32_t number;
        fscanf(f, "%d", &number);
        number += 1;

        // Seek to beginning of number
        fseek(f, pos, SEEK_SET);
    
        // Store number
        fprintf(f, "    %d\n", number);

        // Flush between write and read on same file
        fflush(f);
    }
    printf("\rIncrementing numbers (%d/%d)... OK\n", 10, 10);

    // Close the file which also flushes any cached writes
    printf("Closing \"/fs/numbers.txt\"... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    err = fclose(f);
    printf("%s\n", (err < 0 ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err < 0) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
    }
    
    // Display the root directory
    printf("Opening the root directory... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    DIR *d = opendir("/fs/");
    printf("%s\n", (!d ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (!d) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
    }

    printf("root directory:\n");
    while (true) {
        struct dirent *e = readdir(d);
        if (!e) {
            break;
        }

        printf("    %s\n", e->d_name);
    }

    printf("Closing the root directory... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    err = closedir(d);
    printf("%s\n", (err < 0 ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err < 0) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
    }

    // Display the numbers file
    printf("Opening \"/fs/numbers.txt\"... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    f = fopen("/fs/numbers.txt", "r");
    printf("%s\n", (!f ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (!f) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
    }

    printf("numbers:\n");
    while (!feof(f)) {
        int c = fgetc(f);
        printf("%c", c);
    }

    printf("\rClosing \"/fs/numbers.txt\"... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    err = fclose(f);
    printf("%s\n", (err < 0 ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err < 0) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(errno), -errno);
    }

    // Tidy up
    printf("Unmounting... ");
    fflush(stdout);
    err = fs.unmount();
    printf("%s\n", (err < 0 ? "Fail :(" : "OK"));
    if (err < 0) {
        error("error: %s (%d)\n", strerror(-err), err);
    }
        
    printf("Mbed OS filesystem example done!\n");
}


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